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The Effect of the Gap between College Students' Perception of the Importance of Coffee Shops and Their Satisfaction after Patronizing Coffee Shops on Their Purchasing Behavior (대전원교학생대가배점중요성적감지화타문광고가배점지후적만의도지간적차거대타문구매행위적영향(大专院校学生对咖啡店重要性的感知和他们光顾咖啡店之后的满意度之间的差距对他们购买行为的影响))

  • Lee, Won-Ok
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to categorize the gap between coffee shop 'importance' (as perceived by customers before patronizing the coffee shop) and 'satisfaction' (perception of customers after patronizing the coffee shop) as positive or negative and to analyze the effect of these gaps on purchasing behavior. To do this, I used the gap between importance and satisfaction regarding the choice of a coffee shop as the explanatory variable and performed an empirical analysis of the direction and size of the effect of the gap on purchasing behavior (overall satisfaction, willingness-to-revisit) by applying the Ordered Probit Model (OPM). A previous study that used IPA to evaluate the effects of gaps estimated the direction and size of a quadrant but failed to analyze the effect of gaps on customers. In this study, I evaluated the effects of positive and negative gaps on customer satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Using OPM, I quantified the effect of positive and negative gaps on overall customer satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Per-head expenditure, frequency of visits, and coffee-purchasing place had the most positive effects on overall customer satisfaction. Frequency of visits, followed by per-head expenditure and then coffee-purchasing place, had the most positive impact on willingness-to-visit. Thus per-head expenditure and frequency of visits had the greatest positive effects on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. This finding implies that the higher the actual satisfaction (gap) of customers who spend KRW5,000 or more once or more per week at coffee shops is, the higher their overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit are. Despite the fact that economical efficiency had a significant effect on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit, college and university students still use coffee shops and are willing to spend KRW5,000 because they do not only purchase coffee as a product itself, but use the coffee shop for other activities, such as working, meeting friends, or relaxing. College and university students also access the Internet in coffee shops via personal laptops, watch movies, and study; thus, coffee shops should provide their customers with the appropriate facilities and services. The fact that a positive gap for coffee shop brand had a positive effect on willingness-to-revisit implies that the higher the level of customer satisfaction, the greater the willingness-to-revisit. A negative gap for this factor, on the other hand, implies that the lower the level of customer satisfaction, the lower the willingness-to-revisit. Thus, the brand factor has a comparatively greater effect on satisfaction than the other factors evaluated in this study. Given that the domestic coffee culture is becoming more upscale and college/university students are sensitive to this trend, students are attentive to brands. In most upscale coffee shops in Korea, the outer wall is built out of glass that can be opened, the interiors are exotic with an open kitchen. These upscale coffee shops function as landmarks and match the taste of college/university students. Coffee shops in Korea have become a cultural brand. To make customers feel that coffee shops are upscale, good quality establishments and measures to provide better services in terms of brand factor should be instituted. The intensified competition among coffee shop brands in Korea as a result of the booming industry indicates that provision of additional services is needed to differentiate competitors. These customers can also use a scanner free of charge. Another strategy that can be used to boost brands could be to provide and operate a seminar room for seminars and group study. If coffee shops adopt these types of strategies, college/university students would be more likely to consider the expenses they incur worthwhile and, subsequently, they would be more likely to be satisfied with the brands of these coffee shops, with an associated increase in their willingness-to-revisit. Gender and study year had the most negative effects on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Female students were more likely to be satisfied and be willing to return than male students, and third and fourth-year students were more likely to be satisfied and willing-to-return than first or second-year students. Students who drink coffee, read books, and use laptops alone at coffee shops are easily noticeable. High-grade students tend to visit coffee shops alone in order to use their time efficiently for self-development and to find jobs. The economical efficiency factor had the greatest effect on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit in terms of a positive gap. The higher the actual satisfaction (gap) of students with the price of the coffee, the greater their overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Economical efficiency with a negative gap had a negative effect on willingness-to-revisit, which implies that a less negative gap will result in a greater willingness-to-revisit. Amid worsening market conditions, coffee shops located around colleges/universities are using strategies, such as a point or membership card, strategic alliances with credit-card companies, development of a set menu or seasonal menu, and free coffee-shot services to increase their competitive edge. Product power also had a negative effect in terms of a negative gap, which indicates that a higher negative gap will result in a lower willingness-to-revisit. Because there are many more customers that enjoy coffee in this decade, as compared to previous decades, the new generation of customers, namely college/university students, want various menu items in addition to coffee, and coffee shops should, therefore, add side menu items, such as waffles, rice cakes, cakes, sandwiches, and salads. For example, Starbucks Korea is making efforts to enhance product power by selling rice cakes flavored in strawberry, wormwood, and pumpkin, and providing coffee or cream free of charge. In summary, coffee shops should focus on increasing their economical efficiency, brand, and product power to enhance the satisfaction of college/university students. Because shops adjacent to colleges or universities enjoy a locational advantage, providing differentiated services in terms of economical efficiency, brand, and product power, is likely to increase customer satisfaction and return visits. Coffee shop brands should, therefore, be innovative and embrace change to meet their customers' desires. Because this study only targeted college/university students in Seoul, comparative studies targeting diverse regions and age groups are required to generalize the findings and recommendations of this study.

