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Warmed-over flavour의 발생 방지를 위한 여러 가지 시도

  • Lee, Ok-Sun
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.132-139
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    • 1995
  • 이미 조리된 상태의 냉동 즉석 육제품의 수요가 연회부문에서나 소매부문에서 모두 증가될 것으로 전망된다. 이러한 제품들에 있어 warmed-over flavour(WOF)의 발생속도는 종종 그 제품들의 저장수명을 결정하기도 한다. WOF는 소비자들에게 '뒷맛' 또는 산패된 맛으로 인식되는 것으로서, 조리된 육류를 냉장저장할 때 쉽게 발생되며 육류의 산화적 변패와 연관이 되어 있다. 몇가지 시도들이 그러한 WOF의 발생을 지연시키는 데 응용될 수 있다. 이 보문의 목적은 어떻게 하면 WOF의 발생을 지연시킬 수 있는가에 있으며, 산화방지제의 사용이나 가공 조건의 최적화에 그 강조점을 두고 있다.

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Inhibition of Warmed-Over Flavor (WOF) and 7-Ketocholesterol in Refrigerated Precooked Pork Patties containing Commercial ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol and ${\alpha}$-Tocopherol (상업적 ${\gamma}$-Oryzanol 과 ${\alpha}$-Tocopherol 첨가에 따른 냉장 조리 돼지고기의 Warmed-over flcvor(WOF)와 7-Ketocholesterol 제어 효과)

  • Kim, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 2008
  • The oxidative stability of refrigerated precooked pork patties containing commercial ${\gamma}$-oryzanoland ${\alpha}$-tocopherol was evaluated. Precooked pork patties containing either ${\gamma}$-oryzanolor ${\alpha}$-tocopherol showed higher oxidative stability (p<0.05) during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ than did the precooked pork patties without the additives (control). The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) values and warmed-over flavor (WOF) of the precooked pork patties containing ${\gamma}$-oryzanolor ${\alpha}$-tocopherol were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control during refrigerated storage (0, 1, 4, and 8 days). The correlation between TBARs and WOF values was significant (p<0.05). 7-Ketocholesterol content was lower (p<0.05) than those of the control during refrigerated storage (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 days). The correlation between TBARs values and 7-ketocholesterol content was also significant (p<0.05).

Evaluation of Flexural Properties of Indirect Gum-Shade Composite Resin for Esthetic Improvement (심미성 향상을 위한 간접수복용 Gum-Shade 복합레진의 굽힘 특성 평가)

  • Im, Yong-Woon;Hwang, Seong-Sig
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.407-412
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated flexural properties of indirect Gum-shade composite resins for esthetic improvement. The material utilized in this study was Crea.lign, Twiny flow and Twiny paste (TP). Ten specimens were fabricated with a dimension of $25{\times}2{\times}2mm$ according to the ISO 4049. After fabrications, specimens were stored in the distilled water for 24 hours at the temperature of $37^{\circ}C$. Three-point bending test was performed in universal testing machine (Instron 3344; Instron, USA) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until the failure occurred. TP exhibited a higher flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (FM) compared to the flowable materials. There were significant differences among the three materials in FS and FM. However, there was no significant difference in work of fracture (WOF) in all tested materials (p>0.05). In Weibull analysis, TP showed the greatest Weibull modulus which means a higher reliability of the materials. Also, Gum-shade composite resins revealed a strong correlation in all flexural properties. There was a positive correlation in FS-FM ($r^2=0.99$) and a negative correlation between FS-WOF and FM-WOF ($r^2>0.97$). Therefore, this confirmed that flexural property was important for mechanical behavior evaluation and useful information. To addition, this improved among mechanical properties correlation of materials as important factor.

Population structure and habitat use of gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) in Wof-Washa Forest (Gosh-Meda Area), Central Ethiopia

