• Title, Summary, Keyword: Urban Spatial Structure

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Planting Evaluations for the Landscaping Tree and Application Plan by Assessment Grade in the City Park - A Case Study of Haedoji Park, Songdo, Incheon Metropolitan City - (도시공원 조경수목 식재 평가 및 평가등급 적용 방안 - 인천광역시 송도 해돋이공원을 대상으로 -)

  • Han, Bong-Ho;Cho, Hun-Gum;Kwak, Jeong-In;Park, Seok-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.457-471
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    • 2014
  • This study aims to present an evaluation scheme to improve the problems in tree shapes and tree growth which were identified through shape and growth assessments of landscape trees currently planted in Haedoji Park, Songdo, Incheon Metropolitan City after plant structure status and propriety review for funtion of space and concept of planting. Suitability the planting concept was evaluated according to function of space. The result indicated that the shade planting areas accounted for 29.5% of the the shade spaces area. 58.7%, respectively planting areas of visual landscape. And 11.8%, respectively planting areas of buffer. Because the planting areas was lacked according to the park established spatial configuration of central facilities and the result of plant young trees. Plant structure status required consideration with plant structure, density, size, growth status for improve planting function. The tree assessment was performed on a total of 28 species and 600 trees of which 22 species and 209 trees were planted in the buffer zone, 8 species and 71 trees in the shade zone, 16 species and 266 trees in the visual landscape zone, and 4 species and 54 trees in the ecological landscape zone. The trees were divided into grades based on their assessment score and were statistically grouped by the functional zone in where they are planted and by tree species to verify their significance. The tree shape assessment was an average of 56.6 points and the tree growth assessment was an average of 76.0 points. Using the results of the tree assessments, the tree standards for each functional space were identified and a concept of optimum planting and cultivating was applied. When applying the shape assessment results by zone to the concept of planting, since trees for buffering require high functionality they received E's, the lowest grade; as trees for ecological landscaping require diverseness and naturalness, they received D's; since trees for shading require utilization, they received C's as trees with branching at the main stems were considered; and since trees for visual landscaping required aesthetical value, they received A's and B's. When applying the growth assessment results by zone to the concept of planting, based on planting foundations of favorable and poor, for buffering, visual landscaping, and ecological landscaping, trees from grades A to E could be planted, and for shading, trees from grades A to C could be planted. For a cultivation plan that could improve the growth of the trees, we proposed that the topography of the land be selected considering the tree's characteristics and that a method of pot seeding be used. Also, to improve the shape of the trees, we proposed that poles be used to improve the growth of vertically-straight stems, an appropriate planting density be applied for reasonable branch growth, manage tree shape to maintain good crowning, and better manage fertilization to maintain a reasonable crown density.

Toesikje Garden and Landscape Culture in the Middle Goryeo Dynasty as Viewed through 'Dongkukesangkukjip' ('동국이상국집(東國李相國集)'을 통해 본 고려중기 퇴식재(退食齋) 원유와 조경문화)

  • Shin, Sang-Sup;Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2010
  • In reviewing 'Dongkukesangkukjip(東國李相國集)' a selection of prose and poetry describing Toesikje, the house of Kee Heung-soo, a military official in the middle Goryeo Dynasty, the outcome of the study intended to infer garden scenery and landscape culture managed and possessed by high society at that time is outlined as follows. First, Kee Heung-soo, the owner of the house and Lee Kyu-bo, the author of Toesikje Palryeng(退食齋八詠) are thought to be those who first designated the 8 scenic points and recreated the concept of public enjoyment of into the concept of personal enjoyment in Korea. Second, the spatial configuration of the Toesikje garden is presumed to be in the Gee-Seung-Jeon-Gyul(introduction-development-turn-conclusion) style in which a fairyland is built to enjoy a free and peaceful life, while anticipating coming days and pursuing creation-prosperity-transcendence-return. Third, the viewpoint structure of the scenery Wongyeong(Toesikje), Donggyeong(Youngcheondong), Cheonggyeong(Cheokseojung), Myunggyeong(Dokrakwon), Jingyeong(Yeonmukdang), Sigyeong(Yeoneuiji), Yunggyeong(Nokgunheon), and Hyungyeong(Daehoseok) contains a symbolic universal vision of Palchejigyeongsek(the 8 scenic points) which incorporates Samwon(heaven, earth and water) and Obangwi(orientations), and the harmonization principle of the scenic points where the building and garden are harmonized. Fourth, Je, Dang, and Heon, Jeong(齋, 堂, 軒, 亭) are introduced to the garden, and Geehwayeecho, Jingeumgeesoo, Gasan and Goeseok(stone) were used in a variety of ways. Fifth, it was found that the management of Shinseongyeong and enjoyment of Yoosanggoksu events, with the study and seeking of perfect knowledge and discipline, wandering and rest led to a sublime appreciation of aesthetic beauty and divine glory. Sixth, a miniature garden was built to enjoy the view from above, together with the view in the distance, and a culture of secluded living, along with scenery expressing the heart's desire for Utopia was induced.

