• Title, Summary, Keyword: Under-actuated system

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Depth Estimation for Image-based Visual Servoing of an Under-actuated System (Under-actuated 시스템에서의 이미지 서보잉을 위한 깊이 추정 기법)

  • Lee, Dae-Won;Kim, Jin-Ho;Kim, H.-Jin
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2012
  • A simple and accurate depth estimation algorithm for an IBVS (Image-Based Visual Servoing) is presented. Specifically, this algorithm is useful for under-actuated systems such as visual-guided quadrotor UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). Since the image of a marker changes with changing pitch and roll angles of quadrotor, it is difficult to estimate depth. The proposed algorithm compensates a shape of the marker, so that the system acquire more accurate depth information without complicated processes. Also, the roll and pitch channels are decoupled so that the IBVS algorithm can be used in an under-actuated quadrotor system.

A non-linear tracking control scheme for an under-actuated autonomous underwater robotic vehicle

  • Mohan, Santhakumar;Thondiyath, Asokan
    • International Journal of Ocean System Engineering
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.120-135
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    • 2011
  • This paper proposes a model based trajectory tracking control scheme for under-actuated underwater robotic vehicles. The difficulty in stabilizing a non-linear system using smooth static state feedback law means that the design of a feedback controller for an under-actuated system is somewhat challenging. A necessary condition for the asymptotic stability of an under-actuated vehicle about a single equilibrium is that its gravitational field has nonzero elements corresponding to non-actuated dynamics. To overcome this condition, we propose a continuous time-varying control law based on the direct estimation of vehicle dynamic variables such as inertia, damping and Coriolis & centripetal terms. This can work satisfactorily under commonly encountered uncertainties such as an ocean current and parameter variations. The proposed control law cancels the non-linearities in the vehicle dynamics by introducing non-linear elements in the input side. Knowledge of the bounds on uncertain terms is not required and it is conceptually simple and easy to implement. The controller parameter values are designed using the Taguchi robust design approach and the control law is verified analytically to be robust under uncertainties, including external disturbances and current. A comparison of the controller performance with that of a linear proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and sliding mode controller are also provided.

Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Under-actuated Uncertain Systems

  • Su, Shun-Feng;Hsueh, Yao-Chu;Tseng, Cio-Ping;Chen, Song-Shyong;Lin, Yu-San
    • International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.240-250
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    • 2015
  • The development of the control algorithms for under-actuated systems is important. Decoupled sliding mode control has been successfully employed to control under-actuated systems in a decoupling manner with the use of sliding mode control. However, in such a control scheme, the system functions must be known. If there are uncertainties in those functions, the control performance may not be satisfactory.In this paper, the direct adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control is employed to control a class of under-actuated uncertain systems which can be regarded as a combination of several subsystems with one same control input. By using the hierarchical sliding control approach, a sliding control law is derived so as to make every subsystem stabilized at the same time. But, since the system considered is assumed to be uncertain, the sliding control law cannot be readily facilitated. Therefore, in the study, based on Lyapunov stable theory a fuzzy compensator is proposed to approximate the uncertain part of the sliding control law. From those simulations, it can be concluded that the proposed compensator can indeed cope with system uncertainties. Besides, it can be found that the proposed compensator also provide good robustness properties.

Dynamic Trajectory Control of a Biped Robot with Curved Soles

  • Yeon, Je-Sung;Park, Jong-Hyeon
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2003
  • This paper proposes a desired trajectory and a control algorithm for a biped robot with curved soles. Firstly, we derived the desired trajectory from a model called the Moving Inverted Pendulum Mode (MIPM) of which a contact point of the foot is moving in the horizontal direction. A biped robot with curved soles is under-actuated system, because it has one contact point with the ground during the single supporting phase. Therefore, to solve the under-actuated problem, we changed control variables, used modified dynamic equations and used the computed torque control. The simulation results show that a biped robot with curved soles walks stably. Also, fast walking and natural motion of a biped robot can be implemented.

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System Modeling and Waypoint Guidance Law Designing for 6-DOF Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (6-자유도 쿼드로터 무인항공기의 모델링 및 유도기법 설계)

  • Lee, Sanghyun;Kim, Youdan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.305-316
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    • 2014
  • As avionics and mechanical devices have been developed, the size of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is getting smaller. However, the complicated and accurate missions are provided to the UAV. Among various types of UAVs, quadrotors are widely used for their availability by virtue of simple structure and hovering function. However, the control of quadrotor is highly constrained, because the quadrotor is an under-actuated system which has only 4 actuator inputs. To deal with this under-actuated problem, a new quadrotor model with two more actuators in addition to the 4 propeller inputs is provided to make the system fully-actuated. For the proposed model, a controller is designed using feedback linearization methods. To validate the model and to verify the performance of the proposed controller, numerical simulation is performed.