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Characteristics of PM10, VOCs and Aldehydes Levels in Nail and Hair Shops (네일샵미용실의 실내공기 중 미세먼지(PM10), 휘발성 유기화합물 (VOCs), 알데하이드류(Aldehydes)의 농도 및 업소 특성에 따른 상관성 분석)

  • Lee, Boram;Kuag, Sooyoung;Yang, Wonho;Jun, Sang il;Kim, Jung-su;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.509-515
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the indoor levels of $PM_{10}$, VOCs and aldehydes in nail shop and hair salon. Methods: The field survey was conducted for 52 hair salons 52 nail shops, and 26 shop-in-shops in Seoul and Daegu city. The field technicians investigated characteristics of each shop including operating time, indoor volume, ventilation and so on. Indoor concentrations of $PM_{10}$, VOCs and aldehydes, indoor temperature and humidity were measured in 12 hair salons, 12 nail shops and 6 shop-in shops. MP Surveryor II (Graywolf, USA) was used to measure $CO_2$ concentration, temperature and humidity for 8 hours. $PM_{10}$ concentrations were measured by minivolume air sampler with Teflon quartz filter ($0.2{\mu}m$ pore size, ${\varphi}$ 47 mm, Graseby-Anderson TEF-DISKTM) for 6 hours. VOCs passive sampler (OVM 3500) was used to collect VOCs for 8 hours and analyzed by GC/MSD. Results: The $CO_2$ concentrations were $759.4{\pm}58.2$ ppm in nail shops, $731.0{\pm}72.5$ ppm in hair salons, and $656.4{\pm}31.2$ ppm in shop-in-shops. The $PM_{10}$ concentrations were $27.5{\pm}14.2{\mu}g/m^3$ in nail shops, $33.1{\pm}6.3{\mu}g/m^3$ in hair salons, and $39.0{\pm}26.9{\mu}g/m^3$ in shop-in-shops. TVOCs concentrations were $3085.4{\pm}1667.8{\mu}g/m^3$ in nail shops, $2131.1{\pm}617.3{\mu}g/m^3$ in hair salons, and $1550.3{\pm}529.0{\mu}g/m^3$ in shop-in-shops. TVOCs concentrations in nail shops were significantly higher than those in hair salons and shop-in-shops (p=0.002). Formaldehyde concentrations were $60.8{\pm}36.6{\mu}g/m^3$ in nail shops, $89.1{\pm}55.4{\mu}g/m^3$ in hair salons, and $45.1{\pm}22.5{\mu}g/m^3$ in shop-in-shops. Conclusion: TVOCs concentrations in nail shop were the highest among others. TVOC concentrations in all stores exceeded indoor air quality stand of indoor air quality control in public-use facilities, etc act.

Babies' Wear Shopping Behavior of Housewives by Their Fashion Lifestyle (주부의 의생활양식에 따른 유아복 점포행동)

  • 황춘섭
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.48
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of the Present research is to investigate the effect of fashion lifestyle on babies' clothing shopping attitude of housewives. In this study shopping attitude includes criteria for shop selection prefered types of shop and prefered shop atmosphere. Subjects are 447 housewives residing in Seoul Bundang Illsan and Pungchon and having child under 4 years old Data was analyzed by factor analysis cluster analysis analysis of variance and chi-square. The results of the study are as follows: 1. Housewives can be classified into four groups according to their fashion lifestyle the group of planned buying conservative/practical group the group of self-actualization/individuality and the high involved and care for shopping group. 2. Fashion lifestyle is different according to their age. The high involved and care for shopping group have the lager proportion in twenties than thirties. The conservative/practical group have a larger proportion in thirties. 3. The factors of shop selection which serve as criteria for shop the quality of service encironment anround shop quality of goods convenience to care about babies fashionable goods location of the shop and price of goods. The group of self actualization/personality prefers shops carrying fashionable and unique style of babies clothing and showing prestige. The conservative/practical group prefers shops carrying good quality clothing and having variety in size and design. The high involved and careful shopping group prefers shops having wide space as well as carrying fashionable goods. 4. Among the types of babies clothing shops. department stroe is the most preferred Low-price brand shop is followed by traditional open market. The conservative/practical group and the group of planned shopping use department strores national bran shops street shops and import shops more often than other groups. 5. The result of the study indicates there are considerable differences in housewives attitudes of babies clothing shopping acording to their own fashion lifestyle. Therefore the retailer of babies clothing should decide their marketing policy on the basis of the understanding and analysis of costomer's fashion lifestyle. And they have to reflect their costomer's shopping attitudes on their marketing policy to improve the satisfaction of both consumer and retailer as well.

