• Title, Summary, Keyword: Virginiamycin

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Effect of energy density and virginiamycin supplementation in diets on growth performance and digestive function of finishing steers

  • Navarrete, Juan D.;Montano, Martin F.;Raymundo, Constantino;Salinas-Chavira, Jaime;Torrentera, Noemi;Zinn, Richard A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.1396-1404
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study was determined the influence of virginiamycin supplementation on growth-performance and characteristics of digestion of cattle with decreasing dietary net energy value of the diet for maintenance ($NE_m$) from 2.22 to 2.10 Mcal/kg. Methods: Eighty crossbred beef steers ($298.2{\pm}6.3kg$) were used in a 152-d performance evaluation consisting of a 28-d adaptation period followed by a 124-d growing-finishing period. During the 124-d period steers were fed either a lesser energy dense (LED, $2.10Mcal/kg\;NE_m$) or higher energy dense (HED, $2.22Mcal/kg\;NE_m$) diet. Diets were fed with or without 28 mg/kg (dry matter [DM] basis) virginiamycin in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Four Holstein steers ($170.4{\pm}5.6kg$) with cannulas in the rumen (3.8 cm internal diameter) and proximal duodenum were used in $4{\times}4$ Latin square experiment to study treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Results: Neither diet energy density nor virginiamycin affected average daily gain (p>0.10). As expected, dry matter intake and gain efficiency were greater (p<0.01) for LED- than for HED-fed steers. Virginiamycin did not affect estimated net energy value of the LED diet. Virginiamycin increased estimated NE of the HED diet. During daylight hours when the temperature humidity index averaged $81.3{\pm}2.7$, virginiamycin decreased (p<0.05) ruminal temperature. Virginiamycin did not influence (p>0.10) ruminal or total tract digestion. Ruminal (p = 0.02) and total tract digestion (p<0.01) of organic matter, and digestible energy (p<0.01) were greater for HED vs LED. Ruminal microbial efficiency was lower (p<0.01) for HED vs LED diets. Conclusion: The positive effect of virginiamycin on growth performance of cattle is due to increased efficiency of energy utilization, as effects of virginiamycin on characteristics of digestion were not appreciable. Under conditions of high ambient temperature virginiamycin may reduce body temperature.

Functions of Virginiae Butanolide C(VB-C) and Receptor in Virginiamycin Production (Virginiamycin 생산유도에 관여하는 Virginiae Butanolide C(VB-C) 및 Receptor의 기능)

  • 김현수;현지숙
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 1997
  • Streptomyces virginiae produces a set of autoregulators termed virginiae butanolide A-E(VB-A-E) which trigger virginiamycin production, and possesses a high-affinity virginiae butanolide receptor. To elucidate the functions of VB-C and VB-C receptor, we isolated two mutants from S. virginiae by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and hydroxylamine. The characteristics of the mutants showed that the producing time of antibiotics was very delayed due to a slower production of VB-C receptor than that of VB. In S. ostreogriseus(VB', receptor -) and S. graminofaciens(VBU, receptor+), which produce the virginiamycin, the addition of synthetic VB-C repressed the production of antibiotics in S. ostreogriseus but induced tbe production in S. graminofaciens. HPLC analysis of S. graminofaciens suggested that the VB-C might have an ability to induce the production of virginiamycin and other antibiotics. These results imply that the VB-C has an ability to trigger the production of other secondary metabolites as well as virginiamycin under VB-C receptor existence.