  • Goshme, Birhanu;Yihune, Mesele
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.292-297
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    • 2018
  • Background: Gelada baboon is one of the endemic mammals of Ethiopia residing in different highlands. The population structure and habitat use of gelada baboon in Wof-Washa particularly Gosh Meda area was investigated from September 2016 to August 2017. Total counting method was used to collect data on the population status by dividing the study area in to four blocks, namely, Kundi, Arbgebeya, Goshber, and Goshmeda. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The age-sex category and the numbers of geladas found within the different blocks were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and paired t test was also used to analyze the pair wise comparison of the different age and sex categories during both dry and wet seasons. Results: A total of 435 and 471 gelada baboons were counted during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The maximum group size consisted of 178 individuals whereas the minimum group size contained 53 individuals. Out of the total population adult females accounted for 54.7% in the wet and 54.56% in the dry seasons. There was a significant difference among the age-sex categories in both the wet ($F_{2432}=630$, P < 0.05) and dry ($F_{2468}=696.6$, P < 0.05) seasons. The male to female ratio was 1:5.7 during wet season and 1:5.8 during dry season. So that the population will have a better chance to increase in the study area. Conclusion: Wof-Washa Forest could be a good site for eco-tourism activities due to the presence of endemic animals and its scenic beauty. However, the quality of the habitat is decreasing due to livestock grazing, agricultural expansion, and invasion of exotic plants species. Therefore, appropriate conservation measures should be implemented to conserve gelada baboon in particular and other wildlife resources in general.

Feasibility Mapping of Groundwater Yield Characteristics using Weight of Evidence Technique based on GIS in the Pocheon Area (GIS 기반 Weight of Evidence 기법을 이용한 포천 지역의 지하수 산출특성 예측도 작성)

  • Heo Seon-Hee;Lee Kiwon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.493-503
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the weight of evidence(WofE) technique based on GIS was applied to spatially estimate the groundwater yield characteristics at the Pocheon area In Gyunggi-do. The groundwater preservation depends on many hydro-geologic factors that include hydrologic data, land-use data, topographic data, geological map and other natural materials collected at the site, even with man-made things. All these data can be digitally processed and managed by GIS database. In the applied technique of WofE, the prior probabilities were estimated as the factors that affect the yield on lineament, geology, drainage pattern or river system density, landuse and soil. We calculated the value of the weight values, W+ and W-, of each factor and estimated the contrast value of it. Results by the groundwater yield characteristic computation using this scheme were presented feasibility map in the form of the posterior probability to the consideration of in-situ samples. It is concluded that this technique is regarded as one of the effective techniques for the feasibility mapping related to the estimation of groundwater-bearing potential zones and its spatial pattern.

Modified Direct-Sampling GLC Method to Study Warmed-Over Flavor Related Volatiles (휘발성(揮發性) Warmed-Over Flavor의 연구(硏究)를 위한 변형(變形)된 Direct Sampling GLC법(法))

  • Shin-Lee, Seung-Yee;Rhee, Chong-Ouk
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.562-568
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    • 1990
  • The modified direct GLC method was evaluated for analysis of volatile compounds associated with WOF of cooked meat. This modified method was pertaining to collection of volatiles from the samples that contain quantities of water. The modification was appropriate for the studies of low molecular weight saturated aldehydes (C5-C15), unsaturated aldehydes (C5-C9), and saturated alcohols (C5-C9).

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The Effect of Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) on Inhibition of Lipid Oxidation in Cooked-Ground Pork during Storage (파프리카 첨가가 분쇄조리돈육 저장 중 지방산화억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Kim, Chang-Soon;Kim, Hyuk-Il
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.626-634
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated the effects of 3% ground fresh paprika (FP) and 5% freeze-dried paprika powder (FDP) on lipid oxidation inhibition and warmed-over flavor (WOF) development in cooked ground pork (CGP; meat:fat = 70:30), using two packaging methods (atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging) during 8 days at $4^{\circ}C$ and 4 months at $-26^{\circ}C$. In the CGP containing FP with atmosphere packaging, at both $4^{\circ}C\;and\;-26^{\circ}C$, peroxide formation increased sharply, and was similar to that of the CGP without paprika. Peroxide formation, in both the CGP without paprika and with FP and packaged with vacuum packaging, repectively, was much lower than that found with atmosphere packaging. Vacuum packaging was superior to atmosphere packaging for lipid oxidation inhibition. In the CGP containing FP with vacuum packaging and stored at $-26^{\circ}C$, peroxide formation almost didn't occur, which was similar to the CGP containing FDP. The peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value did not increase in the CGP containing FDP over the storage periods ($4^{\circ}C\;and\;-26^{\circ}C$) for both the atmosphere and vacuum packaging. Therefore, FDP was the most effective for lipid oxidation inhibition during refrigerated storage, regardless of the packaging method. Both FP and FDP with vacuum packaging during frozen storage showed similar antioxidant activities. The development of WOF in the CGP containing FDP with vacuum packaging was delayed until 7 days at $4^{\circ}C$ and 3 months at $-26^{\circ}C$, respectively. WOF was highly correlated with TBA value in the CGP stored at $-26^{\circ}C$ with vacuum packaging (r = 0.88, p<0.05). The oxidative stability of the lipid in the CGP containing FDP with vacuum packaging was excellent.

