• Title, Summary, Keyword: Volume Fraction

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Tensile Fracture Behavior of Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Composites for Various Fiber Volume Fraction (섬유함유율에 따른 GF/PP 복합재료의 인장파괴거동)

  • Koh, Sung-Wi;Um, Yoon-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.161-165
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    • 2004
  • The main goal of this work is to study the effect of glass fiber volume fraction on the result of tensile test with respect to glass fiber/polypropylene(GF/PP) composites. The tensile test and failure mechanisms of GF/PP composites were investigated in the fiber volume fraction range from 10% to 30%. The tensile strength and the fracture strength increased with the increasing of the fiber volume fraction in the tested range. Fiber pull-out and debonding of this composites increased with the fiber volume fraction in thc tested range. The major failure mechanisms were classified into the debonding, the fiber pull out, the delamination and the matrix deformation.

Influence of brass laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of externally laminated coated conductor tapes

  • Bautista, Zhierwinjay M.;Shin, Hyung-Seop;Lee, Jae-Hun;Lee, Hunju;Moon, Seung-Hyun
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.6-9
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    • 2016
  • The enhancement of mechanical properties of coated conductor (CC) tapes in practical application are usually achieved by reinforcing through lamination or electroplating metal layers on either sides of the CC tape. Mechanical or electromechanical properties of the CC tapes have been largely affected by the lamination structure under various loading modes such as tension, bending or even cyclic. In this study, the influence of brass laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of RCE-DR processed Gadolinium-barium-copper-oxide (GdBCO) CC tapes was investigated. The samples used were composed of single-side and both-side laminate of brass layer to the Cu-stabilized CC tape and their $I_c$ behaviors were compared to those of the Cu-stabilized CC tape without external lamination. The stress/strain dependences of $I_c$ in laminated CC tapes under uniaxial tension were analyzed and the irreversible stress/strain limits were determined. As a result, the increase of brass laminate volume fraction initially increased the irreversible strain limit and became gradual. The corresponding irreversible stress limit, however, showed no difference even though the brass laminate volume fraction increased to 3.4. But the irreversible load limit linearly increased with the brass laminate volume fraction.

Impact fracture behavior on particle volume fraction of nano silica composite materials (입자 함유율의 변화에 따른 나노 실리카 복합재료의 충격파괴거동)

  • LEE, Jung-Kyu;KOH, Sung Wi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.454-460
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    • 2015
  • The present study is undertaken to evaluate the effect of volume fraction on the results of Charpy impact test for the rubber matrix filled with nano sized silica particles composites. The Charpy impact tests are conducted in the temperature range $0^{\circ}C$ and $-10^{\circ}C$. The range of volume fraction of silica particles tested are between 11% to 25%. The critical energy release rate $G_{IC}$ of the rubber matrix composites filled with nano sized silica particles is affected by silica volume fraction and it is shown that the value of $G_{IC}$ decreases as volume fraction increases. In regions close to the initial crack tip, fracture processes such as matrix deformation, silica particle debonding and delamination, and/or pull out between particles and matrix which is ascertained by SEM photographs of Charpy impact fracture surfaces.

Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Carbon-carbon Composites as a Function of Fiber Volume Content

  • Dhakate, S.R.;Mathur, R.B.;Dham, T.L.
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2002
  • Unidirectional polymer composites were prepared using high-strength carbon fibers as reinforcement and phenolic resin as matrix precursor with keeping fiber volume fraction at 30, 40, 50 and 60% respectively. These composites were carbonized at $1000^{\circ}C$ and graphitised at $2600^{\circ}C$ in the inert atmosphere. The carbonized and graphitised composites were characterized for mechanical properties as well as microstructure. Microscopic studies were carried out of the polished surface of carbonized and graphitised composites after etching by chromic acid, to understand the effect of fiber volume fraction on oxidation at fiber-matrix interface. It is found that the flexural strength in polymer composites increases with fiber volume fraction and so does for the carbonised composites. However, the trend was found to be reversed in graphitised composites. In all the carbonized composites anisotropic region has been observed at fiber-matrix interface which transforms into columnar type microstructure upon graphitisation. The extension of strong and weak columnar type microstructure is function of fiber volume fraction. SEM microscopy of the etched surface of the sample reveal that composites containing 40% fiber volume has minimum oxidation at the interface, revealing a strong interfacial bonding.

