• Title, Summary, Keyword: Waist circumference(WC)

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Abdominal Obesity as a Risk Factor of Ischemic Stroke in Case-control study (복부비만과 허혈성 뇌졸중)

  • Yim, Hee-Sun;Ko, Seong-Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.25-36
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    • 2002
  • Objective: The purposes of this study are to know the relations of abdominal obesity and ischemic stroke and to know what index could represent the abdominal obesity appropriately. Methods. We have done case-control study and recruited 97 ischemic stroke patients and 117 controls. Case is matched by control by individual matching. All participants had questionnaire, interview and then were examined waist-hip ratio, waist circumference and body mass index. Results : WC, WHR and Hypertension history had differences in two groups, case and control groups. But BMI and other factors weren't significant. According to Quartile of Waist Circumference, the two groups had the differences in hypertension history, diabetes history, smoking status, WHR, BMI, and weight and in the Quartile of Waist-Hip Ratio Quartile, past history of hypertension and diabetes, WC, BMI and weight had the significances. Sex, Age Adjusted and Multivariate Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) of WC Quartile are 2.083, 1.628, 4.491 and 4.418, 4.964, 12.306, and in WHR, the Ors are 2.252, 5.743, 15.776 and 2.632, 8.918, 23.596. Conclusions: We knew from these results that abdominal obesity is very important risk factor of ischemic stroke and WHR more than WC is a good indicator of abdominal obesity, so we should reduce the WHR to prevent of ischemic stroke.

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The association of blood pressure with body mass index and waist circumference in normal weight and overweight adolescents

  • Song, Young-Hwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Overweight can be defined by the body mass index (BMI) and is likely associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, waist circumference (WC), a central adiposity index, may be a better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. Studies comparing the effects of BMI and WC on cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure (BP), are rare in adolescents. Methods: We analyzed the correlations of BMI and WC with BP in 3,363 Korean adolescents (aged 10-19 years), using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2009-2011). Results: Systolic BP (SBP) in both sexes and diastolic BP (DBP) in boys were higher in the high BMI (>85th percentile) and high WC (>90th percentile) groups. High BMI and high WC were positively correlated with high SBP (>90th percentile) in both sexes, and high DBP (>90th percentile), in boys. BMI maintained its positive associations with SBP, DBP, high SBP, and high DBP in the normal weight ($BMI{\leq}85th$ percentile) and overweight (BMI>85th percentile) groups in both boys and girls, as well as in all subjects of both sexes, even after adjustment for WC. However, WC did not correlate with SBP, DBP, high SBP, or high DBP after adjustment for BMI in any group in either sex. Conclusion: In Korean adolescents, BMI correlated better with BP and high BP levels than WC. Further, BMI was positively associated with BP and high BP in the normal weight group as well as in the overweight group.

The Comparison of Waist Circumference, Waist to Hip Ratio and Body Mass Index in Female College Students (여대생의 허리둘레, 허리둔부 둘레비와 체질량지수 비고)

  • Paek, Kyung-Shin;Chaung, Seung-Kyo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) corresponding to body mass index (BMI) of $25kg/m^2$ and to survey the prevalence of hypertension according to obesity in female college students. Method: Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure were measured for each of 286 female college students in J City, Chungbuk. Results: The subjects' mean BMI was $21.4kg/m^2$, and the estimated prevalence of obesity was 11.2%. The subjects, the 80th-90th percentile of whom had BMI exceeding $25kg/m^2$, were found to have WC of 75-78.1 cm and WHR of 0.79-0.80, respectively. Of the subjects with obesity($BMI{\geq}25kg/m^2$), 53.1% exhibited abdominal obesity ($WC{\geq}80cm$) and 40.6% had WHR over 0.80. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were correlated with BMI, WC, and WHR. The prevalence rate of hypertension in subjects with obesity($BMI{\geq}25kg/m^2$) was 25%. Additionally, the prevalence rate of hypertension in subjects with abdominal obesity ($WC{\geq}80cm$) was 39.1%. Conclusions: Our study indicates that WC corresponding to BMI of $25kg/m^2$ in female subjects in their twenties is different from that of adult women. We also found that the prevalence rate of hypertension in subjects with abdominal obesity was high. Therefore. we suggest further studies to determine the cutoff value of WC for evaluating abdominal obesity and to investigate the long-term effects of obesity on women in their twenties.