Retrospect and prospect of political geography and general-synoptic part of human geography in Korea (한국 정치지리학과 인문지리학 일반 50년의 회고)

  • ;Im, Duck-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.295-308
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    • 1996
  • 1. Retrospect of Political Geographic Studies since Liberation, 1945 : 1) Period from 1945 to mid 1960s : There was not political geography as a science in Korea at the time of liberation from Japan 1945. At that time were not pure political geographers in Korea. In 1947, Moon-Hwa Pyo, economics professor, published a book titled Outline of Korean Geopolitics. This book was a first one in the field of political geography and available at that time in the logical descriptions. Bok-Hyon Choi was a first political geographer who in 1959 wrote a book titled Political geography for the collegians of Seoul National University. Professor Choi introduced American-style political geography through the book above mentioned. In 1963, Kie-Joo Hyong published an article titled "Korean Unification: Possibility from the Geopolitical Viewpoint" which was a first article published by Korean young scholar who studied geography in this country. 2) Period from late 1960s to late 1980s : Both Yoon Cha and Duck-Soon Im published frequently several articles of political geography or geopolitics respectively in 1968-1969. And they issued geopolitical disputes on Korean geopolitical structure and an application of rimland theory to Korean peninsula in 1969 through a magazine named Joung-Kyong Younku (the political and economic researches). The disputes played an important role of showing political geography (or geopolitics) to political sciences especially international political Science. Active researches still continued in 1970s. In that atmosphere the first Korean book of political geography written by a post-liberation scholar (Duck-Soon Im) titled Principles of Political Geography was published in 1973. This book was influenced much by American political geography after Second World War. In 1980s, the researches continued more actively. Especially administrative districts, capital cities, and sub-capital cities were frequently studied during this period. 3) Period from late 1980s to Present: Recent Studies : 1985 was a year of much production of articles of political geography. The first Ph.D thesis of political geography published in the same year in our country. And since 1985 produced many M.A. articles. Several categories of esearches of political geography was made in the period from late 1980s to present. Capital cities, Korean unification, administrative districts, urban politics, elections, sub-capital cities, and defense walls were important research categories. Reviewing the researches from 1945 to present. I found eight categories of political geography in Korea: capital cities, administrative districts, geopolitical structure of Korean peninsula, division and unification of Korea, sub-capital cities, defense walls, elections, and urban politics. Each category includes several scholars respectiveiy. 2. Study Tasks and Prospects in Korean Political Geography: In relation to Korean circumstances there are three study-tasks. The first task of Korean people is unification of two Koreas. Political geographers of Korea must al survey titled Survey Methods of Human Geography for collegians. This book was first one on survey part in Korea. The book however, is insufficient in comprehensiveness in aspects too. I think that the important tasks of general-synoptic human geography in Korea are \circled1 publication of comprehensive books of human geography in the aspects and methodologies for collegians and \circled2 acceptance of academic world of human geography in Korea of variety in methodologies of human geography for future progress. progress.

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Changes of Street Patterns in Central Part of Taegu City (大邱市 都心部의 街路網 變化)

  • Choi, Seok-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.593-612
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    • 1996
  • This study concern with the changes of street from the Choseon Dynasty to present days around Old-Boundary in Taegu, analyzing the backgrounds of change factors and development trends of the Taegu City. The basis element of a city structure is the street. Therefore, in this study, a chage of street space of a city was investigted. Historically, Taegu was a walled city and had a Mono-nucleus which was restricted by the castle, and served as a starting point of formation of spatial structuure. The form of the artery street took a "T" pattern, othe streets were formed in irregular shapes. As the city grew gradually, the castle was removed on account of diversification in traffic network, change of socio-economic organization in traffic network, change of socio-economic organization, formation of industrial bases and functional distribution. CBD of this city has been located within the area surrounded by these streets. This is a kind of general pattern of traditional walled cities through the world in both Western and Oriental societies. A s the begining of this centry, a 'Dark Ages' descended upon Korea because the country was under the Japanese-Korean Annexation, and, throughout this period, the urban planning was planned exclusively for Japanese. The street pattern within residential areas of Korea took the maze type, in contrast with Japanese residential areas which showed grid pattern of streets. This is another general pattern of almost of all colonial cities especially in Asia. High class residential areas were planned and built by Japanese, and they were located within 5-10 minutes' on-foot distance from the CBD hard core. This high prestige has continued until the 1980s when it occurred land use succession which commerical functions invaded into residential areas. Back in the colonial period, there was a between two hetrogeneous groups due to the fact that the Japanese lived mainly oriented the new railway system but that Koreans still lived along the old highway system which ran through the Korea Peninsula. Street netwook formed in the above process has maintained its shape without great changes after the liberation form the Japanese Colony. Taegu has, accordingly, developed ring-radial network system which has been a combination of radial and ring facilities. The present conditions of street patterns in Taegy mainly depend on 4 rings and 8 radius, with grid pattern street able to be found in Old Boundary.

