• Title, Summary, Keyword: Volume Fraction

Search Result 2,159, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

The Comparison of Image Quality and Quantitative Indices by Wide Beam Reconstruction Method and Filtered Back Projection Method in Tl-201 Myocardial Perfusion SPECT (Tl-201 심근관류 SPECT 검사에서 광대역 재구성(Wide Beam Reconstruction: WBR) 방법과 여과 후 역투영법에 따른 영상의 질 및 정량적 지표 값 비교)

  • Yoon, Soon-Sang;Nam, Ki-Pyo;Shim, Dong-Oh;Kim, Dong-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.122-127
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose: The Xpress3.$cardiac^{TM}$ which is a kind of wide beam reconstruction (WBR) method developed by UltraSPECT (Haifa, Israel) enables the acquisition of at quarter time while maintaining image quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of WBR method for decreasing scan times and to compare to it with filtered back projection (FBP), which is the method routinely used. Materials and Methods: Phantom and clinical studies were performed. The anthropomorphic torso phantom was made on an equality with counts from patient's body. The Tl-201 concentrations in the compartments were 74 kBq (2 ${\mu}Ci$)/cc in myocardium, 11.1 kBq (0.3 ${\mu}Ci$)/cc in soft tissue, and 2.59 kBq (0.07 ${\mu}Ci$)/cc in lung. The non-gated Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT data were acquired with the phantom. The former study was scanned for 50 seconds per frame with FBP method, and the latter study was acquired for 13 seconds per frame with WBR method. Using the Xeleris ver. 2.0551, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and average image contrast were compared. In clinical studies, we analyzed the 30 patients who were examined by Tl-201 gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in department of nuclear medicine at Asan Medical Center from January to April 2010. The patients were imaged at full time (50 second per frame) with FBP algorithm and again quarter-time (13 second per frame) with the WBR algorithm. Using the 4D MSPECT (4DM), Quantitative Perfusion SPECT (QPS), and Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) software, the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), summed difference score, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were analyzed for their correlations and statistical comparison by paired t-test. Results: As a result of the phantom study, the WBR method improved FWHM more than about 30% compared with FBP method (WBR data 5.47 mm, FBP data 7.07 mm). And the WBR method's average image contrast was also higher than FBP method's. However, in result of quantitative indices, SSS, SDS, SRS, EDV, ESV, EF, there were statistically significant differences from WBR and FBP(p<0.01). In the correlation of SSS, SDS, SRS, there were significant differences for WBR and FBP (0.18, 0.34, 0.08). But EDV, ESV, EF showed good correlation with WBR and FBP (0.88, 0.89, 0.71). Conclusion: From phantom study results, we confirmed that the WBR method reduces an acquisition time while improving an image quality compared with FBP method. However, we should consider significant differences in quantitative indices. And it needs to take an evaluation test to apply clinical study to find a cause of differences out between phantom and clinical results.

  • PDF

Analysis of the Causes of Subfrontal Recurrence in Medulloblastoma and Its Salvage Treatment (수모세포종의 방사선치료 후 전두엽하방 재발된 환자에서 원인 분석 및 구제 치료)

