• Title, Summary, Keyword: Uptake ratio

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Varietal Difference in Water Absorption Characteristics of Milled Rice, and Its Relation to the Other Grain Quality Components

  • Hae Chune, Choi;Jeong Hyun, Chi;Soo Yeon, Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.288-295
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    • 1999
  • Nineteen japonica and Tongil-type rices were selected from seventy nine Korean and Japanese rice cultivars grown in 1989 based on the water uptake behavior of milled rice under the room temperature and boiling conditions. The selected rice cultivars were investigated for water absorbability and some physicochemical characteristics of milled rice, proper water amount for cooking and sensory evaluation of cooked rice. The relationships among the tested grain properties were also examined. The highest varietal variation of water uptake rate was observed at twenty minutes after soaking in water. The maximum water uptake of milled rices at room temperature occurred mostly at about eighty minutes after soaking in water. Newly harvested rices showed a significantly lower water uptake rate of milled rice at 20 minutes after soaking, a relatively higher maximum water absorption ratio under the room temperature, and the less water uptake and volume expansion of boiled rice compared with the one-year old rice samples. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice ansd the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio(in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was averaged to 2.63(in v/v basis). The water amount needed for optimum cooking was the lowest in Cheongcheongbyeo (Tongil-type rice) and the highest in Jinbubyeo, and the amount could be estimated with about 70% fittness by the multiple regression formula based on some water uptake characteristics, ADV and amylose content of milled rice as the independent variables. Nineteen rice cultivars were classified into seven groups based on scatter diagram projected by principal component analysis using eight properties related to water uptake and gelatinization of milled rice.

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The Removal of the Phosphorus by DNPAOs According to the Loading of the Influent NO3-N in Anoxic Zone (무산소조 NO3-N 농도 변화에 따른 DNPAOs에 의한 인 제거)

  • Kim, Hong-Tae;Kim, Kyeong-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1271-1277
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the ratios of phosphorus release to COD uptake, phosphorus release to nitrate removal, and phosphorus uptake to phosphorus release by DNPAOs(denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms). In case $I{\sim}IV$, influent 1 were fed with synthetic wastewater with influent 2 $NO_3^--N$ injection to anoxic zone and the case V were fed with municipal wastewater with side stream oxic zone instead of influent 2 $NO_3^--N$ injection. As a result, the ratio of phosphorus release to carbon uptake was increased in accordance with nitrate supply. The DNPAOs simultaneously took up phosphate and removed nitrate from the anoxic reactor. In case $I{\sim}IV$, with above 20 mg/L of sufficient $NO_3^--N$ supply, phosphate was taken up excessively by the DNPAOs in anoxic condition. The large amount of both uptake and release of phosphorus occurred above 20 mg/L of nitrate supply, achieving the ratio of phosphorus uptake to phosphorus release to be 1.05. In case V, phosphate luxury uptake was not occurred in system due to 6.98 mg/L of insufficient $NO_3^--N$ supply and the ratio of phosphorus uptake to phosphorus release was 0.98. Consequently, if nitrate as the electron acceptor was sufficient in anoxic zone, the ratio was found to be high.