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Development of Estimation of Model for Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete according to Aspect Ratio and Volume Fraction of Steel Fiber (강섬유의 형상비와 혼입률에 따른 강섬유 보강 콘크리트 보의 역학적 특성 추정 모형 개발)

  • Kwak, Kae-Hwan;Hwang, Hae-Sung;Sung, Bai-Kyung;Jang, Hwa-Sup
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2006
  • Practially useful method of steel fiber for construction work is presented in this study. The most important purpose of this study is to develop a model which can predict mechanical behavior of the structure according to aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel fiber. Experiments on compressive strength, elastic modulus, and splitting strength were performed with self-made cylindrical specimens of variable aspect ratios and volume fractions. The experiment showed that compressive strength was not in direct proportion to volume fraction which doesn't seem to have great influence over compressive strength. However, splitting strength showed almost direct proportion to aspect ratio and volume fraction. Improvement of optimal efficiency was confirmed when the aspect ratio was 70. Experiments on flexural strength, fracture energy, and characteristic length were carried out with self-manufactured beams with notch. As a result, increases of flexural strength, fracture energy, and characteristic length according to increase of volume fraction tend to be prominent when aspect ratio is 70. The steel fiber improves concrete to be more ductile and tough. Moreover, regression analysis was the performed and predictable model was developed after determining variables. With comparison and analysis of suggested estimated values and measured data, reliance of the model was verified.

Assessment of inter- and intra-fractional volume of bladder and body contour by mega-voltage computed tomography in helical tomotherapy for pelvic malignancy

  • Kim, Sunghyun;You, Sei Hwan;Eum, Young Ju
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We describe the daily bladder volume change observed by mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) during pelvic radiotherapy with potential predictors of increased bladder volume variations. Materials and Methods: For 41 patients who received pelvic area irradiation, the volumes of bladder and pelvic body contour were measured twice a day with pre- and post-irradiation MVCT from the 1st to the 10th fraction. The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 18 to 30 Gy) up to a 10th fraction. The upper and lower margin of MVCT scanning was consistent during the daily treatments. The median age was 69 years (range, 33 to 86 years) and 10 patients (24.4%) were treated postoperatively. Results: Overall bladder volume on planning computed tomography was 139.7 ± 92.8 mL. Generally, post-irradiation bladder volume (POSTBV) was larger than pre-irradiation bladder volume (PREBV) (p < 0.001). The mean PREBV and POSTBV was reduced after 10 fraction treatments by 21.3% (p = 0.028) and 25.4% (p = 0.007), respectively. The MVCT-scanned body contour volumes had a tendency to decrease as the treatment sessions progressed (p = 0.043 at the 8th fraction and p = 0.044 at the 10th fraction). There was a statistically significant correlation between bladder filling time and PREBV (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Daily MVCT-based bladder volume assessment was feasible both intra- and inter-fractionally.

Elastic Analysis of an Unbounded Elastic Solid with an Inclusion Considering Composite Fiber Volume Fraction (섬유 체적분율을 고려한, 단일의 함유체를 포함한 무한고체에서의 탄성해석)

  • Lee, Jung-Ki;Han, Hui-Duck
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2007
  • A volume integral equation method (VIEM) is applied for the effective analysis of plane elastostatic problems in unbounded solids containing single isotropic inclusion of two different shapes considering composite fiber volume fraction. Single cylindrical inclusion and single square cylindrical inclusion are considered in the composites with six different fiber volume fractions (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50). Using the rule of mixtures, the effective material properties are calculated according to the corresponding composite fiber volume fraction. The analysis of plane elastostatic problems in the unbounded effective material containing single fiber that covers an area corresponding to the composite fiber volume fraction in the bounded matrix material are carried out. Thus, single fiber, matrix material with a finite region, and the unbounded effective material are used in the VIEM models for the plane elastostatic analysis. A detailed analysis of stress field at the interface between the matrix and the inclusion is carried out for single cylindrical or square cylindrical inclusion. Next, the stress field is compared to that at the interface between the matrix and the single inclusion in unbounded isotropic matrix with single isotropic cylindrical or square cylindrical inclusion. This new method can also be applied to general two-dimensional elastodynamic and elastostatic problems with arbitrary shapes and number of inclusions. Through the analysis of plane elastostatic problems, it will be established that this new method is very accurate and effective for solving plane elastic problems in unbounded solids containing inclusions considering composite fiber volume fraction.