  • Cho Jae Ho;Koom Woong Sub;Lee Chang Geol;Kim Kyoung Ju;Shim Su Jung;Bak Jino;Jeong Kyoungkeun;Kim Tae_Gon;Kim Dong Seok;Choi oong-Uhn;Suh Chang Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.165-176
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: Firstly, to analyze facto in terms of radiation treatment that might potentially cause subfrontal relapse in two patients who had been treated by craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for medulloblastoma, Secondly, to explore an effective salvage treatment for these relapses. Materials and Methods: Two patients who had high-risk disease (T3bMl, T3bM3) were treated with combined chemoradiotherapy CT-simulation based radiation-treatment planning (RTP) was peformed. One patient who experienced relapse at 16 months after CSI was treated with salvage surgery followed by a 30.6 Gy IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy). The other patient whose tumor relapsed at 12 months after CSI was treated by surgery alone for the recurrence. To investigate factors that might potentially cause subfrontal relapse, we evaluated thoroughly the charts and treatment planning process including portal films, and tried to find out a method to give help for placing blocks appropriately between subfrotal-cribrifrom plate region and both eyes. To salvage subfrontal relapse in a patient, re-irradiation was planned after subtotal tumor removal. We have decided to treat this patient with IMRT because of the proximity of critical normal tissues and large burden of re-irradiation. With seven beam directions, the prescribed mean dose to PTV was 30.6 Gy (1.8 Gy fraction) and the doses to the optic nerves and eyes were limited to 25 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively. Results: Review of radiotherapy Portals clearly indicated that the subfrontal-cribriform plate region was excluded from the therapy beam by eye blocks in both cases, resulting in cold spot within the target volume, When the whole brain was rendered in 3-D after organ drawing in each slice, it was easier to judge appropriateness of the blocks in port film. IMRT planning showed excellent dose distributions (Mean doses to PTV, right and left optic nerves, right and left eyes: 31.1 Gy, 14.7 Gy, 13.9 Gy, 6.9 Gy, and 5.5 Gy, respectively. Maximum dose to PTV: 36 Gy). The patient who received IMRT is still alive with no evidence of recurrence and any neurologic complications for 1 year. Conclusion: To prevent recurrence of medulloblastoma in subfrontal-cribriform plate region, we need to pay close attention to the placement of eye blocks during the treatment. Once subfrontal recurrence has happened, IMRT may be a good choice for re-irradiation as a salvage treatment to maximize the differences of dose distributions between the normal tissues and target volume.

Therapeutic Angiogenesis by Intramyocardial Injection of pCK-VEGF165 in Pigs (돼지에서 pCK-VEGF165의 심근내 주입에 의한 치료적 혈관조성)

  • Choi Jae-Sung;Han Woong;Kim Dong Sik;Park Jin Sik;Lee Jong Jin;Lee Dong Soo;Kim Ki-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.38 no.5
    • /
    • pp.323-334
    • /
    • 2005
  • Background: Gene therapy is a new and promising option for the treatment of severe myocardial ischemia by therapeutic angiogenesis. The goal of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis by using VEGF165 in large animals. Material and Method: Twenty-one pigs that underwent ligation of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: intramyocardial injection of pCK-VEGF (VEGF) or intramyocardial injection of pCK-Null (Control). Injections were administered 30 days after ligation. Seven pigs died during the trial, but eight pigs from VEGF and six from Control survived. Echo-cardiography was performed on day 0 (preoperative) and on days 30 and 60 following coronary ligation. Gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography imaging (SPECT) with $^{99m}Tc-labeled$ sestamibi was performed on days 30 and 60. Myocardial perfusion was assessed from the uptake of $^{99m}Tc-labeled$ sestamibi at rest. Global and regional myocardial function as well as post-infarction left ventricular remodeling were assessed from segmental wall thickening; left ventricular ejection fraction (EF); end systolic volume (ESV); and end diastolic volume (EDV) using gated SPECT and echocardiography. Myocardium of the ischemic border zone into which pCK plasmid vector had been injected was also sampled to assess micro-capillary density. Result: Micro-capillary density was significantly higher in the VEGF than in Control ($386\pm110/mm^{2}\;vs.\;291\pm127/mm^{2};\;p<0.001$). Segmental perfusion increased significantly from day 30 to day 60 after intramyocardial injection of plasmid vector in VEGF ($48.4\pm15.2\%\;vs.\;53.8\pm19.6\%;\;p<0.001$), while no significant change was observed in the Control ($45.1\pm17.0\%\;vs.\;43.4\pm17.7\%;\;p=0.186$). This resulted in a significant difference in the percentage changes between the two groups ($11.4\pm27.0\%\;increase\;vs.\;2.7\pm19.0\%\;decrease;\;p=0.003$). Segmental wall thickening increased significantly from day 30 to day 60 in both groups; the increments did not differ between groups. ESV measured using echocardiography increased significantly from day 0 to day 30 in VEGF ($22.9\pm9.9\;mL\;vs.\;32.3\pm9.1\;mL;\; p=0.006$) and in Control ($26.3\pm12.0\;mL\;vs.\;36.8\pm9.7\;mL;\;p=0.046$). EF decreased significantly in VEGF ($52.0\pm7.7\%\;vs.\;46.5\pm7.4\%;\;p=0.004$) and in Control ($48.2\pm9.2\%\;vs.\;41.6\pm10.0\%;\;p=0.028$). There was no significant change in EDV. The interval changes (days $30\~60$) of EF, ESV, and EDV did not differ significantly between groups both by gated SPECT and by echocardiography. Conclusion: Intramyocardial injection of pCK-VEGF165 induced therapeutic angiogenesis and improved myocardial perfusion. However, post-infarction remodeling and global myocardial function were not improved.