Lung/Heart Uptake Ratio and Transient Dilation Ratio of the Left Ventricle During Thallium-201 Imaging with Dipyridamole (Dipyridamole 부하를 T1-201 심근스캔에서 폐/심장 섭취율과 일과성 좌심실 확장율에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Tae;Chung, Byung-Chun;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Kyu-Bo;Chae, Sung-Chull
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 1991
  • Dipyridamole thallium imaging is one of the most widely accepted means of evaluating patients with suspected or known coronay artery disease. The results of thallium imaging help diagnose coronary artery disesse (CAD), determine the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis, evaluate viability of myocardium, assess the outcome of therapeutic interventions and stratify patients according to their risk for luther cardiac events. An increased lung thallium uptake and transient LV dilation has been reported as poor prognostic indicator and associated with extensive and severe coronary artery disease. We quantitated lung/heart uptake ratio (l/HUR) and transient left ventricular dilation ratio in 44 patients and 17 controls undertaking dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy. The results are as follows: 1) The lung/heart uptake ratio was high in patients with CAD and which became higher according to increasing number of diseased vessel. The L/HUR of patients with low LVEF (<35%) was lower than those with normal LVEF. 2) Transient left ventricular dilation ratio of CAD patients had no close relation between numbers of diseased vessels and was not higher than normals. But transient left ventricular dilation ratio of patients with myocardial infartion was higher than normals. We concluded that lung/heart uptake ratio seems to be sensitive marker for severity of CAD and myocardial function, but transient left ventricular dilation ratio alone is not sufficient to be a marker for severe and extensive CAD.

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Effect of aspect ratio on the uptake and toxicity of hydroxylated-multi walled carbon nanotubes in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Eom, Hyun-Jeong;Jeong, Jae-Seong;Choi, Jinhee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.30
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    • pp.1.1-1.8
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    • 2015
  • Objectives In this study, the effect of tube length and outer diameter (OD) size of hydroxylated-multi walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs) on their uptake and toxicity was investigated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using a functional mutant analysis. Methods The physicochemical properties of three different OH-MWCNTs were characterized. Uptake and toxicity were subsequently investigated on C. elegans exposed to MWCNTs with different ODs and tube lengths. Results The results of mutant analysis suggest that ingestion is the main route of MWCNTs uptake. We found that OH-MWCNTs with smaller ODs were more toxic than those with larger ODs, and OH-MWCNTs with shorter tube lengths were more toxic than longer counterparts to C. elegans. Conclusions Overall the results suggest the aspect ratio affects the toxicity of MWCNTs in C. elegans. Further thorough study on the relationship between physicochemical properties and toxicity needs to be conducted for more comprehensive understanding of the uptake and toxicity of MWCNTs.

The Ability of FDG Uptake Ratio and Glut-1 Expression to Predict Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastasis in Resected Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (절제된 비소세포암에서 FDG 섭취비와 Glut-1 발현 정도를 이용한 종격동 림프선 전이 여부 예측)

  • Cho, Suk-Ki;Lee, Eung-Bae
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.506-512
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    • 2010
  • Background: This study was designed to evaluate the FDG uptake ratio of mediastinal node and primary tumors using integrated PET/CT imaging combined with Glut-1 expression of the primary tumor in order to predict the N2 status more accurately in NSCLC patients. Material and Method: Patients who underwent integrated PET/CT scanning with a detectable mSUV for both primary tumors and mediastinal lymph nodes were eligible for this study. The FDG uptake ratio between the mediastinal node and the primary tumor was calculated. Result: The average mSUV of primary tumors and mediastinal nodes were, respectively, $7.4{\pm}2.2$ and $4.2{\pm}2.2$ in N2-positive patients and $7.6{\pm}3.7$ and $2.8{\pm}6.9$ in N2-negative patients. The mean FDG uptake ratio of mediastinal node to primary tumor were $0.58{\pm}0.23$ for malignant N2 lymph nodes and $0.45{\pm}0.20$ for benign lymph nodes (p<0.05). Models which combined Glut-1 expression with an FDG ratio have better diagnostic power than models that use the FDG uptake ratio alone. Conclusion: In some patients with a previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis or other inflammatory lung diseases, an FDG uptake ratio combined with Glut-1 expression may be useful in diagnosing mediastinal node metastasis more exactly.