Effect of Chemical Compositions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Base Metal and HAZ of Bainitic Steel Plates (베이나이트계 후판강의 모재 및 열영향부의 미세조직과 기계적 특성에 미치는 화학 조성의 영향)

  • Cho, Sung Kyu;Joo, Hyung Goun;Shin, Sang Yong
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2019
  • In this study, three kinds of bainitic steel plates are manufactured by varying the chemical compositions and their microstructures are analyzed. Tensile and Charpy impact tests are performed at room and low temperature to investigate the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, heat affected zone (HAZ) specimens are fabricated by a simulation of welding processes, and the HAZ microstructure is analyzed. The base steel that has the lowest carbon equivalent has the highest volume fraction of acicular ferrite and the lowest volume fraction of secondary phases, so the strength is the lowest and the elongation is the highest. The Mo steel has a higher volume fraction of granular bainite and more secondary phases than the base steel, so the strength is high and the elongation is low. The CrNi steel has the highest volume fraction of the secondary phases, so the strength is the highest and elongation is the lowest. The tensile properties of the steels, namely, strength and elongation, have a linear correlation with the volume fraction of secondary phases. The Mo steel has the lowest Charpy impact energy at $-80^{\circ}C$ because of coarse granular bainite. In the Base-HAZ and Mo-HAZ specimens, the hardness increases as the volume fraction of martensite-austenite constituents increases. In the CrNi-HAZ specimen, however, hardness increases as the volume fraction of martensite and bainitic ferrite increases.

Effect of Slag Particle Size and Volume Fraction on Mechanical Properties of Slag Reinforced Composite (슬래그 입자의 크기 및 체적비에 따른 슬래그 입자강화 복합재료의 기계적 특성 연구)

  • Nam, Ji-Hoon;Chun, Heoung-Jae;Hong, Ik-Pyo
    • Composites Research
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.218-222
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    • 2013
  • This study demonstrated that a slag, an industrial solid waste, can be used as a structural reinforcement. The mechanical properties(tensile strength and Elastic modulus) of slag reinforced composite(SRC) was investigated as functions of slag particle size (8~12 ${\mu}m$ and 12~16 ${\mu}m$) and volume fraction (0-40 vol.%). In order to investigate the interface and a degree of particle dispersion which have an effect on mechanical properties, optical microscopic images were taken. The results of tensile tests showed that the tensile strength decreased with an increase in slag volume fraction and particle size. The elastic modulus increased with an increase in slag volume fraction and particle size except for 30 vol.% SRC. The tensile strength decreased with an increase in slag particle size. The microscopic picture showed SRC has fine degree of particle dispersion at low slag volume fraction. SRC has a good interface at every volume fraction. However particle cluster was incorporated with an increase in slag volume fraction.

Effective Longitudinal Shear Modulus of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced 3-Phase Composites (연속섬유가 보강된 3상 복합재료의 종방향 전단계수 해석)

  • Jeong, Tae-Heon;Lee, Dong-Joo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.2782-2791
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    • 1996
  • The effective longitudinal shear modulus(LSM) of continuous composites is studied theoretically and numerically using 3-phase unit cell model. Circular, hexagonal and rectangular shapes of reinforced fiber are considered to predict the shear modulus as a function of elastic modulus of each phase and volume fraction of interphase and reinforced fiber. It is found that rectangular fiber shape in low fiber volume fraction($v_f$<30%) and circular fiber shape in high volume fraction($v_f$>40%) shows the higher longitudinal shear modulus. Also the obtained values of LSM for rectangular array and by numerical analysis are higher than those of hexagonal array and by theoretical analysis respectively. The reinforcing effects of interphase are more significant in cases of higher fiber volume fraction and circular fiber shape. Not only the spatial distribution and shape of reinforcing fiber but also the volume of interphase have a pronounced effects on the overall LSM. It is also found that the tangent moduous of 2-and 3-phase polymer matrix composites is insensitive to the shape and distribution of reinforcing fibers.