• Title, Summary, Keyword: VCD

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Uncertainties of SO2 Vertical Column Density Retrieval from Ground-based Hyper-spectral UV Sensor Based on Direct Sun Measurement Geometry (지상관측 기반 태양 직달광 관측장비의 초분광 자외센서로부터 이산화황 연직칼럼농도의 불확실성 분석 연구)

  • Kang, Hyeongwoo;Park, Junsung;Yang, Jiwon;Choi, Wonei;Kim, Daewon;Lee, Hanlim
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.289-298
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    • 2019
  • In this present study, the effects of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), $O_3$ Vertical Column Density ($O_3$ VCD), and Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) on the accuracy of sulfur dioxide Vertical Column Density ($SO_2$ VCD) retrieval have been quantified using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method with the ground-based direct-sun synthetic radiances. The synthetic radiances produced based on the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law without consideration of the diffuse effect. In the SNR condition of 650 (1300) with FWHM = 0.6 nm, AOD = 0.2, $O_3$ VCD = 300 DU, and $SZA=30^{\circ}$, the Absolute Percentage Difference (APD) between the true $SO_2$ VCD values and those retrieved ranges from 80% (28%) to 16% (5%) for the $SO_2$ VCD of $8.1{\times}10^{15}$ and $2.7{\times}10^{16}molecules\;cm^{-2}$, respectively. For an FWHM of 0.2 nm (1.0 nm) with the $SO_2$ VCD values equal to or greater than $2.7{\times}10^{16}molecules\;cm^{-2}$, the APD ranges from 6.4% (29%) to 6.2% (10%). Additionally, when FWHM, SZA, AOD, and $O_3$ VCD values increase, APDs tend to be large. On the other hand, SNR values increase, APDs are found to decrease. Eventually, it is revealed that the effects of FWHM and SZA on $SO_2$ VCD retrieval accuracy are larger than those of $O_3$ VCD and AOD. The SZA effects on the reduction of $SO_2$ VCD retrieval accuracy is found to be dominant over the that of FWHM for the condition of $SO_2$ VCD larger than $2.7{\times}10^{16}molecules\;cm^{-2}$.

Collision Risk Decistion System for Collision Avoidance (충돌회피를 위한 충돌위험도 결정 시스템)

  • 김은경;강일권;김용기
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.524-527
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    • 2001
  • In this paper we propose a collision risk decision system for collision avoidance system A collision avoidance system carries out collision avoidance based on collision risk of unknown obstacle. In the traditional researches, using DCPA and TCPA for calculating the collision risk has problem that they produce a same collision risk for ship which located in the given distance. The solves the problem we use DCPA, TCPA, and VCD for calculating collision risk. A proposed system has two advantages that is produce more detailed collision risk and reflects the international Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea.

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Suppression of Leakage Current and Distortion in Variable Capacitance Devices and their Application to AC Power Regulators

  • Katsuki, Akihiko;Oki, Takuya
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2016
  • The quantity of alternating current (AC) leakage and the value of distortion factor in capacitor currents are discussed with regard to a new power component called variable capacitance device (VCD). This component has terminals for controlling its capacitance. Nonlinear dielectric characteristics are utilized in this device to vary the capacitance. When VCD operates in an AC circuit, the AC leakage from this device through direct current (DC) control voltage source increases according to the conditions of DC control voltage and so on. To solve this problem, we propose techniques for suppressing AC leakage. Although VCD has strong nonlinear characteristics, the current through the capacitor is not distorted significantly. The relations between AC leakage and the distortion in current waveforms are investigated. An application example for an AC power regulator is also introduced to evaluate the distortion in waveforms.

A Case of Vocal Cord Dysfunction Masqueraded as Exercised-Induced Asthma (운동유발성 기관지천식으로 오인된 성대 기능 이상 1례)

  • Jo, Chang-Lae;Sym, Sun-Jin;Park, Sang-Hyun;Nam, Soon-Yuhl;Koh, Youn-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2002
  • Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is respiratory disorder characterized by paradoxical closure of the vocal cord during the respiratory cycle leading to obstructive airway symptoms. The clinical presentation of VCD is often dramatic and its misdiagnosis as asthma or exercise-induced brochospasm(EIB) has led to inappropriate treatment including high dose corticosteroids, intubation, and tracheostomy. Many VCD patients are asymptomatic at rest and require exercise challenge to elicit symptoms and vocal cord abnormalities. The "gold standard" for the diagnosis of VCD remains laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy with direct visualization of paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords. We report a case of exercise-induced Vocal cord masqueraded as exercise-induced asthma unresponsive to corticosteroids. And bronchodilator confirmed by typical bronchoscopic findings with paradoxial adduction of the vocal cords.

Collision Risk Decision System for Collision Avoidance (충돌회피를 위한 충돌위험도 결정 시스템)