Characterization of the Hepatic Uptake of l-Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate(ANS) by Isolated Rat Hepatocytes-Is Serum Protein Essential for Hepatic Uptake of ANS in the Liver?- (유리간세포를 사용한 ANS의 간내 이행에 관한 연구-ANS의 간내 이행과정에 단백질 매개 기구가 존재하는가?-)

  • Chung, Youn-Bok;Yuk, Dong-Yeon;Han, Kun
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 1991
  • The hepatic uptake of an anionic fluorescence probe, l-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) was characterized using isolated rat hepatocytes. The initial uptake rate of ANS by isolated hepatocytes was determined. The uptake process of ANS was fitted well to the Michaelis-Menten equation with a saturable component. The $V_{max}$ and $K_m$ values were $2.9{\pm}0.1\;nmol/min/mg$ protein and $29.1{\pm}3.2\;{\mu}M$, respectively. The uptake clearance $(CL_{up})$ based on the ratio of $V_{max}$ to $K_m$ was 11.7 ml/min/g liver, revealing the good coincidence with that assessed from the analysis of the plasma disappearance curve in previous report. Furthermore, the effect of serum protein on the hepatic uptake of ANS into isolated hepatocytes was investigated. The permeability clearances $(PS_{inf})$ of ANS uptake were much higher than those predicted based on the unbound fractions in the presence of serum. These suggested that the hepatic uptake of extensively serum protein-bound ANS is mediated not only by the unbound form of ligand but also by the serum protein-mediated uptake mechanism.

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Uptake of Carbon and Nitrogen by Microcystis Algal Assemblages in the Seonakdong River

  • Lee, Ok-Hee;Cho, Kyung-Je
    • ALGAE
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2004
  • Carbon ($^{14}CO_2$) and nitrogen ($^{15}NH_4$ and $^{15}NO_3$) uptake were measured at two stations in the hypertrophic zone of the Seonakdong River, where Microcystis aeruginosa explosively bloomed in September 1998. Significant nitrogen limitation occurred in the period of Microcystis bloom, while phosphorus limitation was common in the river. The specific nitrogen ($NH_4$ + $NO_3$) uptake was 12-50 $\mu$mol mg chl-a$^{-1}$ hr$^{-1}$ at two stations, showing substantially higher than for any other freshwaters. The specific nirtogen uptake was higher at the GAR Station of the nitrogen-limited area and this high nirtogen uptake resulted in low $^{14}C:^{15}N$ atomic ratios of algal uptake. Carbon uptake was dependent upon irradiance, decreasing gradually toward the bottom in the euphotic zone, whereas the nitrogen uptake increased slightly toward the bottom. $NH_4$ preferable uptake against $NO_3$ was hardly discemilble due to the fact that it exceeded the $NH_4$ ambient concentraiton. The $^{14}C:^{15}N$ atomic ratios of algal uptake in the surface waters approached the Redfield C:N ratio.

Biological Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal Characteristics on Organic Material and Nitrate Loadings in SBR Process (연속회분식반응조에서 유기물 부하와 질산염농도에 따른 생물학적 질소 및 인 제거 특성)

  • Kim, I-Tae;Lee, Hee-Ja;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Bae, Woo-keun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.571-576
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    • 2004
  • Since anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process, which is a typical mainstream biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal process, utilizes influent organic matter as an external carbon source for phosphorus release in anaerobic or anoxic stage, influent COD/T-P ratio gives a strong influence on performance of phosphorus removal process. In this study, a bench scale experiment was carried out for SBR process to investigate nitrogen and phosphorus removal at various influent COD/T-P ratio and nitrate loadings of 23~73 and 1.6~14.3g $NO_3{^-}-N/kg$ MLSS, respectively. The phosphorus release and excess uptake in anoxic condition were very active at influent COD/T-P ratios of 44 and 73. However, its release and uptake was not obviously observed at COD/T-P ratio of 23. Consequently, phosphorus removal efficiency was decreased. In addition, the phosphorus release and uptake rate in anoxic condition increased as the nitrate loading decreased. Specific denitrification rate had significantly high correlation with organic materials and nitrate loadings of the anoxic phase too. The rate of phosphorus release and uptake in the anoxic condition were $0.08{\sim}0.94kg\;S-P/kg\;MLSS{\cdot}d$ and $0.012{\sim}0.1kg\;S-P/kg\;MLSS{\cdot}d$, respectively.

