• Title, Summary, Keyword: Urea Molasses Blocks

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Supplementation of Dairy Cows with Nitrogen Molasses Mineral Blocks and Molasses Urea Mix during the Dry Season

  • Plaizier, J.C.B.;Nkya, R.;Shem, M.N.;Urio, N.A.;McBride, B.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.735-741
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    • 1999
  • The effects of supplementation with nitrogen molasses mineral blocks and molasses urea mix during and immediately prior to the dry season on the production of dairy cows were studied on-station and on-farm near Morogoro, Tanzania. Supplementation of blocks to on-station cows also receiving ad libitum grass hay and 6 kg/d of maize bran increased milk production from 6.7 L/d to 11.2 L/d (p<0.05), increased dry matter intake from 10.1 kg/d to 12.0 kg/d (p<0.05), but did not significantly affect milk composition, intake of hay, and live weight changes. This increase in milk yield is mainly explained by increased intakes of energy and nitrogen. Supplementation with the molasses urea mix increased daily milk yield from 6.7 L/d to 8.8 L/d (p<0.05), but did not significantly affect the other measured production parameters. The on-farm supplementation of the blocks increased daily milk yield by 1.5 L/d in the dry season (p<0.05). This supplementation did not increase milk yields prior to the dry season, since quality forage was still available. Taking the production costs into account, supplementation with the blocks and supplementation with mix were cost effective if milk yields increased by 0.7 L/d. Hence supplementation with blocks and supplementation with mix were effective on-station, and supplementation with blocks was cost effective on-farm during the dry season.

Effect of Supplementing Grazing Cattle Calves with Urea-molasses Blocks, with and without Yucca schidigera Extract, on Performance and Carcass Traits

  • Mirza, I.H.;Khan, A.G.;Azim, A.;Mirza, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1300-1306
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    • 2002
  • Fourteen non-descript zebu cattle calves of about 1 year and 6 months age and 111 kg average body weight were used in this experiment. Grazing (5 h daily) animals were supplemented with urea-molasses blocks with and without Yucca, while the control group was without any supplementation i.e. grazing only. The feeding trial continued for a period of 70 days (November to February). At the end of trial three animals per treatment were slaughtered to compare carcass traits. Group no. 1 was fed block with yucca, group no. 2 was fed block without yucca and group no. 3 was on grazing only. Block intake was found to be 724 g/h/d and 1,239 g/h/d for group no. 1 and group no. 2, respectively (p<0.05). Feed efficiency of blocks was found to be 2.71 kg and 4.86 kg for group no. 1 and group no. 2, respectively (p<0.05). Block intake per kg $BW^{0.75}$ was found to be 14.75 and 26.05 gram for group 1 and group 2, respectively (p<0.05). Average daily body weight gain was found to be 267 g/h/d, 255 g/h/d and 169 g/h/d for group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Carcass traits among the three treatments were found to be statistically similar. Thus urea-molasses blocks supplementation improved body weight gain and addition of yucca in the blocks further improved body weight gain, feed efficiency and economics. Environment (ambient temperature, rainfall, wind and humidity) had no significant effect on three treatments.

Effect of Medicated Block Licks on the Performance of Indigenous Dairy Cows of Bangladesh

