• Title, Summary, Keyword: Waste incineration

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Trace Elements and Source Assessment of Street Dust in Daegu, Korea (대구지역 도로먼지에 함유된 미량원소성분과 오염원 평가)

  • Song, Hee-Bong;Lee, Eun-Young;Do, Hwa-Seok;Jung, Cheol-Su;Shin, Dong-Chan;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Paek, Yoon-Kyoung;Jeon, Seong-Suk;Shin, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.793-800
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    • 2007
  • A total of 48 samples of street dust were collected in Daegu area during April and May 2006, were sieved below 100 ${\mu}m$, and analysed by ICP for the analysis of 14 elements after an acid extraction. Results obtained from the source assessment of trace elements using enrichment factor showed that Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V were influenced by natural sources such as soil and dust, while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were influenced by urban anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion and waste incineration. The measured values were remarkably higher in components from natural sources than in components from urban anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of trace elements in Daegu area were generally higher than in other foreign cities. Samples originated from industrial and commercial areas had higher concentrations of trace elements and pollution indices of heavy metals than those from residential and green areas. The correlation analysis among trace elements indicated that the correlations among components from urban anthropogenic sources were much significant, while those among components from natural sources were less correlated. In addition there were significant correlations between traffic density and components from urban anthropogenic sources.

Identification of Atmospheric PM10 Sources and Estimating Their Contributions to the Yongin-Suwon Bordering Area by Using PMF (PMF모델을 이용한 용인.수원 경계지역에서 PM10 오염원의 확인과 상대적 기여도의 추정)

  • Lee, Hyung-Woo;Lee, Tae-Jung;Yang, Sung-Su;Kim, Dong-Sool
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.439-454
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to extensively identify $PM_{10}$ sources and to estimate their contributions to the study area, based on the analysis of the $PM_{10}$ mass concentration and the associated inorganic elements, ions, and total carbon. The contribution of $PM_{10}$ sources was estimated by applying a receptor method because identifying air emission sources were effective way to control the ambient air quality. $PM_{10}$ particles were collected from May to November 2007 in the Yongin-Suwon bordering area. $PM_{10}$ samples were collected on quartz filters by a $PM_{10}$ high-volume air sampler. The inorganic elements (Al, Mn, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Si, Ba, Ti and Ag) were analyzed by an ICP-AES after proper pre-treatments of each sample. The ionic components of these $PM_{10}$ samples ($Cl^_$, $NO_3^-$, $SO_4^{2-}$, $Na^+$, $NH_4^+$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$) were analyzed by an IC. The carbon components (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, OP, EC1, EC2 and EC3) were also analyzed by DRI/OGC analyzer. Source apportionment of $PM_{10}$ was performed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. After performing PMF modeling, a total of 8 sources were identified and their contribution were estimated. Contributions from each emission source were as follows: 13.8% from oil combustion and industrial related source, 25.4% from soil source, 22.1% from secondary sulfate, 12.3% from secondary nitrate, 17.7% from auto emission including diesel (12.1%) and gasoline (5.6%), 3.1% from waste incineration and 5.6% from Na-rich source. This study provides information on the major sources affecting air quality in the receptor site, and therefore it will help us maintain and manage the ambient air quality in the Yongin-Suwon bordering area by establishing reliable control strategies for the related sources.

Study on Recycling of Incombustion Materials from MSWI Fluidized Bed Incinerator Ash (생활쓰레기 유동상(流動床) 소각로(燒却爐) 불연물(不燃物)의 재활용에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Woo-Zin;Park, Eun-Kyu;Kang, Seung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2008
  • The total amount of fluidized bed incinerator ash, i.e. incombustion materials generated from the municipal solid waste incineration(MSWI) in Korea was approximately 14,000 tons in 2006. Most of the ash after ferrous metal separation is finally discard to the landfill sites. In the present work, possibility for recycling of the ash is studied to utilize the ash as raw materials for ceramic products. Incombustion materials obtained from the two different incinerators were used to recover the raw materials by applying the magnetic separation and screening process to remove metallic particles. The raw materials show relatively low heavy metals content obtained from the KSLP leaching tests. The ceramic products were prepared by mixing the clay with the various amounts of the raw material. The physical properties, i.e. shrinkage rate, absorbancy and compressive strength of the ceramic products sintered at $1,000^{\circ}C$ and $1,050^{\circ}C$, respectively were improved by increasing the addition amounts of the incinerator ash. Based on the leaching tests the ceramic products also be satisfied with the standard limits on the leachability of heavy metals because most of the metallic materials are effectively removed from the incombustion materials by appling the separation processes.

