• Title, Summary, Keyword: Volatile organic compounds

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Alteration of Inflammatory Cytokines by Volatile Organic Compounds in T Lymphocytes

  • Lee, Ji-Sook;Kim, In-Sik
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2011
  • In the present study, we investigated whether volatile organic compounds induce inflammatory response in human T lymphocytes by evaluating the alteration of inflammatory cytokines. Volatile organic compounds such as formaldehyde, o-xylene, benzene, and hydroquinone have no cytotoxic effects on Jurkat T cells at a high concentration of 50 ${\mu}M$ for 48 h. IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$ were increased after the treatment with volatile organic compounds, although alteration of cytokines is different among volatile organic compounds. LPS as a positive control increased the secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$. MCP-1 and CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) were weakly increased after the treatment with volatile organic compounds but the amount of the increased cytokine was below 20 pg/ml. These results suggest that the measurement of cytokine in Jurkat T cells may be used as a useful method for evaluating the toxicity of volatile organic compounds in immune response.

Relevance between Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC) Exposure Level and Environmental Diseases Within Residential Environments (주거환경 내의 Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) 노출수준과 환경성질환과의 관련성)

  • Lee, Dong-Hyun;Chung, Jin-Do
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2011
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the level of exposure to volatile organic compounds for different kinds of households in apartments or houses and analyze the relation between atopy-related symptoms and concentration of volatile organic compounds in order to improve indoor air quality and start to build a process to prevent environmental diseases. Method: From July 2010 to November 2010, TVOC concentration levels were measured and analyzed in 402 general households and 236 weak households, totalling 638 households. Residents were asked to fill out a survey on environmental disease. All resources were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 program. Result: In comparing the differences in concentration levels of volatile organic compounds for different types of households, including existing apartments and houses, the type of housing did not affect the concentration level of volatile organic compounds, but the relevance with skin trouble, diagnosed atopy, and atopy systems all had statistical similarities. Moreover, above-limit volatile organic compounds showed statistical relevance with amount of ventilation, time of construction, skin trouble, diagnosed atopy and atopy symptoms. Conclusion: The study concludes that as the time of construction recedes further into the past and as the amount of ventilation is higher, the exposure level to volatile organic compounds was lower and the group that were suffering from atopy symptoms had higher exposure to volatile organic compounds.

Effects of ${\gamma}$-Irradiation on the Volatile Organic Compounds from Cuscutae Semen (Cuscuta chinensis Lam) (감마선 조사가 기능성 식품 소재인 토사자의 휘발성 유기성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Su-Hyeong;Kim, Kyong-Su
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to examine the effect of ${\gamma}$-irradiation on the volatile organic compounds of Cuscutae Semen (Cuscuta chinensis L.). The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and 10 kGy ${\gamma}$-irradiated Cuscutae Semen were isolated using SDE apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Limonene, ethanol, (E)-2-decenal, hexadecanol, nonanoic acid and nonanal were detected as dominant compounds. Before irradiation, the total concentration of volatile organic compounds of Cuscutae Semen was approximately 189.90 mg/kg. After irradiation at 10 kGy, total concentrations increased to 299.46 mg/kg, but, the profile of volatile compounds including the essential oils of Cuscutae Semen was not differ from non- and irradiated sample. Therefore it was improved the extraction yield of useful compounds such as limonene, menthol, piperitone and isomenthone by irradiation.

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Concentration of Volatile Organic Compounds at Main Stream and Branch Stream of Kumho River (금호강 본류와 지류에서의 휘발성 유기화합물질 농도)

  • 김용혜;장봉기;홍성철;이종영
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.135-146
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    • 1998
  • In this study, we investigated to measured concentration, seasonal characteristics and load quantity of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) for 11 sites in the main stream and 8 sites in the branch stream of Kumho river, during from October 1995 to April 1997. As a results, the small amount of volatile compounds, such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene, benzene, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethyl-benzene were detected from the main stream of Kumho river. Also detected to dichloromethene, chloroform, toluene, benzene, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, 1,3,5-trimethylbebzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene in the branch stream, and dichloromerhane, chloroform and toluene were detected to all site of sampling. And seasonal variation of volatile organic compounds showed higher concentration in the July 1996 as a winter season than January 1997 as a summer season in most places. Also the load quantity of volatile organic compound at Gangchang site in the last downstream of Kumho river, was in order of chloroform > dichloromethane > toluene > trichloroethene.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds in Gimhae (김해 지역 대기 중 휘발성유기화합물 특성연구)

  • Bong, Sang-Hun;Jeong, Seong-Wook;Park, Heung-Jai;Kim, Woo-Seong;Kim, Sung-Hun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.871-878
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    • 2008
  • In this study, we measured volatile organic compounds in Gimhae city, South Korea. We selected twenty site and measured volatile organic compounds in ambient air by passive sampler when at sampling intervals of two month from April to December 2005. Passive sampler was exposed for fifteen day in ambient air. And samples were analyzed by GC/FID for volatile organic compounds. The results of each measured functional zone, mean concentration of each compound measured were generally higher the industrial complex area and traffic pollution area than residental area. Each area showed similar pattern for the observation period. concentration of measured each compound were the following order: winter > fall > spring > summer.

The Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds at Schools in the Ulsan Metropolitan Area (울산 지역 학교의 휘발성유기화합물 평가)

  • Jung, Jong-Hyeon;Lee, Sa-Woo;Phee, Young-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.114-121
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds at elementary, middle, and high schools in Ulsan and its surroundings. Methods: To assess the hazardous chemicals of the 66 classrooms in the 22 schools, the 6 volatile organic compounds such as TVOCs (Total Volatile Organic Compounds), benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl benzene and stylene were measured and analyzed from the beginning of May to the end of December, 2009. Results: The mean concentrations of TVOCs in the elementary schools were higher than those of middle and high schools, and multi-purpose classrooms was higher than that in general ones. The benzene and toluene level in schools in Dong-Gu in the vicinity of assorted industrial complexes was higher than that of schools located in other districts around the Ulsan Metropolitan Area. Conclusion: In case of schools in Ulsan Metropolitan Area, elementary school, schools in Dong-Gu, and multipurpose classrooms over general classrooms should be given a high priority for the management of volatile organic compounds.

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Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Volatile Organic Compounds of Vitis labrusca L. (전자선 조사한 캠벨얼리 포도(Vitis labrusca L.)의 휘발성 유기성분 변화)

  • Shim, Sung-Lye;No, Ki-Mi;Kim, Kyong-Su;Song, Gi-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 2010
  • Changes in volatile organic compounds were investigated during storage after electron beam irradiation. Grapes were irradiated at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy and stored for 1 month at $4^{\circ}C$. Butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, hexanol, and 3-methyl-butanol were the major volatile organic compounds of grapes. The types of volatiles in irradiated grapes were similar to those of non-irradiated samples but concentration differed among treatments. Some volatile compounds decreased during storage, whereas others, especially the esters, increased. Concentration of most volatile compounds were higher in pre-stored grapes than in post-stored fruit (thus, during the 30 days after irradiation by e-beam). Consequently, concentration of volatile organic compounds either increased or decreased after e-beam irradiation but these changes did not correlate with irradiation dose.

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds associated with Environmental Tobacco Smoke

  • Baek, Sung-Ok;Roger A. Jenkins
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.E
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    • pp.41-58
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    • 1998
  • In this study, a wide range of volatile organic constituents of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were determined using an environmental chamber, where ETS is the sole source of target compounds. ETS was generated in an environmental chamber by a number of different cigarettes, including the Kentucky reference cigarette and eight different commercial brands. More than 30 compounds were measured simultaneously for a total of twelve experimental runs. The target compounds are classified into three major classes, i.e. vapor phase ETS markers including 3-ethnylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results from the chamber study were used to generate characterized ratios of selected VOCs to 3-EP, a vapor phase ETS marker. Emission factors for VOCs associated with ETS were also estimated. The characteristic ratios appeared to be generally in good agreement with published data obtained by environmental chamber studies similar to this study. This implies that the ratios may be useful for identifying and quantifying the impact of ETS as a source of target compounds in 'real world' indoor environments, which is affected by a complex mixture of multi-sources. The environmental chamber method described here provides a direct and reliable method to compare the ETS generated by different cigarettes. The method can also be applied to the simultaneous determination of many different ETS components.

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A Study on the Flavor Compounds of Dongchimi (동치미의 맛 성분에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Mae-Ry;Lee, Hei-Soo
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1990
  • To study the most optimum condition of Dongchimi, the various Dongchimi distinct from the amount of salt, the temperature of fermentation and the ratio of radish to water were examed by sensory evaluation. Also, the content of volatile organic acids and nonvolatile organic acids were investigated by GC, the content of sulfur compounds by GC/MS. Volatile organic acids were identified with those butyl esters and nonvolatile organic acids were done with those TMS derivatives. Sulfur compounds and those decomposed products were extracted by steam distillation In results, the most optimum conditions ware salt 2.4% fermented temperature $4^{\circ}C$, ratio 1:1.5. Volatile organic acids detected were formic, acetic acid, and the amounts were effected by saltness. Nonvolatile organic acids detected were lactio, malio, fumario, tartario acid. Lactic acid was thought to effect overall eating quality. Sulfur compounds were almost the isothiocyanate groups in raw radish, which little in fermented Dongchimi.

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A Study on the Standards of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air of Office (사무실 실내공기중 휘발성유기화합물의 기준설정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yoon-Shin;Lee, Cheol-Min;Roh, Young-Man;Lee, So-Dam;Sohn, Jong-Ryeul;Kim, Seok-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.413-427
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    • 2006
  • It is necessary to study and develop guidelines for providing comfort and health indoor air quality for office workers since air-tight envelope system of current office building may cause poor indoor air quality. The purpose of this study is to propose guideline for volatile organic compounds in office base on the field study, human health risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. The field study was conducted to survey the concentrations of volatile organic compounds in indoor air of 69 offices from June to September, 2005 in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. The rate of excess to guideline of volatile organic compounds in indoor air of new apartment on the Ministry of Environment in Korea(MOE) was surveyed 37.6% for benzene, 6.8% for toluene, and 1.5% for ethylbenzene. As the result of human health risk assessment, mean cancer risk did not exceed 10-6 which is guideline of US.EPA. Also, total hazard index did not exceed 1 which is guideline of US.EPA. Through the cost-benefit analysis of angle on the social-economics to verify the necessary to establish the standards of volatile organic compounds for improvement and development of indoor air quality in office, the present value of benefit was higher than the present value of cost. With the above considerations in mind, it is suggested that the field study for indoor air quality in offices should be expanded and human health risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis be performed th offer scientific data for decision-making of policy for improvement and management of indoor air quality in office.