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The Relationship between Virginiae Butanolide C(VB-C) and Receptor in Virginiamycin Production (Virginiamycin 생산유도에 관여하는 Virginiae Butanolide C(VB-C) 및 Receptor의 상관관계)

  • Kim, Hyun-Soo;Hyun, Ji-Sook;Yu, Tae-Shick
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 1996
  • Virginiae butanolide C(VB-C) is one of the butyrolactone autoregulators, which triggers the productin of virginiamycin in Streptomyces virginiae. To further understand the mechanism of virginiamycin induction, we isolated three mutants from S. virginiae by N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) treatment. The characteristics of the three mutants were confirmed as follows: the mutant No. 1 delayed the production of the VB-C, receptor and antibiotics; the mutant No.3 hyperproduced receptor; the mutant No.4 failed to produce the VB-C. The addition of synthetic VB-C couldn't induce the production of antibiotics in the mutant No.1 due to delayed production of receptor, could provoke the production of larger amount of antibiotics than parental wild type strain in the mutant No.3 due to the presence of large amount of receptor, and could induce production of very small amount of antibiotics in the mutant No.4 due to the absence of VB-C. Antimicrobial spectrum and HPLC analysis of the mutant No.1 and No.3 suggested that the VB-C might have a specific ability to induce the production of virginiamycin M and S. These results imply that the VB-C has an ability to trigger the production of virginiamycin under receptor existence in S. virginiae.

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Induction of Erythromycin by Virginiamycin Inducing Factor, Virginiae Butanolide C (Virginiamycin 생합성 유도인자 Virginiae Butanolide C에 이한 Erythromycin 생산 유도)

  • Kim, Hyun-Soo;Seong, Lim-Shik
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.682-687
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    • 1999
  • Virginiae butanolide C(VB-C) is one of the butyrolactone autoregulators, which triggers the production of virginiamycin in Streptomyces virginiae. In order to investigate the function of VB-C as inducer in other strains, Streptomyces erythraeus was used as a test strain(parent). VB-C binding receptor gene was introduced into S. erythraeus(transformant) and the production of VBs and specific VB-C binding protein were analysed in parent and transformant. When 300ng/ml of the synthetic VB-C was added at 0, 20, 44 h cultivation of the parent and at 44 h cultivation of the transformant, the initial production times a antibiotics were shortened by more than 8 and 6 h, respectively. The transformant showed strong antibiotic activity against B. subtilis. These results suggest that the VB-C might have an ability to induce the production of secondary metabolites in S. erythraeus.

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Induction of Secondary Metabolites by Virginiamycin Inducing Factor, Virginiae Butanolide C (Virginiamycin 생합성 유도인자 Virginiae butanolide C에 의한 2차 대사산물 생산의 유도)

  • 김현수;강선영
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.459-466
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    • 1994
  • Virginiae butanolide C(VB-C) is one of the butyrolactone autoregulators, which triggers the production of virginiamycin in Streptomyces virginiae. Streptomyces longwoodensis was selected as a test strain to investigate new VB-C functions. When 100 ng/ml of the synthetic VB-C was added into the culture at 5 hour and 0 hour, the initial production time of antibiotics and a dark blue pigment were shortened by 4~6 hours and 2~4 hours, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed the production of several new antibiotics by VB-C addition. In the SDS-PAGE analysis of the total protein from mycelium several new protein bands showed up and the amounts of certain protein bands increased in the presense of VB-C. The existence of specific VB-C binding protein was confirmed from S. longwoodensis in relation to VB-C signal transduction. These results suggest that the VB-C might have an ability to induce the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomy- ces longwoodensis.

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A Comparison of Feeding Lactobacillus and Virginiamycin Influence on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (유산균과 버지니아마이신의 급여가 육계의 생산성 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;박수영;유동조;이상진;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding two strains of Lactobacillus and virginiamycin on performance, nutrients digestibility and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks(Abor acres$\times$Abor Acres) were randomly allocated into six treatments with four replications for five weeks. Control(no supplement), 0.05% virginiamycin(VM), Lactobacillus crispatus avibro1(LC), Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2(LR), LC+0.05% VM(LC+VM), LR+0.05% VM(LR+VM) were supplemented into basal diets, which contained ME 3,100kcal/kg and CP 22.0, 20.0% for starting and finishing period, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion(FC) were weekly measured. Nutrients digestibility, intestinal microflora and fecal noxious gas were examined at the end of experiment. Weight gains of chicks fed Lactobacillus or VM was significantly higher than control(P〈0.05). Feed intake increased significantly in those supplemental groups(P〈0.05). FC of chicks fed Lactobacillus or VM significantly lower than control(P〈0.05). Degestibility of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus improved significantly in alone or combined Lactobacillus treatments(P〈0.05). Whereas DM, crude fat and ash digestibility were not statistically different. Feeding Lactobacilli tended to increase the total Lactobacillus spp. in ileum at one and three weeks of age(WOA) and showed significantly higher in cecum than control at 5 WOA. Total yeast were not shown difference at 1 and 3 WOA, but significantly increased at 5 WOA(P〈0.05). The ileal and cecal anaerobes were started to increase from the first WOA. Fecal NH$_3$gas tended to decrease in Lactobacillus treatments compared to that of other treatments.