Evaluation of Hemodynamic Failure with Acetazolamide Challenged $^{123}I-IMP$ Brain SEPCT and PET (PET과 Acetazolamide 부하 $^{123}I-IMP$ 뇌혈류 SPECT를 이용한 혈역학적 부전의 평가)

  • Chun, Kyung-Ah;Cho, In-Ho;Won, Kyu-Jang;Lee, Hyung-Woo;Hayashida, Kohei
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.94-102
    • /
    • 2003
  • Purpose : Cerebral blood flow (CBF) reactivity to acetazolamide (ACZ) is useful to select patients with hemodynamic failure. However, it is still a matter of speculation that varying degrees of regional CBF increases after ACZ administration represent the severity or stage of regional hemodynamic failure as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). We studied to elucidate whether ACZ challenge $^{123}I-IMP$ brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT) can accurately grade the seventy of regional hemodynamic failure. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (M: 16, F: 2, average age: 61 years) with unilateral occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery or the trunk of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Patients undewent $^{123}I-IMP$ brain SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge and PET study was carried out within 2 weeks before and after SPECT study. Five healthy volunteers with a mean age of 48 years (range: 28-73 yr, M: 3, F: 2) underwent PET studies to determine normal values. In SPECT study, an asymmetry index (Al)-the percentage of radioactivity of region of interest (ROI) in the occlusive cerebrovascular lesion to the contralateral homologous ROI-was used for numerical evaluation of relative $^{123}I-IMP$ distribution. In PET study, regional CBF, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ($CMRO_2$) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were measured with $^{15}O-labeled$ gas inhalation method and the values were used for comparison with Al (Al during acetazolamide challenge-Al of basal study) on the SPECT study. ROls were classified by severity into three groups (normal, stage I and stage II). Results: Mean values of Al in areas with normal, stage I and stage II hemodynamic failure were $6.25{\pm}7.77%\;(n=107),\;-10.38{\pm}10.41%\:(n=117)\;and\;13.30{\pm}10.51%\;(n=140)$, respectively. Al significantly differed with each groups (p<0.05). Correlation between Al and CBF, OEF and CBV/CBF in hemisphere with occlusive cerebrovascular lesion was 0.20 (p<0.01), -0.28 (p<0.01) and -0.28 (p<0.01), respectively. Conclusion: We concluded that $^{123}I-IMP$ brain SPECT with acetazolamide challenge could determine the severity ad stage of regional hemodynamic failure as assessed by PET.