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Association of Waist Circumference with Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Diseases in Women Patients with Chest Pain (흉통을 호소하는 여성 환자에서 허리둘레와 관상동맥질환 위험인자간의 관계에 관한 조사연구)

  • Yun, Kyung Soon;Cho, Sook-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.248-258
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with coronary artery diseases (CAD) in women patients with chest pain. Method: BMI, WC, and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) were measured for 162 women patients with chest pain whose mean age was $54.9{\pm}9.2$ years. CAD was diagnosed by coronary angiography. Results: In comparing BMI and WC, WC was found to be more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. For example, correlations with the high density lipoprotein cholesterol were r=-.266, p=.001 (WC) vs. r=-.131, p=.104 (BMI), and for homocystein, r=.378, p<.001 (WC) vs. r=.150, p=.068 (BMI). Obstructive CAD develops more frequently in women patients with abdominal obesity than in patients without abdominal obesity. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that WC is a better index of adiposity than BMI.

Relationship between Serum Uric Acid, Abdominal Obesity, and Waist Circumference in Korean

  • Park, Kap-Tae;Kim, In-Sik;Yoo, Se-Cheol;Yoon, Jin-Seok;Ahn, Tae-Ho;Lee, Jung-Hwa;Hyun, Sung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the association between serum uric acid, abdominal obesity, and waist circumference (WC) in Korean. A total of 208 healthy examinees were examined at Gimcheon Medical Center from July 2011 to December 2011. WC and body mass index (BMI) of subjects were measured as well as blood pressure, fasting blood sugar level, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides, and serum uric acid (SUA). In both men (p<0.05) and women (p<0.01), BMI and SUA were significantly correlated with WC. In men, triglycerides (r=0.501, p<0.01) had a positive correlation with WC, and CRP (r=0.442, p<0.01) had a positive correlation with BMI. In women, triglycerides (r=0.470, p<0.01) and CRP (r=0.366, p<0.01) had a positive correlation with WC. Therefore, WC and SUA may be the most effective anthropometric indices of obesity for screening Korean population.

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Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk

  • Yoo, Eun-Gyong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.11
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    • pp.425-431
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    • 2016
  • The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), calculated by dividing the waist circumference (WC) by height, has recently gained attention as an anthropometric index for central adiposity. It is an easy-to-use and less age-dependent index to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. A WHtR cutoff of 0.5 can be used in different sex and ethnic groups and is generally accepted as a universal cutoff for central obesity in children (aged ${\geq}6$ years) and adults. However, the WHtR has not been validated in preschool children, and the routine use of WHtR in children under age 6 is not recommended. Prospective studies and meta-analysis in adults revealed that the WHtR is equivalent to or slightly better than WC and superior to body mass index (BMI) in predicting higher cardiometabolic risk. In children and adolescents, studies have shown that the WHtR is similar to both BMI and WC in identifying those at an increased cardiometabolic risk. Additional use of WHtR with BMI or WC may be helpful because WHtR considers both height and central obesity. WHtR may be preferred because of its simplicity and because it does not require sex- and age-dependent cutoffs; additionally, the simple message 'keep your WC to less than half your height' may be particularly useful. This review article summarizes recent publications on the usefulness of using WHtR especially when compared to BMI and WC as a screening tool for obesity and related cardiometabolic risks, and recommends the use of WHtR in clinical practice for obesity screening in children and adolescents.

Obesity related Factors in Middle Aged Women: Comparison of Body Mass Index and/or Waist Circumference as Measures of Obesity (지역사회 중년여성의 특성 및 건강행위 실천과 비만: 비만 지표에 따른 비교)