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Influence of Monensin and Virginiamycin on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Ammoniated Rice Straw

  • Kook, K.;Sun, S.S.;Yang, C.J.;Myung, K.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.544-547
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    • 1999
  • The object of this study was to determine the influence of monensin and virginiamycin (VM) on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rice straw or ammoniated rice straw. Rumen fluid was collected from 4 wethers fed 200 g of concentrate supplement with 400 g of untreated (U) or ammoniated (A) rice straw once daily for 28 days. Mixed ruminal microorganisms were incubated in anaerobic media that contained 20% (vol/vol) ruminal fluid and 0.3 g of either U or A rice straw. Monensin and/or VM, dissolved in ethanol, were added in centrifuge tubes at final concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 15+15 and 30+30 ppm of culture fluid. The addition of monensin and VM combination to A rice straw fermentation decreased (p<0.05) the acetate to propionate ratio, total VFA and lactate production, but increased (p<0.05) pH. Total gas production tended to be decreased by the addition of monensin plus VM. Antimicrobial agents decreased $NH_3$ N concentration and dry matter digestibility.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Root Powder and Mannanoligosaccharides as Alternatives to Antibiotics in Broiler Chicken Diets

  • Samarasinghe, K.;Wenk, C.;Silva, K.F.S.T.;Gunasekera, J.M.D.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1495-1500
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    • 2003
  • Two bio-assays were conducted to evaluate turmeric root powder and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to feed antibiotics for broilers. In one trial, one hundred and eighty 19-days old broilers assigned to 18 groups of 10 were fed on one of six experimental diets with three replicates during four weeks. The diets included a basal feed without additives and with either virginiamycin, MOS, or turmeric at 1, 2 and 3 g/kg, respectively. In the second trial, one hundred and forty four 21-days old broilers arranged in 16 groups of nine were fed on the first four diets with four replicates for a similar period. Virginiamycin, MOS and turmeric (1 g/kg) in the first trial generally improved the weight gain of broilers by 3.4, 6.2 and 5.3%, respectively. In the second trial they increased the weight gain significantly (p<0.05) by 8.8, 8.0 and 15.1%, respectively. Additives improved the feed efficiency up to 15.1% and carcass recovery up to 3.1% (p<0.05). Virginiamycin, MOS and turmeric (1 g/kg) markedly reduced the abdominal fat content from 1.91% BW in the control to 1.44, 0.97 and 1.2% BW, respectively, in the first trial. The corresponding values obtained in the second trial were 1.01, 0.55 and 0.6%, respectively as compared to 1.22% in the control group. All additives showed a remarkable inhibition of duodenal coliform bacteria, yeast and mould in the caecum, and all viable microbes in the ileum. A significant (p<0.05) improvement in energy and protein utilization could be recorded with supplemented diets except for high turmeric diets. Dietary 2 and 3 g/kg addition of turmeric reduced energy and protein utilization as well as fat deposition. Present results reveal that turmeric and MOS are satisfactory alternatives to antibiotics in broiler feeds. Both MOS and turmeric possess an antimicrobial effect in vivo. Turmeric may also depress fat deposition in broilers.