• Title, Summary, Keyword: Urban Transportation

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The Developing Economy and Urban Transportation

  • Li Junhao
    • Proceedings of the KOR-KST Conference
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 1998
  • Social and economic development needs the support of transportation and communications and in turn the development level of society and economy affects urban traffic demand and determines the investment scale of transportation facilities. In the paper based on the analysis of the evolution of urban transportation in Shanghai in the past ten years and the economic background of that period, the urban transportation in the future development of economy is generally prospected.

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Estimating the Efficiency of Transportation Energy Consumption based on Railway Infrastructure and Travel behavior Characteristics

  • Choi, Hyunsu;Nakagawa, Dai;Matsunaka, Ryoji;Oba, Tetsuharu;Yoon, Jongjin
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2013
  • In recent years, energy consumption in the transportation sector by expanding motorization continues to increase in almost every country in the world. Moreover, the growth rate of the transportation energy consumption is significantly higher than those of the civilian and industrial sectors. Therefore, every country strives to reduce its dependence on private transport, which is the main contributor to the transportation energy consumption. In many countries, concepts such as Transit Oriented Development (TOD) or New Urbanism, which controls road traffic by increasing the proportion of the public transportation significantly, have been implemented to encourage a modal shift to public transport. However, the level of change required for eliminating environmental problems is a challenging task. Minimizing transportation energy consumption by controlling the increase of the traffic demand and maintaining the level of urban mobility simultaneously is a pressing dilemma for each city. Grasping the impact of the diversity of the urban transport and infrastructure is very important to improve transportation energy efficiency. However, the potential for reducing urban transportation energy consumption has often been ineffectively demonstrated by the diversity of cities. Therefore, the accuracy of evaluating the current efficiency rate of the urban energy consumption is necessary. Nevertheless, quantitative analyses related to the efficiency of transportation energy consumption are scarce, and the research on the current condition of consumption efficiency based on international quantitative analysis is almost nonexistent. On the basis of this background problem definitions, this research first built a database of the transportation energy consumption of private modes in 119 cities, with an attempt to reflect individual travel behaviors calculated by Person Trip data. Subsequently, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used as an assessment method to evaluate the efficiency of transportation energy consumption by considering the diversity of the urban traffic features in the world cities. Finally, we clarified the current condition of consumption efficiency by attempting to propose a target values for improving transportation energy consumption.

Connecting the three Dimensions of Urban Transportation

  • Cesarz, Michael
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2020
  • Currently, urban mobility is rather two-dimensional: Connections between transportation solutions like elevators, escalators, moving walks, and metro stations are static. In the future, urban mobility will require a holistic view: Seamless transportation, enabled by innovative IoT technology, is a necessity. A dialogue between the city, its buildings and transportation systems, considering the specific needs and preferences of each and every citizen, must be adopted. Travelling through the city will become a lot more individualized, interactive and customized to specific requirements.

Social Impacts of Urban Transportation (도시교통의 사회적 영향)

  • Noh, Shi-Hak
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 1996
  • It is well agreed that transportation is not the end by itself, rather it is a means to achieve other goals to enhance the quality of life. Accordingly, various social impacts of transportation systems, such as destruction of community social life of urban residents, separation of community area, and accessibility restriction on the transportation handicapped, which can deteriorate the quality of life of the residents should be considered seriously in the process of urban transportation planning. The urban transportation planning process of Korea which emphasizes too much on the of efficiency objectives of transportation, however, have neglected greatly the social sides of urban transportation systems. This paper discusses major social impacts of urban transportation systems in Korea and proposes several research fields related to the social impacts of urban transportation.

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A Study on Senior Citizen Free Transport Policy Improvement of Urban Railway Transportation (도시철도의 노인무임수송정책 개선에 관한 고찰)

  • Jung, Hun Young;Kim, Joo Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.256-265
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    • 2014
  • A sudden increase of old people's free urban railway transportation resulted from the acceleration of aging trend causes the chronic deficit. As continuous deficit caused by the free urban railway transportation of old people is expected, a fairness problem about the fare system of using public transportation is issued because only the urban railway provides free-rides to them, which is contrast to bus-riders paying full payments. Therefore, the study intends to draw an alternate to solve the problem of the free urban transportation uses by calculating an appropriate fare ratio between the two transportation modes, which is expected to alleviate the fairness issue between the urban railway and the bus.