  • Kim, Gwang-Suk;Kim, Eun-Gyeong;Lee, Chung-Yul;You, Mi-Ae;Klm, Bong-Jeong;Park, So-Hyun;Lee, Soon-Nam;Klm, Jeong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.273-284
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The study examined obesity conditions and related factors in middle aged Korean women who had been diagnosed as obese based body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) measurement. Presently, BMI alone, WC alone, or BMI + WC were used as obesity measures. Methods: Subjects were 488 women 40~64 years of age living in one city, Korea. Structured questionnaires concerning general characteristics, health behavior practices, and chronic disease history were completed by each subject. Results: The proportions of obesity were 42.4% by BMI, 39.3% by WC, and 51.3% by the combination of both measurements. Chi-square test revealed significant associations of obesity with age, education level, menopausal status, frequency of excessive eating, and history of diabetes mellitus or hypertension. These associations were similar for the three measurement schemes. There was significant positive relationship between BMI and WC, whereas the relationship between BMI and WHR (waist-hip ratio) was not significant. Conclusions: The combination of BMI and WC measurement may be a valid way to evaluate the obesity status in middle-aged women. Developing an obesity management program that includes control of excessive eating, and consideration of menopausal status and history of chronic diseases would be prudent.

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Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Screening Obesity in Young Adult Women (20대 여성의 비만 검진 방법으로서의 체질량지수와 허리둘레)

  • Chaung, Seung-Kyo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify how accurately body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) detect obesity in young adult women. Method: Measurements of height, weight, WC, and percent body fat (% BF) were obtained and bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate body fat in 329 female college students. The sensitivity and specificity to screen obesity by BMI and WC were determined using SPSS. Received operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the appropriate BMI and WC predicting % BF. Results: % BF-defined obesity $(\geq30%)$ had higher prevalence than BMI-defined obesity $(\geq25kg/m^2)$ and WC-defined obesity $(\geq80cm)$. BMI $\geq25kg/m^2$ and WC $\geq80cm$ had high specificity (both, 100%), but low sensitivity (respectively, 13.5% and 22.9%) in detecting % BF-defined obesity. The BMI and WC cutoff values corresponding to % BF-defined obesity were 21.2kg/$m^2$ and 73cm, which were lower than recommended reference values for Korean women. These values decreased specificity but increased sensitivity to detect obesity. The areas under the ROC curve were good (0.84, 0.86) for BMI and WC. Conclusion: BMI and WC have good specificity but miss more than $77\sim86%$ of people with excess fat. Therefore, BMI and WC cutoff values need to be revised and body fat should be considered when screening for obesity in young adult women.

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Anthropometric Characteristics of Korean Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Cho, Jae Hoon;Choi, Ji Ho;Lee, Bora;Mun, Sue-Jean;Bae, Woo Yong;Kim, Sung Wan;Cho, Seok Hyun
    • Journal of Rhinology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.80-85
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    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives: Obesity is one of the most important risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There is limited evidence regarding the obesity-related anthropometric characteristics of Korean patients. Materials and Method: Medical records of 984 patients referred to 3 tertiary referral hospitals for habitual snoring or sleep apnea were analyzed. We defined OSA as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ${\geq}5$ and analyzed data to determine the anthropometric characteristics of patients with OSA such as neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results: A total of 952 patients (719 men) were included in the analysis. The main findings were: 1) BMI, WC, NC, HC, and WHR were greater among patients with OSA than among controls (AHI <5); 2) for both sexes, the proportion of patients with an OSA diagnosis increased with age; it increased steeply for women aged >50 years; 3) WC and WHR were most strongly correlated with AHI for men and women, respectively. Conclusion: OSA is associated with anthropometric characteristics, although different patterns were observed between men and women. OSA was more strongly associated with NC or WC among men and with WHR among women.

General and abdominal obesity and risk of cardiometabolic factors in the community dwelling women (순환대사위험요인의 관련성에서 비만지표인자인 허리둘레와 체질량지수의 비교)

  • Shin, Sohee;So, Wi-Young;Kim, Hyun Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) of community dwelling women based on a combination of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). This cross-sectional study was based on 1,447 subjects between 30 and 60 years of age. Subjects were categorized into 4 groups by BMI and WC [group 1, BMI<$25kg/m^2$ and WC<85 cm; group 2, BMI<$25kg/m^2$ and WC>85 cm; group 3, BMI>$25kg/m^2$ and WC<85 cm; and group 4 (BMI>$25kg/m^2$ and WC>85 cm. Logistic regression analyses showed that subjects in group 2 had 1.75 times increased risk of clustering of 2 or more CRFs compared with subjects in group 1 (p<0.001). In conclusion, early detection of people with normal weight but high waist circumference may prevent them from getting worse by implementation of lifestyle intervention, consisting of regular exercise and healthy eating. In addition, further studies on appropriate exercise contents for them should be examined.