• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water surface

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Comparison of the nutrient concentration between surface water and ground water in a rural watershed (농촌 소유역에서의 지표수와 지하수의 영양물질 농도 비교)

  • Song, Chul-Min;Kim, Jin-Soo;Oh, Kwang-Young;Gwon, Seong-Il;Jiang, Jie
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2007
  • Nutrients were investigated for surface water, bottom sediment and ground water in a rural watershed from January 2006 to March 2007. The concentrations of TN and $NO_3-N$ in ground water were higher than those in surface water due to fertilization on cabbage upland neighboring a river during March to August, but lower than those in surface water during September to February. However, the concentrations TP and $PO_4-P$ in ground water were lower than those in surface water. The concentrations of TP and $PO_4-P$ in surface water was lower than those in bottom sediment. The TP concentration in the bottom greatly decreased during rainy season. due to flush sediment of bottom, and then gradually increased.

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A Study on the Characteristics and Surface Modification of the Zeocarbon for Water Treatment

  • Kim, Seo-A;Hong, Ji-Sook;Suh, Jeong-Kwon;Lee, Jung-Min
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of application for water treatment using the zeocarbon. The zeocarbon was mixture of zeolite and activated carbon. In general, the application of commercial zeocarbon to water treatment is difficult because of weak strength in water and the high pH value of effluents after water treatment. Therefore, we have modified the surface of zeocarbon. For the surface modification, we used the acid treatment to make surface functional group. As a result of modification, was created functional group on zeocarbon surface and was formed mesopore in zeocarbon. The surface modified zeocarbon was applied to removal of nitrogen. In removal experiments of nitrogen, removal efficiency was very high. And, strength of zeocarbon after water treatment and pH of effluents were stabilized. This indicates that the surface modified zeocarbon was easy to recover and reuse. Consequently, our results were shown the possibility of application for water treatment using the surface modified zeocarbon.

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Optimal Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water (지표수와 지하수의 최적 연계운영)

  • Yi, Jae-Eung
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.367-374
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    • 2002
  • Water supply plan by optimal conjunctive use of surface and ground water is studied to prepare expected water deficit in near future. The optimization model for conjunctive use of surface and ground water is developed using discrete differential dynamic programming technique to maximize net benefit by water supply. As a result of applying the model to Namdaechun river located in Yangyang, it is found that water supply reliability using optimal conjunctive use of surface and ground water is much higher than reliability using surface water alone.

Simultaneous Determination and Occurrences of Pharmaceuticals by Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in Environmental Aqueous Samples

  • Koo, So-Hyun;Jo, Cheon-Ho;Shin, Sun-Kyoung;Myung, Seung-Woon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1192-1198
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    • 2010
  • Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment. Many pharmaceuticals are not completely removed during wastewater treatment, leading to their presence in wastewater treatment effluents, rivers, lakes, and ground water. Here, we developed analytical methods for monitoring ten pharmaceuticals from surface water by LC/ESI-MS/MS. For sample clean-up and extraction, MCX (mixed cation exchange) and HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used. The limits of detection (LOD) in distilled water and the blank surface water were in the range of 0.006 - 0.65 and 1.66 - 45.05 pg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the distilled water and the blank surface water were in the range of 0.02 - 2.17 and 5.52 - 150.15 pg/mL, respectively. The absolute recoveries for fortified water samples were between 62.1% and 125.4%. Intra-day precision and accuracy for the blank surface water were 2.9% - 24.1% (R.S.D.) and -16.3% - 16.3% (bias), respectively. In surface wastewater near rivers, chlortetracycline and acetylsalicylic acid were detected frequently in the range of 0.017 - 5.404 and 0.029 - 0.269 ng/mL, respectively. Surface water near rivers had higher levels than surface water of domestic treatment plants.

The Characteristics of Seasonal Variations of Water Quality in Mokpo Harbour 1. Physical Environment and Organic Pollution (목포항 수질의 계절적 변화 특성 I. 물리 환경과 유기 오염)

  • 김광수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 1999
  • The in situ observations and the seawater analyses were conducted at all seasons from July 1996 to April 1999 for the purpose of describing the characteristics of seasonal variations of water quality in Mokpo harbour, Korea. Vertical stratification started to be formed in water column in spring, developed in summer and disappeared in fall. In summer, vertical density distribution of water column was found to be in stable structure with lower temperature and higher salinity of bottom water, and the vertical mixing of water between surface and bottom layers was restricted. In winter, however, surface water was found to be similar to bottom water in temperature and salinity, and water column was in unstable structure and in well-mixed condition between surface and bottom waters. The saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen(DO) in bottom water of inner part of Mokpo harbour at all seasons was shown to be decreased to the third grade or under the third grade of Korean standards of seawater quality. In particular, dissolved oxygen was oversaturated in surface water and undersaturated in bottom water in summer, due to stratification and organic pollution. The difference of DO concentration between surface and bottom waters was found to be greater in spring and summer than in fall and winter, due to stratification and photosynthesis of phytoplankton. The concentrations of chemical oxygen demand(COD) over the entire waters of Mokpo harbour were found to fluctuate from below the third grade to the first grade of Korean standards through all seasons and COD concentrations of same seasons were shown to be different year after year. In particular, in view of COD, the annual average seawater quality of Mokpo harbour was evaluated to be in third grade of Korean standards, due to organic pollution. The average COD of surface water was greater than that of bottom water in spring and summer, due to the autochthonous COD caused by production of phytoplankton in surface waters, while the average COD of surface water was similar to that of bottom water in fall and winter, due to the vertical mixing of water between surface and bottom layers.