  • Rafiq, K.;Mostofa, M.;Awal, M.A.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.774-780
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    • 2000
  • For this study three types of block such as medicated urea-molasses-mineral block (MUMMB, 7% urea), urea-molasses-mineral blocks ($UMMB_a$ 7% urea) and urea-molasses-mineral blocks ($UMMB_b$ 21% urea) were prepared. Naturally infested 24 indigenous dairy cows with gastrointestinal nematodes were used to study the effect of MUMMB, $UMMB_a$ and $UMMB_b$ on different parameters (body weight, milk yield, serum urea level, milk urea level). The cows were offered normal diet added with 250 g block per cow for every day. Straw and green grasses were used as basal diet in the ration. The managemental facilities for all cows of each group were similar. Cows were stall fed, calves were tied up at night and had free access to their dam during day time. Milking was done once daily in the morning. The daily average live weight gains by MUMMB, $UMMB_a$, $UMMB_b$, and control group (no block) were 52.08 g, 44.44 g, 48.58 g, and 1.41 g respectively. The live weight gain were statistically significant (p<0.01) in comparison to control group. The highest daily milk yield was observed in MUMMB treated cows (2.39 L/d); followed by $UMMB_b$ treated cows (1.82 L/d) and $UMMB_a$ treated cows (2.16 L/d). The lowest milk yield was found in control group (1.54 L/d). This result differs significantly (p<0.05) between treated groups and also with control group. During urea-molasses-mineral blocks $UMMB_a$, $UMMB_b$ licking milk urea level increased from initial $22.76{\pm}2.35mg/dl$ to $35.46{\pm}4.80mg/dl$ and initial $22.86{\pm}2.96mg/dl$ to $40.66{\pm}0.87mg/dl$ respectively. This variation of milk urea level was statistically significant (p<0.001). Similarly during $UMMB_a$, and $UMMB_b$ blocks licking, serum urea level increased in both treated groups from initial $22.76{\pm}2.60mg/dl$ to $32.68{\pm}2.21$ and initial $23.70{\pm}2.78mg/dl$ to $40.48{\pm}3.24mg/dl$, respectively. This variation of serum urea level was also statistically significant (p<0.001). Use of MUMMB instead of UMMB was proved better for milk production and live weight gain in dairy cows under the village condition of Bangladesh where balanced ration for dairy cows are a major scarcity. And various concentration of urea in blocks positively affect milk and serum urea levels of indigenous dairy cows.

Comparative Evaluation of Cotton Seed Meal and Sunflower Seed Meal in Urea Molasses Blocks Versus Commercial Concentrate as Supplement to Basal Ration of Wheat Straw with Stall-fed Buffalo Calves

  • Mirza, I.H.;Anjum, M.I.;Khan, A.G.;Azim, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2004
  • Eighteen water buffalo calves of Nili-Ravi breed (about 15 months age and of $147{\pm}12$ kg average body weight and mixed sex) were used with six animals on each treatment. All the animals were fed long wheat straw for ad libitum intake as the basal ration. Animals in group-I were supplemented with ad libitum amount of urea molasses block having cotton seed meal (CSMB) while the animals in group-II were supplemented with ad libitum urea molasses block containing sunflower seed meal (SFMB) and group III animals were supplemented with a fixed amount of commercial concentrate feed (CCF). The experiment lasted for a period of 80 days (April to June). Results revealed a significantly decreased total feed intake (wheat straw+supplements) in group-III ($1,666{\pm}52$ g/h/d) as compared to group I ($2,299{\pm}194$ g/h/d) and group-II ($2,193{\pm}230$ g/h/d). Average daily supplement intakes were $891{\pm}87$; $666{\pm}104$ and $593{\pm}0$ grams per head in group I, II and III, respectively. Supplement intakes among groups were different (p<0.05). Average daily body weight gains (g/h) were $214{\pm}25$, $174{\pm}23 $and $183{\pm}24$ for group I, II and III, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found to be $10.74{\pm}1.12$, $12.60{\pm}0.88$ and $9.90{\pm}1.33$ grams for group No. I, II and III, respectively. The economic net benefit of live weight gain of calves were 7.63, 6.11 and 7.33 rupees/h/d for group No. I, II and III, respectively. Thus SFM can replace CSM and urea molasses blocks can replace commercial concentrates as supplement to basal ration of wheat straw.

PERFORMANCE OF LAMBS FED UREA MOLASSES BLOCKS vs CONCENTRATE

  • Mirza, I.H.;Jadoon, J.K.;Naqvi, M.A.;Ali, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1988
  • Thirty five crossbred male lambs of about 8 months age, with an average body weight of 24 kg were divided into 7 groups of 5 lambs each and were fed urea molasses blocks (UMB) for 150 days (groups 1 to 5); having, 4, 6, 8 and 10% urea respectively; while group 6 was fed concentrate @318 g per head daily and 7th group was kept as control i.e. grazing only. Daily consumption of UMB/concentrate was found to be 318, 246, 211, 93 and 318 g/d for groups 1 to 6, respectively. The statistical differences in consumption between group 1 and group 6, and group 2, 3 and 4 were found to be non-significant. Only group 5 differed statistically from all other groups. The average daily gain was 48, 29, 39, 38, 25 and 66 grams for groups 1 to 6 respectively, while group no. 7 lost 11 g/head/day. The differences in weight gain among groups 1, 3, 4 and 6 were non significant. The expenditure per kg body weight gain was found to be ($Rs^C$) 9.53, 12.45, 8.05, 7.99, 3.69 and 10.85 for groups 1 to 6, respectively.