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A Study on the Choice Attributes and Customer Satisfaction of a Take-out Coffee Shop (테이크아웃 커피전문점의 선택속성과 고객만족에 관한 연구)

  • 김영옥
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.141-154
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to find customer satisfaction at take-out coffee shops by examining their choice attributes, and to find the operational suggestion of the shops by identifying relations between customer satisfaction and choice factors and by finding significant factors, in order to offer subsequential developments for take-out coffee shops. When it comes to choosing a take-out coffee shop, women are found to consider pleasantness, kindness, and warranty more than men do. By age, those in the thirties are found to think much of typicalness, pleasantness, and trust than people in any age do, while those under the twenties kindness. By job, it is found that office workers think typicalness, pleasantness to be important, while students trust The more customers are satisfied at trust and kindness, the more customers are willing to use the shop again. Thus, to make the better service of take-out coffee shops, it requires drastic, continuous training for employees, introduction of specific marketings, management of corporate brand images, manpower administration that will maximize profits with small members, continuous menu development, study of taste, stage preparation and standardized service quality techniques and know-how specific to a coffee shop that will lead customers to revisit the shop.

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Study of Measures to Expand Mobile Payment by Enhancing the Payment Infrastructure for Merchant : Focus on Bluetooth Low Energy(BLE) Technology (가맹점 결제 인프라 개선을 통한 모바일 결제 확대 방안 연구 : 블루투스(BLE) 기술 중심)

  • Bok, Joonghyo;Kim, Byungsu;Gim, Gwangyong
    • Journal of Information Technology Services
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2017
  • Increasing popularity of smartphone is creating many changes in payment market sector also. The new fin-tech and simple mobile payment service have provided convenience as well as various benefits and value-added services to create new payment culture. However, the infrastructure of offline shops is too poor for users to use the simple mobile payment services in Korea. There are several reasons why the support of simple mobile payment services by offline shops has reached the limit in Korea. They include the reluctance of shop owners due to highly priced devices, the failure of NFC of the leading offline payment infrastructure to support iOS, the services that are biased to the specific manufacturers and smartphones (Samsung Pay and LG Pay), prefer large shops (SSG Pay and L PAY), and focus on online transactions. This study used the Bluetooth technology that is the standard feature built in all smartphone to expand the offline shops that accept the simple mobile payment services ensuring universality and scalability from the convenience of customer's and service provider's aspects. Applying the same payment scene as the existing NFC payment method from the user's aspect and the Bluetooth technology from the service provider's aspect enables support of all smartphones and offering value-added services such as electronic receipt and promotions through the large-capacity bidirectional data transfer. This study is intended to review the simple mobile payment services in Korea and other countries, propose the simple mobile payment service model for Korea by analyzing the Bluetooth technology and preceding studies of payment services using BLE technology, and develop the pilot system using the BLE technology to verify the proposed system with actual shops.

Current Status and Suggested Future Directions of Nutrition Intervention using Healthy School Tuck Shops: the Teenage Perspective (건강매점을 이용한 청소년 영양관리의 현황과 향후 개선 방안 : 매점 이용자 측면에 대한 질적 연구)

  • Oh, Suhyun;Kim, Kirang;Hwang, Ji-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the current status and to suggest future directions for health management of teenagers who use healthy school tuck shops to improve teenagers' eating habits while reducing and preventing obesity. Methods: A total of 29 students (16 middle school students and 13 high school students) took part in the interview for this study, and the interview was conducted for each school's focus group by using qualitative research methodology. Results: The current status of using healthy school tuck shops and suggested future directions were divided into two categories. Personal barriers such as discrepancies between personal perceptions and behaviors and lack of food choice suitable to individual tastes can be solved by rebuilding the operating system to provide intuitive promotion of behavior and customized products through improvements in existing products and new product development. A lack of consistent management from low utilization convenience and difficulty in maintaining a constant purchase price can be handled by establishing a solution to restricted physical access for products, as well as seeking profit by improving distribution costs via continuous cooperation between the school and community. Conclusions: Continuous funding and a system that reflects the needs and preferences of healthy school tuck shop users should be applied for sustainable operation of healthy school tuck shops to improve teenagers' eating habits.