Studies on the Effect of Fiber Reinforcing upon Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Crack Mode of Reinforoed Concrete (섬유보강이 콘크리트의 역학적 특성과 철근콘크리트의 균열성상에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 박승범
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.4645-4687
    • /
    • 1978
  • This study was attempted to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete and crack control effects of reinforced concrete with steel and glass fiber. The experimental program includes tests on the properties of fresh concrete containing fibers, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Shrinkage and deformation of steel or glass fiber reinforced concrete. Also this study was carried out to investigate the effect of steel or glass fiber to retard the development in reinforced concrete subject to uniaxial tension and thus facilitate the use of steels of higher strength. The major conclusions that can be drawn from the studies are as follows: 1. The effect of the fibers in various mixes on fresh concrete confirmed that fibers do have a significant effect on the properties of fresh concrete, bringing much more stable and exhibiting a signiflcant reduction in surface bleeding, and that the cohesion is greatly improved and the internal resistance increases with fiber concentration. But the addition of an excess contents and length of fibers brings about the reduction of workability. 2. With the addition of steel fibers(1.5% Vol.) to concrete, the compressive strength as compared with plain concrete showed a very slight increase, but excess addition, over 1.5% Vol. of steel and glass fiber reduced its strength. 3. Splitting tensile strength of fiber reinforced concrete showed a significant increase tendency, as compared with plain concrete. In case of containing steel fiber (2.5%, 30mm), it showed that the maximum increase rate of 1.48 times as much rate, and in case of containing glass fiber (2.5%, 30mm), the increase rate of strength was 1.25 times as much rate. 4. Flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete showed a significant tendency, as compared with plain concrete. Containing steel fiber (2.5%, 30mm) showed the maximum increase rate of 1.64 times as much rate and containing glass fiber (2.5%, 30mm) showed the increase rate of strength of 1.32 times as much rate, and in general, the 30mm length brougth the best results. 5. The strength ratio ($\sigma$b/$\sigma$c and $\sigma$t/$\sigma$c) increased, when steel fiber's average spacing was up to 3.05mm, but decreased when beyond 3.05mm, and it was confirmed that tensile or flexural strengths of steel fiber reinforced concrete are apparently governed by fiber's average spacing. 6. The compressive strain of fiber reinforced concrete showed a significant increasing tendency as the fiber was added, but Young's modulus. with the addition of steel and glass fibers, showed a slight decrease tendency. And according to the increase of flexural strength, a considerable increase was seen in toughness. 7. With the addition of fiber's the shrinkage of concrete was significantly decreased, in both case of adding steel fibers 12.5%, 30mm, and showed a significant decrease ratio, in average 30.4% and 36.7%, as compared with plain concrete. 8. With the increase of fiber volume fraction and length, the gained stress in reinforcing bar in concrete specimens increased in all crack widths, but at different rates, with the decrease of fiber diameter, the stress showed a considerable increasing tendency. And the duoform steel fibers showed the greatest improvement, as compared with the other types tested. 9. The influence of fiber dimensions in order of significanse on the machanical properties of concrete and the crack control of reinforced concrete was explained as follows: content, length, aspect ratio and dimeter.

  • PDF

The Prognostic Factors Affecting Survival in Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy (방사선치료를 받은 근 침윤성 방광암의 예후 인자)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Oh Bong-Ryoul;Ahn Sung Ja;Nah Byung Sik;Kwon Dong-Deuk;Park Kwangsung;Ryu Soo-Bang;Park Yang-IL
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.130-138
    • /
    • 2002
  • Purpose : This study analyzed the prognostic factors affecting the survival rate and evaluated the role of radiation therapy in muscle-invading bladder cancer. Materials and Methods : Twenty eight patients with bladder cancer who completed planned definitive radiotherapy in the Departments of Therapeutic Radiology and Urology, Chonnam National University Hospital between Jan. 1986 to Dec. 1998 were retrospectively analyzed. The reviews were peformed based on the patients' medical records. There were 21 males and 7 females in this study. The median of age was 72 years old ranging from 49 to 84 years. All patients were confirmed as having transitional cell carcinoma with histological grade 1 in one patient, grade 2 in 15, grade 3 in 9, and uninformed in 3. Radiation therapy was peformed using a linear accelerator with 6 or 10 MV X-rays. Radiation was delivered daily with a 1.8 or 2.0 Gy fraction size by 4 ports (anterior-posterior, both lateral, alternatively) or 3 ports (Anterior and both lateral). The median radiation dose delivered to the isocenter of the target volume was 61.24 Gy ranging from 59 to 66.6 Gy. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was peformed on the prognostic factors affecting the survival rate. Results : The survival rate was $76\%,\;46\%,\;33\%,\;33\%$ at 1, 2, 3, 5 years, respectively, with 19 months of median survival. The potential factors of age (less than 70 years vs above 70), sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hydronephrosis, 1-stage (T3a vs T3b), TUR, chemotherapy, total duration of radiotherapy, radiation dose (less than 60 Gy vs above 60 Gy), and the treatment response were investigated with uniand multivariate analysis. Un univariate analysis, the T-stage (p=0.078) and radiation dose (p=0.051) were marginally significant, and the treatment response (p=0.011) was a statistically significant factor on the survival rate. Multivariate analysis showed there were no significant prognostic factors affecting the survival rate. Conclusion : The treatment response and radiation dose are suggested as th은 statistically significant factors affecting the survival rate of muscle invasive bladder cancer. A Further prospective randomized study is needed to confirm these prognostic factors.