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF SUPPLEMENTING LAMBS WITH UREA MOLASSES BLOCKS ON RANGES OF PAKISTAN

  • Rafiq, M.;Jadoon, J.K.;Mahmood, K.;Naqvi, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 1996
  • Effects on feed intake, liveweight gain and economic benefits of supplementing lambs with urea molasses blocks, were studied. Forty eight crossbred lambs were divided into 6 groups and assigned randomly to grazing on native pasture (CONT) or along with supplements of Commercial ration (COM) and urea molasses blocks (UMBs) containing two levels of cement and calcium oxide as a binding agent. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p<0.01) differences in dry matter (DMI, g/day), crude protein (CPI, g/day) and metabolizable energy (MEI, MJ/day) intakes. Differences in liveweight gain (LWG, g/day), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and net economic benefit of supplementation were also highly variable. The intake of DM, CP and ME varied from 974 to 1002, 66-70 and 7.6-8.4 in lambs supplemented with UMBs, significantly (p<0.01) greater than 848, 52.5 and 5.6 in lambs supplemented with COM or FCR and net economic benefits (54.3; 57.8; 17.1 and 1.96; 2.4) in lambs supplemented with COM and UMB-2, were CONT or supplemented with UMB-1, UMB-3 and UMB-4 respectively. Factors responsible for differences in feed intake, liveweight gain and economic benefits, are discussed.

SUPPLEMENTATION OF GRAZING SHEEP WITH BARLEY GRAIN VERSES UREA-MOLASSES BLOCKS AT MASLAKH RANGE OF BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

  • Mirza, I.H.;Naqvi, M.A.;Syed, A.H.;Qudoos, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 1990
  • Sixtyfour Baluchi lambs about 5 months of age were divided into four groups with 16 lambs each. All the animals were grazed together. Group No.1 (G-1) was kept as control i.e. on grazing only; while group No. 2 (G-2) was offered barley grain @ 200 g/head/day as supplement to grazing; Group No. 3 (G-3) was offered ad-lib urea-molasses block (UMB) with 6% cement and group No.4 (G-4) was fed ad-lib IMB having 8% cement. These UMB were fed as supplement to grazing. Experiment lasted for 105 days (July to October) in arid zone of Baluchistan. Daily per head consumption of block No.1 was found to be 92.71 g; while that of block No.2 was observed to be 90.77 g. Growth rate (g/head/day) was found to be 10, 50, 33 and 15 in G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4 respectively. Expenditure/kg bodyweight gain was found to be rupees 12.00, 3.64 and 7.74 for G-2, G-3 and G-4 respectively.

Study on Supplementing Effects or Feeding Systems of Molasses and Urea on Methane and Microbial Nitrogen Production in the Rumen and Growth Performances of Bulls Fed a Straw Diet

  • Huque, K.S.;Chowdhury, S.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 1997
  • An experiment with growing bulls were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of a straw (S) with 15% molasses and 3% urea as an intimate mix (UMS) on its dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility (DMD) and reduction of methane ($CH_4$) production from fermentation in vitro of the straw. In the next experiment, the feeding of the UMS was compared with that of the feeding of molasses and urea in meals (DS) or in lick blocks (DSUMB) as supplements to straw. The UMS feeding increased daily intake of straw DM ($89.5 g{\cdot}kgW^{-0.75}$, p < 0.01) and digestible crude protein (DCP 333 g, p < 0.001) and nitrogen (N) balances ($508mg{\cdot}kgW^{-0.75}{\cdot}d^{-1}$, p < 0.01) of the bulls than the feeding of 'S' ($65g{\cdot}kgW^{-0.75}$, 55 g and $8.0mg{\cdot}kgW^{-0.75}{\cdot}d^{-1}$, respectively). It also increased the digestibility of DM ($594g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, p < 0.05), organic matter (OM, $641g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, p < 0.05), CP ($619g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, p < 0.001) and acid detergent fibre (ADF, 773, p < 0.05). The $CH_4$ emitted per g of DOM apparently fermented in the rumen (DOMR) was 91.0 ml in the 'S' and reduced (p < 0.05) to 61.6 ml in the UMS. The feeding of the UMS when compared with that of the DS or DSUMB also gave a higher straw intake (1.77% of live weight, LW, p <0.01) and ADF digestibility ($516g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, p < 0.05) than the other diets (1.52% or 1.55% LW and 472 or $490g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, respectively) in association with the increased microbial N yield in the rumen (14.1, 5.62 or $17.0g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ DOMR, respectively, p < 0.05), daily LW gains (233, 125 or 93 g, respectively, p < 0.05) and feed conversion ratios of the diets (26.0, 56.1, or 57.6 g feed/g LW gain, p > 0.05, respectively). It can be concluded that molasses and urea feeding as an intimate mix with straw (UMS) increased its digestion and intake in association with a reduced methane emissions in the rumen. When compared with that of their feeding in meals or in lick blocks as supplements to straw the UMS gave the highest straw in take and digestion and live weight gains of growing bulls concurring the finding that the UMS system may be the best way of molasses and urea feeding to ruminants fed straws.