Effect of Doenjang (Korean Fermented Soybean Paste) on Lipid Oxidation and Cooking Properties of Pork Patties

  • Oh, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Chang-Soon
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1138-1144
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the cooking properties and lipid oxidation stability during storage at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ when the various levels (5 to 20%) of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste) were added to pork patties cooked by pan frying (PF) and convection oven (CO). With increasing the addition of doenjang, cooking properties of pork patties revealed the improved cooking yield, less diameter reduction, and less thickness increase. Also, the shear force, hardness, and chewiness of pork patties were reduced. The PF cooking method showed better cooking properties than CO. Lipid oxidation expressed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values was significantly reduced by the addition of more than 5% doenjang (p<0.05). The TBARS values of cooked pork patties by PF were significantly lower than CO during the 8 days of the storage (p<0.05). The development of warmed-over flavor (WOF) in cooked pork patties was delayed as the amount of the doenjang was increased. It was suggested that the addition of doenjang and PF favorably affected the cooking properties and stability of lipid oxidation in pork patties.

Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef

  • Cheng, Jen-Hua;Ockerman, Herbert W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.282-286
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    • 2013
  • Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. The results show that there was no significant difference between chemical compositions and cooking yields when comparing non-electrically stimulated and electrically stimulated roast beef. Moreover, electrical stimulation had no significant effect on oxidative stability and off-flavor problems of precooked roast beef as evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory test (warmed-over aroma and warmed-over flavor). However, there was an increased undesirable WOF and a decrease in tenderness for both ES and Non-ES treatments over refrigerated storage time. Electrical stimulation did cause reactions of amino acids or other compounds to decrease the desirable beef flavor in re-cooked meat.

Halogen-based Inductive Coupled Plasma에서의 W 식각시 첨가 가스의 효과에 관한 연구

  • 박상덕;이영준;염근영;김상갑;최희환;홍문표
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2003
  • 텅스텐(W)은 높은 thermal stability 와 process compatibility 및 우수한 corrosion r resistance 둥으로 integrated circuit (IC)의 gate 및 interconnection 둥으로의 활용이 대두되고 있으며, 차세대 thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD)의 gate 및 interconnection m materials 둥으로 사용되고 았다. 그러나, 이러한 장점을 가지고 있는 팅스텐 박막이 실제 공정상에 적용되가 위해서는 건식 식각이 주로 사용되는데, 이는 wet chemical 을 이용한 습식 식각을 사용할 경우 낮은 etch rate, line width 의 감소 및 postetch residue 잔류 동의 문제가 발생하기 때문이다. 또한 W interconnection etching 을 하기 위해서는 높은 텅스텐 박막의 etch rate 과 하부 layer ( (amorphous silicon 또는 poly-SD와의 높은 etch selectivity 가 필수적 이 라 할 수 있다. 그러 나, 지금까지 연구되어온 결과에 따르면 텅스탠과 하부 layer 와의 etch selectivity 는 2 이하로 매우 낮게 관찰되고 았으며, 텅스텐의 etch rate 또한 150nm/min 이하로 낮은 값을 나타내고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 halogen-based inductively coupled plasma 를 이용하여 텅스텐 박막 식각시 여러 가지 첨가 가스에 따른 높은 텅스탠 박막의 etch rate 과 하부 layer 와의 높은 etch s selectivity 를 얻고자 하였으며, 그에 따른 식각 메커니즘에 대하여 알아보고자 하였다. $CF_4/Cl_2$ gas chemistry 에 첨 가 가스로 $N_2$와 Ar을 첨 가할 경 우 텅 스텐 박막과 하부 layer 간의 etch selectivity 증가는 관찰되지 않았으며, 반면에 첨가 가스로 $O_2$를 사용할 경우, $O_2$의 첨가량이 증가함에 따라 etch s selectivity 는 계속적으로 증가렴을 관찰할 수 있었다. 이는 $O_2$ 첨가에 따라 형성되는 WOF4 에 의한 텅스텐의 etch rates 의 감소에 비하여, $Si0_2$ 등의 형성에 의한 poly-Si etch rates 이 더욱 크게 감소하였기 때문으로 사료된다. W 과 poly-Si 의 식각 특성을 이해하기 위하여 X -ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)를 사용하였으며, 식각 전후의 etch depth 를 측정하기 위하여 stylus p pmfilometeT 를 이용하였다.

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