The Study of motives to select and revitalise a franchise by comparing management practices of nail shops (네일샵의 경영형태 비교를 통한 프랜차이즈 선택동기와 경영성과 분석에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Mi-Sun;An, Jong-Sook
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.201-211
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    • 2014
  • This study is to identify whether a difference exists between factors that influence the time when independently owned nail shops and franchises commence business. Futhermore, we set out to investigate the criteria for nail shop owners use when selecting franchise nail shops with a relatively high level of customer satisfaction and performance, to discuss the necessity of a franchise agreement. An actual analysis has revealed that there is a difference in factors that influence management at the time of and after the inception of independently owned shops and franchise nail shops. Business performance of franchise shops, as a result of evaluating customer satisfaction or monthly sales, turns out to be higher than independently owned shops. The criteria for selecting franchise stores includes intensity of competitiveness in the same business district, accessibility, ability to keep up with current trends, directors' skills, color scheme, excellence of company logo, interesting interior, reasonable prices compared to the level of cosmetic procedure and efforts to motivate employees. Overall, the deciding factor enabling shops to operate continuously is constant supervision from the headquarters of the franchise company.

A study on the VMD elements of fashion select shop interior displays (패션 셀렉트샵 인테리어 디스플레이의 VMD 구성요소에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jihoon;Kim, Mihyun
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.206-223
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the role of visual merchandising (VMD) in creating effective interior displays for fashion "select shops"(shops that carry a wide selection of brands) amid the recent changes in consumption trends, with consumer needs becoming increasingly individualized and diversified. Fashion select shop interior displays can be categorized as self-service, showcase, counter, and environmental display spaces. Regarding the VMD elements that contribute to effective interior displays, we reached the following conclusions. First, in self-service displays, in order to heighten sales efficacy, display elements should be presented in such a way as to enable customers to select products with ease by themselves. Second, the mere presence of showcase displays was found to be insufficient; if, however, select shops use showcase displays to arrange products according to the flow of customer traffic, enabling the creation of a gentrified atmosphere for products, this may contribute to a differentiated image of brands, heightening perceived product value. Third, in counter displays, having a harmonious arrangement of display and presentation elements promotes sales by inspiring customer confidence. Fourth, regarding environmental displays, it is important for stores to have attractive interior designs and decorations in order to reproduce settings in which products are actually used, as this can inspire interest in products and promote customers' purchasing intention.

The Representation of Seong-An Streetscape in the 1960s' Cheongju (1960년대 청주 성안길 가로경관의 재현)

  • Kim, Tai-Young;Kim, Se Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2014
  • This study is aimed to represent the streetscape in 1960s' focused on Seong-An street of Cheong-ju through the existing business types and buildings, literature, photo details, and interview of the longest-term householders. Results of this study are as follows : Firstly, the types of 1st-floor shops were diverse with general merchandise, apparel, medical, bank, restaurant, and etc in 1960s'. The present shops of them are 'Dong-kwang lasa', 'Jung-geum dang', 'Cheong-ju pharmacy' including the existing 'the Korea development', 'Korea first', and 'Woori' bank. Secondly, the streetscape around post office looks just as it did in the old 1960s'. In the other section the present typical buildings are 'Namseon pharmacy ', 'Kukje department', 'Samyang shop', 'Daeyang shop', 'Park shop', and etc. These old 3-4story buildings are reinforced concrete in contrasted with the former wooden and masonry in structure, and converted in use and appearance. Thirdly, the streetscape of Seong-An is ultimately represented by presuming the other buildings and equipments through aerial and street photograph in the old 1960s'.

Urinary Mercury Levels Among Workers in E-waste Shops in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand

  • Decharat, Somsiri
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.196-204
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: To determine urinary mercury levels in e-waste workers in Southern Thailand and the airborne mercury levels in the e-waste shops where they worked, to describe the associations between urinary and airborne mercury levels, and to evaluate the prevalence of mercury exposure-related health effects among e-waste workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 79 workers in 25 e-waste shops who lived in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Information on general and occupational characteristics, personal protective equipment use, and personal hygiene was collected by questionnaire. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels using a cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results: The e-waste workers' urinary mercury levels were $11.60{\mu}5.23{\mu}g/g$ creatinine (range, 2.00 to $26.00{\mu}g/g$ creatinine) and the mean airborne mercury levels were $17.00{\mu}0.50{\mu}g/m^3$ (range, 3.00 to $29.00{\mu}g/m^3$). The urinary and airborne mercury levels were significantly correlated (r=0.552, p<0.001). The prevalence of self-reported symptoms was 46.8% for insomnia, 36.7% for muscle atrophy, 24.1% for weakness, and 20.3% for headaches. Conclusions: Personal hygiene was found to be an important protective factor, and should therefore be stressed in educational programs. Employers should implement engineering measures to reduce urinary mercury levels and the prevalence of associated health symptoms among e-waste workers.