Growth, Physiological Responses and Ozone Uptake of Five Betula Species Exposed to Ozone

  • Lee, Jae-Cheon;Han, Sim-Hee;Kim, Pan-Gi;Jang, Suk-Seong;Woo, Su-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2003
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the physiological responses to ozone and to measure ozone uptake rates of Betula species exposed to relatively high concentration of pollutants. At the end of the growing season, photosynthesis, pigments contents, antioxidants (SOD and GR) and ozone uptake rates were measured or estimated at the leaves of five Betula species (Betula costata, B. davurica, B. platyphylla var. japonica, B. schmidtii and B. ermanii) exposed to 100ppb ozone concentration. On the termination of the experiment, growth effects were determined by measuring leaf area and dry weights of leaf, stem and root. Ozone treatment showed the significant reduction the leaf area and dry weight of four Betula species, except for B. ermanii. Shoot / root (SR) ratio of five species represented two different types. SR ratio of B. costata and B. davurica were lower than control, in contrast, SR ratio of B. platyphylla var. japonica, B. schimidtii and B. emani, were higher than that of control. The photosynthetic responses of five species were different in responses to ozone exposure. Four species, except for B. emanii, maintained or increased the stomatal conductance, but B. emanii decreased both stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. SOD activities of five species decreased by the ozone exposure, especially B. ermanii showed the largest reduction, GR activities of B. platyphylla var. japonica and B. schmidtii increased, B. costata and B. emanii decreased. Instantaneous ozone uptake rate was the highest at the leaves of B. ermanii and B. costata, ozone uptake per seedling was the highest at the leaf of B. schmidtii and B. emanii. It was concluded that B. costata, B. davurica and B. platyphylla var. japonica, appeared the growth reduction and visible ozone injury, were sensitive species to ozone, and B. schmidtii with the increased antioxidant activity and B. ermanii without the growth reduction were relatively resistant species to high ozone concentration at the early growing stage.

Studies on the Effects of Injected Amount of I131 in Uptake and Release Rate by Thyroid in Guinea Pigs 1. On the Influence of Injected Amount of Redioiodine-131 in Uptake and Release Rate by Thyroid in Male Guinea Pigs (방사성옥도(放射性沃度)(I131)의 주입량(注入量)이 기니픽 갑상선(甲狀腺)에의 섭취(攝取) 및 방출률(放出率)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) 제(第)1보(報) 방사성옥도(放射性沃度)(I131)의 주입량(注入量)이 웅(雄)기니픽 갑상선(甲狀腺)에서의 섭취(攝取) 및 방출률(放出率)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Chung, Yung Chai;Shim, Sang Chil;Lee, Heung Shik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 1966
  • In order to observe the effect of the injected radioactive iodine-$I^{131}$ on the uptake in thyroid of normal male guinea pigs and P.B.$I^{131}$ conversion ratio of $I^{131}$ in serum, 24 matured male guinea pigs were divided in 4 groups and $35{\mu}c$, $70{\mu}c$, $140{\mu}c$ and $280{\mu}c$ per kg of body weight respectively were injected subcutaneously. 1. The uptake rates of radioactveiodine-$I^{131}$ by external counts of thyroidal uptake reached the maximum level of uptake in 24 hours after injection. 2. As the injected amount increases, the uptake rates of maximum levels and release rate were increased. 3. Uptake rate in the removed thyroid have shown no statistical in the $35{\mu}c$ and $70{\mu}c$ groups of injected guinea pigs. 4. There was no statistical significance in $140{\mu}c$ and $280{\mu}c$ groups of injected guinea pigs. 5. P.B.$I^{131}$ conversion ratio of $I^{131}$ in serum was not in proportion to injected amounts: 61.0%(35), 70.2%(70), 75.3%(140) and 64.8%(280).

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