  • 김은경;강일원;김용기
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.121-124
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    • 2001
  • 충돌회피 시스템은 선박의 안전 항해에 중요한 역할을 한다. 충돌회피 시스템은 선박이 장애물을 만났을 때 영역전문가인 항해사를 대신하여 피항 행위를 하도륵 지시하는 시스템으로 자선에서 이루어지는 해상 장애물들에 대한 피항 시 그 판단 기준을 각 장애물에 대한 충돌위험도에 둔다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 선박의 충돌회피 시스템의 보다 안전한 충돌회피를 도모하기 위해 충돌회피를 위한 충돌위험도 결정 시스템을 제안한다. 충돌위험도 결정 시스템은 장애물 모델링과 장애물의 충돌위험도 결정의 두 부분으로 구성된다. 장애물 모델링은 선박의 센서에서 나오는 저수준의 자료를 지능형 선박의 타 시스템에서 이용하기 쉽도록 구하는 과정이다. 충돌위험도 결정 시스템의 출력으로 산출되는 충돌위험도는 충돌회피 시스템의 피항 행위 결정에 정보로 사용된다. 본 연구에서는 DCPA와 TCPA를 이용한 기존의 기법에 VCD의 개념을 추가한 새로운 충돌위험도 결정 기법을 제안한다. 입력변수가 되는 DCPA, TCPA, VCD의 퍼지 소속함수를 산출하고 이를 기반으로 퍼지 추론을 이용하여 세부적인 충돌위험도를 결정한다. 본 연구에서 제안하는 기법은 기존의 DCPA와 TCPA만으로 충돌위험도를 결정한 경우보다 상세한 충돌위험도 결정이 가능하다는 장점과 국제해상충돌예방규칙의 내용이 적용되었다는 장점을 지닌다. 제안된 기법은 DCPA와 TCPA 만으로 충돌위험도를 결정한 기법과 비교.평가하여 성능을 검증한다.

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Estimation of HCHO Column Using a Multiple Regression Method with OMI and MODIS Data

  • Hong, Hyunkee;Yang, Jiwon;Kang, Hyeongwoo;Kim, Daewon;Lee, Hanlim
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.503-516
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    • 2019
  • We have estimated the vertical column density (VCD) of formaldehyde (HCHO) on a global scale using a multiple linear regression method (MRM) with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. HCHO VCDs were estimated in regions of biogenic, pyrogenic, and anthropogenic emissions using independent variables, including $NO_2$ VCD, land surface temperature (LST), an enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and the mean fire radiative power (MFRP), which are strongly correlated with HCHO. To evaluate the HCHO estimates obtained using the MRM, we compared estimates of HCHO VCD data measured by OMI ($HCHO_{OMI}$) with those estimated by multiple linear regression equations (MRE) ($HCHO_{MRE}$). Good MRM performances were found, having the average statistical values (R = 0.91, slope = 1.03, mean bias = $-0.12{\times}10^{15}molecules\;cm^{-2}$, percent difference = 11.27%) between $HCHO_{MRE}$ and $HCHO_{OMI}$ in our study regions where high HCHO levels are present. Our results demonstrate that the MRM can be a useful tool for estimating atmospheric HCHO levels.

A Study on Ship Collision Avoidance and Order of Priority Designation Model (선박 충돌회피 우선순위지정 및 회피모델 연구)

  • Kim, Seong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.5442-5447
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    • 2013
  • This paper focuses on development of SCAAM(Ship Collision Avoidance Assignment Model) for avoiding ship collison at sea. We take a new look at DCPA, TCPA, VCD, collision concept for ship collision avoidance and propose SCAAM using DCPA pre-assignmented by a ship master on information collected by other ship's AIS, GPS (course-speed, destination, length, width, tonnage etc). If A ship is a collision situation, the ship master makes a decision where the ship makes a evasion voyage or not continually using SCCAM. If ship master decides a evasion voyage, the ship is voyaged by CORLEGS (International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea). This paper contributes to safety navigation by decreasing the ship collision accident by human's error.

Inter-comparison of NO2 column densities measured by Pandora and OMI over Seoul, Korea

  • Yun, Seoyeon;Lee, Hanlim;Kim, Jhoon;Jeong, Ukkyo;Park, Sang Seo;Herman, Jay
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.663-670
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    • 2013
  • Total Vertical Column Density (VCD) of $NO_2$, a key component in air quality and tropospheric chemistry was measured using a ground-based instrument, Pandora, in Seoul from March 2012 to October 2013. The $NO_2$ measurements using Pandora were compared with those obtained by satellite remote sensing from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) where the intercomparison characteristics were analyzed as a function of measurement geometry, cloud amount and aerosol loading. The negative biases of the OMI $NO_2$ VCD were larger when cloud amount and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were higher. The correlation coefficient between $NO_2$ VCDs from Pandora and OMI was 0.53 for the entire measurement period, whereas the correlation coefficient between the two was 0.74 when the cloud amount and AOD were low (cloud amount<3, AOD<0.4). The low bias of OMI data was associated with the shielding effect of the cloud and the aerosols.

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and ovoprotective effects of mixture of Ulmi cortex and Smilacis rhizoma extracts (유백피, 토복령 추출물 혼합물의 항산화, 항염, 항균 및 난소세포 보호효과)

  • Jeon, Sang Kyu;Ahn, Jung Yun;Park, Su Mi;Park, Sun-Dong;Lee, Ju-Hee
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 2020
  • Objectives : US extract is a mixture of each extract of Ulmi cortex and Smilacis rhizoma. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and ovoprotective effects of US extract in in vitro model to identify potential candidates for improving female reproductive function. Methods : The antioxidant activity of US extract was measured using 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The anti-inflammatory effect of US extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were determined with a nitric oxide (NO) assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and western blots analysis. The antibacterial activity of US extract against vaginitis infection microorganisms were determined with disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays. The ovoprotective effect of US extract on 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-induced ovotoxicity in CHO-K1 cells were evaluated with a cell viability assay. Result : US extract showed good antioxidant capacity and inhibited LPS-induced NO production as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 without affecting the cell viability. It showed significant clear zones for Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans but did not indicate the clear zones for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium. VCD-induced ovotoxicity in CHO-K1 cells was significantly reduced by US extract pre-treatment. Conclusions : These results demonstrate that US extract has antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects on the LPS-stimulated macrophages, antibacterial activity against vaginitis infection microorganisms, and protective effects on the ovarian cells against VCD-induced ovotoxicity. These findings suggest that the US extract can be used as new prescriptions, supplements, functional foods, and cosmetics for improving female reproductive function.