Changes in Rural Health and Environmental Factors (2001-2010) A Comparison between Agricultural and Nonagricultural Groups (농촌 환경ㆍ건강 지표의 변화 추이(2001~2010년) -농촌 거주 농업종사자와 비농업종사자의 비교-)

  • Rhie, Seung Gyo;Hwang, Jeong-Im;Won, Hyang Rye
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2014
  • To verify welfare needs, rural health and environmental factors were compared between agricultural and nonagricultural groups over the past 10 years. Based on a survey of rural life by the Rural Development Administration, whose sample included agricultural (72.8%) and nonagricultural (27.2%) groups, all factors were analyzed using SAS ( 9.3). For rural home heating, the use of oil boilers (77.2%-78.0%) decreased (53.0%-53.7%) over the same period, whereas that of electric boilers increased (21.9% and 13.5% for agricultural and nonagricultural groups, respectively). The joint water- supply increased, and the use of flush toilets (52.4% to 84.5% in the agricultural group and 64.6% to 81.4% in the nonagricultural group) and hot-water bathing was higher in the agricultural group (79% to 92.6%) than in the nonagricultural group (72.2% to 87.6%) at the p<0.001 level. Incineration accounted for the largest portion of household waste until 2006, when it was replaced by other treatment methods such as the pay-per-treatment option (44.4% and 68.3% in the agricultural and nonagricultural groups, respectively) (p<0.001). Garbage disposal in 2001 was mainly burial or animal feed, but separate collection increased in 2010 (42.2% and 64.3% in the agricultural and nonagricultural groups, respectively) (p<0.001). The self-perception of health was lower in the agricultural group than in the nonagricultural group (2.96 to 2.74 on a five-point scale in the agricultural group and 3.07 to 2.98 in the nonagricultural group). Drinking decreased less in the agricultural group (criteria: one point once a week,; 1.48 to 1.20) than in the nonagricultural group (1.13 to 0.80) at p<0.001, and a similar pattern was found for smoking (p<0.001). Health screening decreased in the last 10 years (scoring based one point/1-2 times per year,: 0.94 to 0.64 in the agricultural group and 1.08 to 0.69 in the nonagricultural group;p<0.01). These results indicate that various health and environmental factors were less favorable to farmers except for bathing in comparison to nonagricultural living in the same area. This suggests that people in agriculture are less likely to live and work in favorable environments than those outside the sector and thus indicates a need for more attention to the national health welfare system for farmers for systematic realization.

Incineration Process of Double Base Propellant for Demilitarization (더블 베이스 추진제의 비군사화 소각공정)

  • Lee, Si-Hwang;Baek, Seung-Won;Moon, Il;Park, Jung-Su;Oh, Min
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2016
  • The thermal decomposition of waste energetic materials such as TNT, RDX and composition B in a commercial rotary kiln has previously been carried out. As part of the demilitarization process, the thermal decomposition of homogeneous double base propellant (DB) used in M8 and consisting predominantly of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine is examined with respect to a number of operating conditions. A single condensed phase reaction with 4 species and 365 gas phase reactions and 59 species are considered. Simulation results show the sensitivity of the thermal decomposition of DB with temperature and velocity. At relatively low velocity with constant inlet hot air temperature, temperature in the rotary kiln was found to be highest, 953 K and 1300 K for cases 3 and 6 respectively. Illustrating that optimum operating temperature can be achieved by controlling the inlet velocity without additional cooling systems.

Trace Element Analysis and Source Assessment of Household Dust in Daegu, Korea (대구지역 일반주택의 축적먼지 중 미량원소성분 분석과 오염원 평가)