Servo control of an under actuated system using antagonistic shape memory alloy

  • Sunjai Nakshatharan, S.;Dhanalakshmi, K.;Josephine Selvarani Ruth, D.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.643-658
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents the design, modelling and, simulation and experimental results of a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator based critical motion control application. Dynamic performance of SMA and its ability in replacing servo motor is studied for which the famous open loop unstable balancing ball and beam system direct driven by antagonistic SMA is designed and developed. Simulation uses the mathematical model of ball and beam structure derived from the first principles and model estimated for the SMA actuator by system identification. A PID based cascade control system consisting of two loops is designed and control of ball trajectory for various target positions with settling time as control parameter is verified experimentally. The results demonstrate the performance of SMA for a complicated i.e., under actuated, highly nonlinear unstable system, and thereby it's dynamic behaviour. Control strategies bring out the effectiveness of the actuator and its possible application to much more complex applications such as in aerospace control and robotics.

Adaptive Control of Space Robot in Inertia Space (Inertia Space에서 우주 로봇의 적응제어)

  • Lee, Ju-Jang
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.381-385
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    • 1992
  • In this paper, dynamic modeling and adaptive control problems for a space robot system are discussed. The space robot consist of a robot manipulator mounted on a free-floating base where no attitude control is applied. Using an extended robot model, the entire space robot can be viewed as an under-actuated robot system. Based on nonlinear control theory, the extended space robot model can then be decomposed into two subsystems: one is input-output exactly linearizable, and the other is unlinearizable and represents an internal dynamics. With this decomposition, a normal form-augmentation approach and an augmented state-feedback control are proposed to facilitate the design of adaptive control for the space robot system against parameter uncertainty, unknown dynamics and unmodeled payload in space applications. We demonstrate that under certain conditions, the entire space robot can be represented as a full-actuated robot system to avoid the inclusion of internal dynamics. Based on the dynamic model, we propose an adaptive control scheme using Cartesian space representation and demonstrate its validity and design procedure by a simulation study.

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Trajectory Generation and Dynamic Control of Planar Biped Robots With Curved Soles

  • Yeon Je-Sung;Kwon O-Hung;Park Jong-Hyeon
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.602-611
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    • 2006
  • This paper proposes a locomotion pattern and a control method for biped robots with curved soles. First, since the contact point of a supporting leg may arbitrarily move back and forth on the ground, we derived the desired trajectory from a model called the Moving. Inverted Pendulum Model (MIPM) where the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) exists at the supporting point and can be moved intentionally. Secondly, a biped robot with curved soles is an under-actuated system since the supporting point contacting with a point on the ground has no actuator during the single supporting phase. Therefore, this paper proposes a computed-torque control for this under-actuated system using decoupled dynamic equations. A series of computer simulations with a 7-DOF biped robot with curved soles shows that the proposed walking pattern and control method are effective and allow the biped robot to walk fast and stably, and move more like human beings. Also, it is shown that the curved sole shape has superior energy consumption compared to flat soles, and greater efficiency in ascending and descending the stairs.

Insect-mimicking Flapping Device Actuated by a Piezoceramic Actuator LIPCA (압전작동기 LIPCA로 구동하는 곤충 모방 날갯짓 기구)

  • Park, Hoon-Cheol;Moh, Syaifuddin;Yoon, Kwang-Joon;Goo, Nam-Seo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.719-722
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we present out recent progress in the LIPCA (Lightweight Piezo-Composite Actuator) application for actuation of a flapping wing device. The flapping device uses linkage system that can amplify the actuation displacement of LIPCA. The feathering mechanism is also designed and implemented such that the wing can rotate during flapping. The natural flapping-frequency of the device was about 9 Hz, where the maximum flapping angle was achieved. The flapping test under 5 Hz to 15 Hz flapping frequency was performed to investigate the flapping performance by measuring the produced lift and thrust. Maximum lift and thrust were produced when the flapping device was actuated at about the natural flapping-frequency.

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Dynamic behavior of smart material embedded wind turbine blade under actuated condition

  • Mani, Yuvaraja;Veeraragu, Jagadeesh;Sangameshwar, S.;Rangaswamy, Rudramoorthy
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2020
  • Vibrations of a wind turbine blade have a negative impact on its performance and result in failure of the blade, therefore an approach to effectively control vibration in turbine blades are sought by wind industry. The small domestic horizontal axis wind turbine blades induce flap wise (out-of-plane) vibration, due to varying wind speeds. These flap wise vibrations are transferred to the structure, which even causes catastrophic failure of the system. Shape memory alloys which possess physical property of variable stiffness across different phases are embedded into the composite blades for active vibration control. Previously Shape memory alloys have been used as actuators to change their angles and orientations in fighter jet blades but not used for active vibration control for wind turbine blades. In this work a GFRP blade embedded with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) and tested for its vibrational and material damping characteristics, under martensitic and austenite conditions. The embedment portrays 47% reduction in displacement of blade, with respect to the conventional blade. An analytical model for the actuated smart blade is also proposed, which validates the harmonic response of the smart blade.