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Development of an Approach for Analysing Vegetation Community Mosaic Using Landscape Metrics (경관지수를 활용한 식생군락 모자이크화 분석법)

  • Lee, Peter Sang-Hoon;Jeong, Jong-Chul
    • Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.161-178
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    • 2017
  • Whereas the demand for development of forested areas covering more than 60% of Korean territory, permission on the forest development has been still given from the perspective of effective land utilization rather than conservation. As the assessment of large forested areas usually focuses more on forest structure, it has its limitation of observing and analyzing the interior change in forest in this way. This study was aimed at computing landscape metrics using a presence vegetation map and FRAGTSTATS 4.2 and analyzing vegetation mosaics. Colonies in native vegetation were classified into a series of major groups and sub-groups based on the native species within the colonies. The colonies were investigated by analyzing a suite of landscape metrics - Core Area, Percentage of Landscape, Number of Patches, Patch Density, Largest Patch Index, Total Edge, Edge Density, Landscape Shape Index, Mean Patch Area, Euclidean Nearest Neighbor. In the Chungnam province major groups and sub-groups of colonies classified based on the proportion of pine and oak species, and pine species was the principal one in terms of distribution area. As for the competition between pines and oaks, while the coverage of pine-centered colonies were three times larger than those of oak-centered ones, pine colonies showed the greater number of patches and therefore higher fragmentation than oaks at the major group level. For the sub-groups, the largest coverage colonies were not only indicated by Pinus densiflora-Quesrcus mongolica colonies among P. densiflora-centered colonies, Q. accutissima colonies among Q. accutissima-centered ones, Q. accutissima-P. densiflora colonies among Q. accutissima-centered ones, Q. mongolica colonies among Q. mongolica-centered ones, P. thumbergii colonies among P. thumbergii-centered ones, and Q. serrata-Q. acutissima colonies among Q. serrata-centered ones, but also revealed more severely mosaicked than other smaller colonies. The overall mosaicking degree estimated by landscape metrics was considered useful for monitoring and investigating vegetation. However, in order to develop management strategy based on analyzing the reason for the mosaicking process and anticipating a trend in vegetation succession, it is essential to further study about ecological characteristics of each colony in the vegetation.

Vegetation Succession and Vegetation Management of the Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Forest in the Beopjusa Area, Songnisan National $Park^{1a}$ (속리산국립공원 법주사지구 소나무림 식생천이와 식생관리 연구)

  • Lee, Kyong-Jae;Ki, Kyong-Seok;Choi, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.208-219
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    • 2009
  • This study is to establish a management method for conservation through comparison and analysis on vegetation structures of Pinus densiflora forest around Beopjusa area for past 17-year. The spatial range of the study was $3.6km^2$ from maintenance office to Beopjusa area. The analysis results of the actual vegetation showed that the ratio of vegetation were composed of 64.7% of Pinus densiflora forest, 3.2% of mixed forest of P. densiflora and deciduous broadleaf trees and 5.9% of deciduous broadleaf tree community out of overall area, 360ha. The type of P. densiflora forest were categorized into four communities; community having high potential of succession, community having low potential of it, the community being in the process of succession and community being in the process of natural selection. The succession tendency was in order of the community having low potential of succession(P. densiflora forest), having high potential of it(P. densiflora forest which is deciduous broadleaf trees are dominating in sub-canopy layer), being in the process of succession(P. densiflora-Prunus sargentii and P. densiflora-Quercus serrata community) and being in the process of natural selection(Q. serrata-P. densiflora and Q. aliena-P. densiflora community). In terms of vegetation management, P. densiflora forest having high potential of succession was needed to remove deciduous broadleaf trees in the sub-canopy layer and the community being in the process of succession was required to be pruning the branch in the canopy layer. Lastly, the community being in the process of natural selection was suggested to let it be in succession, since it is hard to be in the status of P. densiflora Forest.