  • Do, Hwa-Seok;Song, Hee-Bong;Jung, Yeoun-Wook;Yoon, Ho-Suk;Kwak, Jin-Hee;Han, Jeong-Uk;Kang, Hye-Jung;Phee, Young-Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2010
  • In order to investigate the degree of household dust contamination, 48 samples of household dust (24 from urban area and 24 from rural area) in Daegu city were collected in vacuum cleaner during January to February 2009. Samples were sieved below 100 ${\mu}m$, and 14 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) were analyzed using ICP after acid extraction. Results obtained from the source assessment of trace elements using enrichment factor showed that Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and V were influenced by natural sources such as weathered rock and resuspended soil, while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were influenced by anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion and waste incineration. Concentrations were remarkably higher in components from natural sources than in components from urban anthropogenic sources. Household dust in urban area was more affected by anthropogenic sources compared with that of rural area. Pollution index of heavy metals revealed that urban area was 1.8 times more contaminated with heavy metal components than rural area. The correlation analysis among trace elements indicated that components were correlated with natural sources-natural sources (Al-Mg, Al-Mn, Fe-Mn) and natural sources-anthropogenic sources (Al-V, Fe-Cr, V-Mn) in both urban area and rural area. Trace element components of rural area were more correlated than those of urban area. Houses that use oil for heating fuel had relatively higher contents of heavy metals rather than those using gas or electricity for heating fuel. Houses with children also had higher contents of heavy metals. In addition, the age of houses was found to influence the heavy metal levels in household dusts, with older houses (>10years) having higher concentrations than newer houses (<10years) and houses located near the major road (<10 m) were found to have relatively higher heavy metal levels in household dust.

Characteristic Assessment of Heavy Metals in Dusts Collected by the Air Filtration System at Subway Stations in Daegu, Korea (대구지역 지하철역사 공기여과필터 포집먼지에 함유된 중금속성분의 특성평가)

  • Do, Hwa-Seok;Song, Hee-Bong;Shin, Dong-Chan;Kwak, Jin-Hee;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Yoon, Ho-Suk;Kang, Hye-Jung;Phee, Young-Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.42-50
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    • 2009
  • Samples of subway dust were collected by the air filter system of 30 subway stations on Daegu subway line 1 in January 2008. Samples were sieved below 100 ${\mu}m$, and 14 elements were analyzed using ICP after acid extraction. Results obtained from the source assessment of trace elements using enrichment factor showed that Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, V were influenced by natural sources such as weathered rock and resuspended soil, while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were influenced by anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion and waste incineration. Concentrations were remarkably higher in components from natural sources than in components from anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources were significantly affected by indoor dusts than outdoor dusts. Results of pollution indices of heavy metals indicated that indoor dusts were more contaminated with heavy metal ions than outdoor dusts. The correlation analysis among trace elements indicated that components were much correlated in the order of natural sources-anthropogenic sources, anthropogenic sources-anthropogenic sources, natural sources-natural sources in both indoor and outdoor dusts. Trace element components of outdoor dusts were largely correlated than those of indoor dusts. In addition, indoor dusts were significantly affected by outdoor dusts rather than depth from the surface or the average daily number of subway passengers.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2015 (설비공학회 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2015년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.256-268
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    • 2016
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2015. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering were carried out in the areas of flow, heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the renewable energy system and the flow inside building rooms. Research issues dealing with air-conditioning machines and fire and exhausting smoke were reduced. CFD seems to be spreading to more research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area were carried out in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the economic analysis of GHG emission, micro channel heat exchanger, effect of rib angle on thermal performance, the airside performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers, theoretical analysis of a rotary heat exchanger, heat exchanger in a cryogenic environment, the performance of a cross-flow-type, indirect evaporative cooler made of paper/plastic film. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the bubble jet loop heat pipe was studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches were performed on fin-tube heat exchanger, KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel at baking phase, the performance of small-sized dehumidification rotor, design of gas-injection port of an asymmetric scroll compressor, effect of slot discharge-angle change on exhaust efficiency of range hood system with air curtain. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, a cold-climate heat pump system, $CO_2$ cascade systems, ejector cycles and a PCM-based continuous heating system were investigated. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, a polymer adsorption heat pump, an alcohol absorption heat pump and a desiccant-based hybrid refrigeration system were investigated. In the system control category, turbo-refrigerator capacity controls and an absorption chiller fault diagnostics were investigated. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, eighteen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the user and location awareness technology applied dimming lighting control system, the lighting performance evaluation for light-shelves, the improvement evaluation of air quality through analysis of ventilation efficiency and the evaluation of airtightness of sliding and LS window systems. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving estimation of existing buildings, the developing model to predict heating energy usage in domestic city area and the performance evaluation of cooling applied with economizer control. The studies were also performed related to the experimental measurement of weight variation and thermal conductivity in polyurethane foam, the development of flame spread prevention system for sandwich panels, the utilization of heat from waste-incineration facility in large-scale horticultural facilities.