• Title, Summary, Keyword: Vigna radiata

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Alteration of macronutrients, metal translocation and bioaccumulation as potential indicators of nickel tolerance in three Vigna species

  • Ishtiaq, Shabnam;Mahmood, Seema;Athar, Mohammad
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.71-86
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    • 2014
  • Macronutrients ($Na^+$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$), yield and yield components, bioaccumulation and translocation of metal in plant parts of three Vigna species (V. cylindrica, V. mungo, V. radiata) were evaluated at 0, 50, 100 and $150mgkg^{-1}$ soil of Nickel (Ni). A marked inhibition (p < 0.001) in the distribution of various macronutrients was noticed in these Vigna species except for $Mg^{2+}$ content of the shoot and leaves. Similarly, all species retained more $Ca^{2+}$ in their roots (p < 0.05) as compared to the aerial tissues. Ni induced a drastic decline (p < 0.001) for various yield and yield attributes except for 100 seed weight. Toxicity and accumulation of Ni in plant tissues considerably increased in a concentration dependent manner. Vigna species signify an exclusion approach for Ni tolerance as both bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) were less than 1.0. The Ni content of plants being root > shoot > leaves > seeds. Scoring for percentage stimulation and inhibition (respective to control) at varying levels of Ni revealed tolerance of the species in an order of V. radiata > V. cylindrica > V. mungo. The acquisition of Ni tolerance in V. radiata seems to occur through an integrated mechanism of metal tolerance that includes sustainable macronutrients uptake, stronger roots due to greater deposition of $Ca^{2+}$in the roots, restricted transfer of Ni to above ground tissues and seeds as well as exclusion capacity of the roots to bind appreciable amount of metal to them. Thus, metal tolerant potential of V. radiata could be of great significance to remediate metal contaminated soil owing lesser impact of Ni on macro-nutrients, hence the yield.

Role of Calcium on Auxin-Induced Ethylene Production in Etiolated Mungbean(Vigna radiata W.) Hypocotyls (녹두(Vigna radiata W.) 하배축의 오옥신 유발 에틸렌 생성 과정에서 $Ca^{2+}$의 작용)

  • 문혜정
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.265-274
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    • 1989
  • The effect of Ca2+ on auxin-induced ehtylene production in etiolated mungbean (Vigna radiata W.) hypocotyls was studied. Auxin-induced ethylene production by mungbean seedlings which had been germinated in the presence of 5-10mM Ca2+ (High Ca2+ ; HC) is greater than that by seedlings which had been germinated in distilled water (Low Ca2+ ; LC). The effect of Ca2+ on auxin-induced ethylene production was greatly increased after 12hr of incubation period. The stimulation of auxin-induced ethylene production by Ca2+ was specific, since divalent cations, such as Mg2+ and Mn2+ did not enhance auxin-induced ethylene production. Calcium also promoted ethylene evoluation induced by methionine and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid(ACC). The effect of Ca2+ on auxin-induced ethylene production was not caused by increase in free IAA or ACC contents of hypocotyl tissue. Dimethyl sulfoxide and Triton X-100, that disrupts the emembranes, inhibited ethylene production to a greater extent in LC segments than in HC segments. Addition of Ca2+ to the incubation medium for LC segments resulted in enchancement of ethylene production probalby because the membrane integrity is supported under these conditions. Comparison of activity of Ethylene Forming Enzyme(EFE) in LC and HC hypocotyl segments indicated that the enzyme activity of HC was about 2 times higher than that of L.C. It is suggested that Ca2+ increases the activity of plasma membrane-bound EFE through its stabilizing effect onn the membrane, which in turn brings about promotion of ethylene production.

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Strontium Stimulates IAA Oxidation and Polyamine Synthesis in Germinating Mung Bean Hypocotyls (Vigna radiata L.) (숙주 배축생장과정 중 스트론티움에 의한 오옥신산화 및 폴리아민 생합성 촉진)

  • Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2004
  • Mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) were used to investigate the roles of strontium in hypocolyl elongation under IAA regime during the germination. After imbibition in a medium with or without IAA, $Sr^{2+}$ stimulated IAA oxidation. Three to five fold increasing in IAA oxidase activity seems to be direct evidence of growth inhibition through $Sr^{2+}$. Furthermore, the accumulation of spermidinc and spermine by $Sr^{2+}$ in the range of 1 to 10 mM was observed. Spermidine levels were 2 to 3 fold higher than in control seedling grown without strontium. The increase in polyamine levels was observed on a g fresh weight basis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the inhibitory action of $Sr^{2+}$ is closely related with the IAA oxidation and polyamine biosynthesis.

Antioxidant Potentials and Quantification of Flavonoids in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds

  • Kim Dong-Kwan;Kim Jung-Bong;Chon Sang-Uk;Lee Ya-Seong
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 2005
  • Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is an increasingly important human food source, as well as a new functional agent, mainly due to its potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of fractions from mung bean seeds by measuring DPPH radical scavenging activity and to quantify the flavonoids by means of HPLC analysis. Vitexin and isovitexin were present in both ethanol and water extracts in highest amount. Flavonoids, vitexin and isovitexin were quantified from 195 germplasms of mung beans and their concentrations varied by 4.7 fold. Especially, the breeding line KM99004-4B-2 (Suwon28/KM94004), which has grown in Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services, showed the highest amount (15.88 mg/g) of total flavonoids. The vitexin portion was averaged $70.73{\pm}1.38\%$. High positive correlation $(r=0.96^{***})$ between vitexin and isovitexin contents showed. However, the flavonoid content showed very low correlation with the 24 growth and ecological characteristics. Seed coats of mung beans had the highest flavonoid amount, showing $50\~70$ times more than cotyledons. Flavonoid contents in the seed, the cotyledon, and the seed coat were decreased as the seed imbibition time increased.