Pharmacokinetic Study of Pyrazinamide Related to the Mechanism of the Renal Excretion (Pyrazinamide의 신배설기전에 관한 약동학적 연구)

  • Choi, Eung-Sang;Shin, Sang-Goo;Lee, Sun-Hee;Choi, Cheol-Hee;Kim, Yong-Sik;Lim, Jung-Kyoo;Park, Chan-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 1987
  • The renal handling and tissue distribution of pyrazinamide were studied after administration of single dose intravenous injection for 15 min or constant infusion in New Zealand White rabbits. Peak pyrazinamide serum concentration ranged from 57.3 to $105.0{\mu}g/ml$ ($mean{\pm}SD;83.0{\pm}17.8$). The mean half-life of the a phase was $0.143{\pm}0.047$ hr while the ${\beta}$ phase ranged from 1.66 to 3.25 hr($mean{\pm}SD;2.38{\pm}0.57$). The mean steady-state volume of distribution in non-compartmental model was $0.935{\pm}0.362\;L/kg$ Excretion ratio of pyrazinamide was dramatically reduced from 1.02 to 0.30 when unbound serum pyrazinamide concentration was increased from 6.04 to $60.9\;{\mu}g/ml$. The urine flow dependency of renal clearance of pyrazinamide was demonstrated in steady-state serum concentration. The tissue/serum concentration ratio of pyrazinamide was highest in kidney and lowest in skeletal muscle among the tissues examined. The results suggested that a large fraction of pyrazinamide filtered by glomerulus and secreted by renal tubule was reabsorbed and this tubular reabsorption of pyrazinamide might be greatly influenced by urine flow.

  • PDF

Similarities of Scaritoxin to Ciguatoxin on the Chromatographic Behaviours (Scaritoxin과 Ciguatoxin의 크로마토그라피상에서의 몇가지 유사성)

  • Joh, Yong-Goe;Scheuer, Paul J.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.121-127
    • /
    • 1985
  • In studying the structural work on ciguatoxin, parrot fish collected were identified as Scarus sordidus, S. frenatus, S. scaber and S. pectarlis, in which only S. sordidus contained toxic materials. Crude toxins obtained by silicic acid column chromatography, could be separated on a DEAE-cellulose column into two fractions, ST-1(less polar) and ST-2(polar) eluted with chloroform and chloroform-methanol(1:1). Furthermore ST-1 could be changed into ST-2 by repeated chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Rf values of ST-1 and ST-2 were 0.60-0.75 and 0.30-0.54 on TLC coated with silica gel 60F-254 developed by chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (90:9.5:0.2:0.3) mixture. The peaks of ST-1 and ST-2 were not observed on each HPLC chromatogram at low sensitivity(2X), but by bioassay they were detected in the fraction of 24-27ml(less polar toxin, 120ng) and 22-27 ml (polar toxin, 150 ng). Less polar ciguatoxin from morey eel viscera also showed its peak in the same elution volume(25ml). Being subjected to chromatography on basic aluminum oxide (activity grade I) or to alkaline treatment, followed by basic aluminum oxide (activity grade I) chromatography ST-1 toxin was remarkably converted into the polar toxic component supposed to be polar ciguatoxin in both cases. In the latter case, approximately 74% of the residual toxicity was changed into the polar component, accompanied by about 50% loss of the initial toxicity. More than 26% of ST-2 toxicity was transformed into the less polar toxic component supposed to be less polar ciguatoxin on a deactivated aluminum oxide (activity grade V) column.