공간적 가격균형이론에 의한 교통수요모형과 해법

  • 노정현
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.7-20
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    • 1988
  • Recent developments in combining transportation planning models and input-output approaches, together with inclusion of intensity of land uses, have made it possible to construct realistic comprehensive urban and regional activity models. These modes form the basis for a rigorous approach to studying the interactions among urban activities. However, efficient computational solution methods for implementing such comprehensive models are still not available. In this paper an efficient solution method for the urban activity model is developed by combining Evans' partial linearization technique with Powell's hybrid method. The solution algorithm is applied to a small but realistic urban area with a detailed transportation network.

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The Environmental Impact of Automobiles on Sustainable Urban Transportation (자동차가 환경적으로 지속가능한 도시교통에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 1998
  • As of July 1997, the registered number of automobiles exceeded 10 million and Korean auto industry produced 2,850,000 cars. Many environmentalists warn that the passenger cars are not sustainable urban transportation system in large cities. The cars produce about 80% of air pollutants, and consume 30% of petroleum imported. For the past 30 years the administration increased the road system, but the length of road per car is decreased from 813m in 1965 to 9m in 1995. The cost of traffic congestion was estimated to be \14.7 trillion in 1996, and is feared to increase without changing the present transportation system. The undesirable impact of cars include the casualties from traffic accidents, insurance loss, and separation of human relatioships. To construct sustainable urban transportation system, three principles should be followed. The first principle is to make the urban streets walkable for the people. The second principle is to encourage bicycling. Roads and traffic systems should be designed to let bicylces travel safely. The third principle is to supply more buses and construct integrated transportation system based on buses. The subway system is too expensive to construct and without the support of a well-organized bus system it may not work efficiently. The Brazilian city of Curitiba has constructed a very efficient bus system only with 1/80 of the estimated cost of subway system. The car-oriented transportation system does not seem to be an envrironmentally sustainable transportation system in most of the Korean cities.

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Determination of Pollutant Unit Loads from Various Transportation Landuses (교통관련 포장지역 비점오염원에서의 오염물질 유출원단위 산정)

  • Lee, So-Young;Lee, Eunju;Maniquiz, Marla C.;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.543-549
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    • 2008
  • Human activities and land-use practices are intensely widening the urban areas. High impervious surface areas cover much of urban landscapes and are the primary pollutant sources which can lead to water quality and habitat degradation in its watershed. As the urban areas expand, transportation land-use such as parking lots, roads, service areas, toll-gates in highways and bridges also increase. These land-uses are significant in urban pollution due to high imperviousness rate and vehicular activities. To regulate the environmental impacts and to improve the water quality of rivers and lakes, the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Korea developed the Total Pollution Load Management System (TPLMS) program. The main objective is to lead the watershed for a low impact development. On a local scale, some urban land surfaces can be emitting more pollution than others. Consequently, in urban areas, the unit loads are commonly employed to estimate total pollutant loadings emitted from various land-uses including residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, open lands such as parks and golf courses, and other developed land like parking areas as a result of development. In this research, unit pollutant loads derived specifically from transportation land-uses (i.e. branched out from urban areas) will be provided. Monitoring was conducted over 56 storm events at nine monitoring locations during three years. Results for the unit pollutant loads of transportation land-use are determined to be $399.5kg/km^2-day$ for TSS, $12.3kg/km^2-day$ for TN and $2.46kg/km^2-day$ for TP. The values are higher than those of urban areas in Korean MOE and US highways. These results can be used by MOE to separate the pollutant unit load of transportation landuses from urban areas.

On bending, buckling and vibration of graphene nanosheets based on the nonlocal theory

  • Liu, Jinjian;Chen, Ling;Xie, Feng;Fan, Xueliang;Li, Cheng
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.257-274
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    • 2016
  • The nonlocal static bending, buckling, free and forced vibrations of graphene nanosheets are examined based on the Kirchhoff plate theory and Taylor expansion approach. The nonlocal nanoplate model incorporates the length scale parameter which can capture the small scale effect. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton's principle and the Navier-type solution is developed for simply-supported graphene nanosheets. The analytical results are proposed for deflection, natural frequency, amplitude of forced vibration and buckling load. Moreover, the effects of nonlocal parameter, half wave number and three-dimensional sizes on the static, dynamic and stability responses of the graphene nanosheets are discussed. Some illustrative examples are also addressed to verify the present model, methodology and solution. The results show that the new nanoplate model produces larger deflection, smaller circular frequencies, amplitude and buckling load compared with the classical model.