METHODS TO IMPROVE UTILIZATION OF RICE STRAW III. EFFECT OF UREA AMMONIA TREATMENT AND UREA MOLASSES BLOCKS SUPPLEMENTATION ON INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN AND BLOOD PARAMETERS

  • Badurdeen, A.L.;Ibrahim, M.N.M.;Ranawana, S.S.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 1994
  • In two separate experiments with crossbred bulls (Sahiwal $\times$ indigenous) the effect of access to a urea-molasses lickblock (MOL-U-MIN) on straw diets was studied. The animals were given either untreated (US) or urea treated (TS) rice straw with or without lickblock supplementation. In experiment 1, individual dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were measured, while in experiment 2 in addition to the above rumen (pH, ammonia, minerals) and blood (protein, minerals and haemotological) parameters were also measured. With both experiments urea treatment did not effect DMI, but lickblock supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased DMI. The DMD values obtained in both experiments for TS were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than for US, but lickblock supplementation did not effect the DMD of either US or TS fed animals. Both urea treatment (6.97 vs 6.93) and lickblock supplementation (6.98 vs 6.92) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the rumen pH. Urea treatment and lickblock supplementation increased the rumcn $NH_3-N$ concentration (mg/100 ml) from 8.7 to 11.9 and 9.2 to 11.4, respectively. Both US and TS diets fed with or without lickblock increased the molar ratio of Na : K in saliva. Phosphorus content in blood plasma was significantly (p < 0.01) increased due to lickblock supplementation, whereas the Fc content in blood was significantly increased (p < 0.01) by urea treatment. Haemoglobin content in blood ranged from 11.3 to 11.7 g/dl, and was not influenced by urea treatment or lickblock supplementation. Lickblock significantly reduced the number of red blood cells, but increased the mean corpuscular volume. It is concluded that feeding urea treated straw with proper mineral supplementation could be a more economical alternative to lickblock supplementation.

FEEDING RICE STRAW SUPPLEMENTED WITH UREA-MOLASSES LICK BLOCK TO LACTATING COWS IN BHUTAN

  • Ghebrehiwet, T.;Wangdi, P.;Ibrahim, M.N.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.421-426
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    • 1994
  • Twelve cross bred cows ($300{\pm}20kg$) were fed a basal ration consisting of 1 kg concentrate and untreated or urea treated rice with or without urea-molasses-wheat bran lick block supplementation. The lick blocks were prepared locally using cement as a binding agent. The experiment lasted for 48 days consisting of a preliminary period of 14 days and a measurement period of 34 days. Daily dry ma tter intake (DMI) of straw and lick block, and daily milk yield were recorded during the measurement period. Intake of lick block when fed with untreated straw (US) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than with urea treated (TS) straw (397 vs 307g $100kg^{-1}$), but lick block supplementation did not significantly affect the in take of US (1.80 vs 1.83kg $100kg^{-1}day^{-1}$) or TS (2.27 vs 2.17kg $100kg^{-1}day^{-1}$). Both urea treatment and lick block supplementation significantly increased (p < 0.01) the milk yield of cows, and the increase due to urea treatment was higher than that due to lick block supplementation. Benefit/cost ratio obtained for feeding US or TS with 1 kg dairy concentrate was similar (5.4), but the marginal return favours TS (5.4:1.0). The benefit/cost ratio for US and TS supplemented with lick block was 3.4 and 3.7. respectively, but the marginal return with US was higher than with TS (1.6:1.0 and 0.9:1.0, respectively).