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Cytohistological Study of Development of Callus and Adventitious Shoots from Cultured Stem of Vigna radiata (녹두 줄기 조직배양에서 캘러스와 부정아 형성에 관한 세포조직학적 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Bum
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1141-1147
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to establish a reproducible culture system for callus formation and adventitious shoot development from young stem segments of Vigna radinta, and histological work for orgin of callus tissue and adventitious shoot. Induction of callus from young stem explants of Vigna radiata was very effective on MS inorganic salts supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L kinetin. For the adventitious shoot regeneration from the callus tissues, the hormone combination of 0.75 mg/L NAA, 1.5 mg/L kinetin and MS salts resulted in about 21% efficiency. Histological examination showed that callus tissues originated from out-growths by callus cambium rings with do novo meristematic activities, which were localized at the outside of the vascular cambium. Adventitious shoots were developed from shoot apical meristem originated from the surface of callus masses. The shoot apical meristem produced leaf primordium, which then became leaf.

Combining Ability in Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) II. Traits Related to Indetemination

  • Srinives, P.;Khattak, G.S.S.;Haq, M.A.;Ashraf, M.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.424-427
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    • 2001
  • Combining ability study was carried out on the components of synchronization in maturity and determinate growth habit in mungbean, using 6$\times$6 diallel cross. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were found conditioning the inheritance of days to first flower, days between first pod and 90% pod maturity (DDd1), plant height from first pod stage to 90% pod maturity (DDhl, DDh2, and DDh3). Only non-additive gene action was important in degree of determination from first pod stage to 90% pod maturity (DDd2). While only additive action was important in plant height at first flower. The predominant additive gene action was observed in all traits but non-additive was significant in only DDd$_2$. For synchronization in maturity, determinate growth habit, and their components, the best combiners were NM92, VCl560D, and NM89, whereas the best indeterminate combinations were NM92 $\times$ NM89, NM92 $\times$ VCl560D, and NM92 $\times$ ML-5.

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Combining Ability in Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) I. Agronomic Traits

  • Srinives, P.;Khattak, G.S.S.;Haq, M.A.;Ashraf, M.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.420-423
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    • 2001
  • Combining ability in mungbean was studied in 15 quantitative traits through a 6 $\times$ 6 diallel cross. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were found conditioning the inheritane of nodes of the first peduncle, clusters per plant, clusters on main stem and branches, pods per plant, 1000 seed weight, grain yield per plant, biomass, and harvest index. The additive gene action was found significant for nodes on main stem, average internodal length, branches per plant, pods per cluster, pod length, and seeds per pod. The predominace of additive genetic variance was observed in all traits. For grain yield and yield components, the best combiner were VC3902A, VC1560D and ML-5, while the best combinations were the crosses VC3902A $\times$ ML-5, VC1560D $\times$ ML-5, and NM 92 $\times$ VC1560D.

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$Ca^{2+}$ Effect on the Conversion of ACC to Ethylene in Mungvean(Vigna radiata) Hypocothls (녹두(Vigna radiata)의 하배축에서 ACC의 에틸렌 전환에 미치는 $Ca^{2+}$의 효과)

  • 서효원
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 1993
  • Effect of Ca2+ on the conversion of 1-aminocycloprophane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene was studied with 2.5 day-old mung bean hypocotyl segments. The conversion of ACC in these tissues was inhibited by plasmolysis and sulfosuccinimidyl (hydroxyphenyl) propionate (sulfo-SHPP). The ACC induced ethylene production in HC (high calcium)-tissue grown on the Ca2+ added medium was greater than that in N (normal)-tissue. HC-tissue had a lower inhibition rate of ACC conversion by EGTA and Ca2+ -channel blockers than N-tissue. The rates of the ACC conversion by both kinds of tissues were stimulated by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. From these results, we suggests a mechanism for the stimulative effect of Ca2+ on the conversion of ACC to ethylene as follows; in some tissues where ACC conversion is linked with plasma membrane, Ca2+ may be transported from apoplast through Ca2+ -channel into the cytoplasm ad stimulate ACC-oxidase activity.

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Isolation of High Quality RNA from Seeds of the Mungbean (Vigna radiata) (녹두 종자의 RNA 분리 방법)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Im;Ku, Ja-Hwan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.spc1
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    • pp.274-276
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    • 2006
  • Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a legume to East Asia that has great potential for development as traditional food and industrial crop. It produces both protein and starch rich grain. The low variability of the existing gene pool of the mungbean limits the use of conventional plant breeding to address this problem. For this purpose, an efficient means of RNA isolation from mungbean seed tissues was developed. The quality of RNA obtained by this method was sufficient for use in RT-PCR and RNA analysis.