  • PDF

A Study on the Measurement of the Dimensionless Light Extinction Constant for Particulate Matter from Fuel Oil for Marine and Land Diesel Engines (선박 및 육상 디젤 엔진용 연료유에서 발생하는 입자상물질에 대한 무차원 광소멸계수 계측에 관한 연구)

  • Rho, Beom-Seok;Choi, Jae-Hyuk;Cho, Kwon-Hae;Park, Seul-Hyun;Lee, Won-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.275-281
    • /
    • 2018
  • It is known that he pollutant emitted from the combustion process of marine fuel oil causes air pollution and harmful effects to the human body. Accordingly, IMO regulates pollutants emitted from ships. However, the regulation of Particulate Matter (PM) is still in the process of debate, so preemptive action is needed. Fundamental research on PM is essential. In this study, the Dimensionless Light Extinction Constant ($K_e$) of fuel oil used in marine diesel engines was measured and analyzed to construct the basic data of the PM generated from marine-based fuel oil. The fuel oil used in the land diesel engine was measured in the same way for character comparison. Both fuel oils differ in sulfur content and density. The $K_e$ was measured via the optical method using a 633 nm laser and was determined by using the volume fraction of PM collected by the gravimetric filter method. The $K_e$ of the PM discharged from marine fuel oil is 8.28, and the land fuel oil is 8.44. The $K_e$ of two fuel oils was similar within the measurement uncertainty range. However, it was found by comparison with the value obtained by the Rayleigh-Limit solution that the light scattering portion could be large. Also, it was found that light extinction characteristics could be different due to the relationship between light transmittance and collected mass.

Studies on the Effects of Amylase Addition to Rice Extrusion on the Rheological Properties of the Extrudate for Weaning Food Base (압출조리를 이용한 쌀 이유식 제조에서 아밀라제 첨가가 물성변화에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Gang-Gweon;Kim, Ji-Yong;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.26 no.6
    • /
    • pp.670-678
    • /
    • 1994
  • The effects of amylase addition during extrusion cooking of rice on the physico-chemical properties of the extrudates were investigated in order to develop rice-based Korean style weaning food products. A laboratory-built single screw extruder was used, the enzymes used were Termamyl 120LS(amylase from Bacillus licheniformis, NOVO Co.), BAN 240L(amylase from Bacillus amylolichuefaciens, NOVO Co.) and malt powder. By the addition of enzymes, the water soluble index of the extrudates increased by 3 times compared to that of the extrudates without enzyme and the concentration of reducing sugar in the extrudates increased drastically at 28 feed moisture. The gel permeation chromatographic pattern showed that the large molecular starch fractions diminished by the addition of enzyme during extrusion and the low molecular fraction increased. The residual enzyme activity in the extrudate were 27% for the most thermo-resistance enzyme by treating at $140^{\circ}C$ in the metering section of the extruder. The sediment volume of the extrudate dispersion increased as the metering section temperature increased to $140^{\circ}C$ . By the addition of enzymes the viscosity of extrudate dispersion was redused $1/4{\sim}1/200$ of that of the extrudates without enzyme. It allowed to use 1.8 times of solid material to the weaning food formulation to attain the same level of consistency as the commercial products. It proves that the addition of amylase during rice extrusion is effective to increase the energy density of weaning food by starch degradation, which results in the increases of water solubility, reducing sugar content, dispersibility and fluidability.

  • PDF