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Projected Climate Change Impact on Surface Water Temperature in Korea (기후변화에 따른 지표수의 수온 영향평가)

  • Ahn, Jong Ho;Han, Dae Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2010
  • Global human activities associated with the use of fossil fuels have aggravated climate change, increasing air temperature. Consequently, climate change has the potential to alter surface water temperature with significant impacts on biogeochemical cycling and ecosystems in natural water body. In this study, we examined temporal trends on historical records of surface water temperature, and investigated the air temperature/water temperature relationship and the potential water temperature change from an air temperature scenario developed with regional climate model. Although the temporal trends of water temperature are highly variable site-by-site, surface water temperature was highly dependent on air temperature, and has increased significantly in some sub-watersheds over the last two decades. The results presented here demonstrate that water temperature changes are expected to be slightly higher in river system than reservoir systems and more significant during winter than summer for both river and reservoir system. Projected change of surface water temperature will likely increase $1.06^{\circ}C$ for rivers and $0.95^{\circ}C$ for reservoirs during the period 2008 to 2050. Given the potential climatic changes, every $1^{\circ}C$ increase in water temperature could cause dissolved oxygen levels to fall every 0.206 ppm.

Comparison of the nutrient concentration in ground water between paddy field and upland in a rural watershed (농촌 소유역에서의 논과 밭의 지하수 영양물질 농도 비교)

  • Jang, Hoon;Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Young-Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1994-1998
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    • 2009
  • Nutrients were investigated for surface water and ground water of paddy field and upland in a rural watershed from May 2008 to January 2009. The cocentrations of TN and $NO_3-N$ in ground water higher than those in surface water due to fertilization on cabbage upland neighboring a river during May to September, but lower than those in surface water during October to January. However, the concentrations TP and $PO_4-P$ in ground water were lower than those in surface water. TP and $PO_4-P$ concentrations in ground water of paddy field were generally lower than those of upland.

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Studies on the flow stabilization around the turbine suction with utilizing the surface water overflow at small-hydraulic power plant (표층수의 월류를 통한 소수력빌전소 수차터빈측의 유동안정화 연구)

  • Lee, Sungmyung;Kim, Cheolhan;Yoo, Gunjong;Kim, Wonseok
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.165.2-165.2
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    • 2011
  • Flow with suction to water turbine must be in stable state at small hydraulic power plant. But because of water level fluctuation and water gate effect according to irregular supply of cooling water, it would happen to produce bubble and vortex and finally lead to problems in power-plant system. With utilizing the concept design of double size gate, surface water overflowed the overhead of gate for stable flow at suction. We developed the overflow condition and analyzed the design factor with existed one such as water level(overflow amount) and overhead of water gate(overflow figure). Flow test and CFD simulation say that flow have stable state around suction and 20% of wave reduction effect at surface layer after surface water overflow.

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Acidic Water Monolayer on Ru(0001)

  • Kim, Youngsoon;Moon, Eui-Seong;Shin, Sunghwan;Yi, Seung-Hoon;Kang, Heon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.268-268
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    • 2013
  • Water molecules on a Ru(0001) surface are anomalously acidic compared to bulk water. The observation was made by conducting reactive ion scattering, reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed desorption measurements for the adsorption of ammonia onto a water layer formed on Ru(0001). The study shows that the water molecules in the first intact $H_2O$ bilayer spontaneously release a proton to NH3 adsorbates to produce $NH_4{^+}$. However, such proton transfer does not occur for $H_2O$, OH, and H in a mixed adsorption layer or for $H_2O$ in a thick ice film surface.

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Paleo-Tsushima Water influx to the East Sea during the lowest sea level of the late Quaternary

  • Lee, Eun-Il
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.714-724
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    • 2005
  • The East Sea, a semi-enclosed marginal sea with shallow straits in the northwest Pacific, is marked by the nearly geographic isolation and the low sea surface salinity during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The East Sea might have the only connection to the open ocean through the Korea Strait with a sill depth of 130 m, allowing the paleo-Tsushima Water to enter the sea during the LGM. The low paleosalinity associated with abnormally light $\delta^{18}O$ values of planktonic foraminifera is interpreted to have resulted from river discharge and precipitation. Nevertheless, two LGM features in the East Sea are disputable. This study attempts to estimate volume transport of the paleo-Tsushima Water via the Korea Strait and further examines its effect on the low sea surface salinity (SSS) during the lowest sea level of the LGM. The East Sea was not completely isolated, but partially linked to the northern East China Sea through the Korea Strait during the LGM. The volume transport of the paleo-Tsushima Water during the LGM is calculated approximately$(0.5\~2.1)\times10^{12}m^3/yr$ on the basis of the selected seismic reflection profiles along with bathymetry and current data. The annual influx of the paleo-Tsushima Water is low, compared to the 100 m-thick surface water volume $(about\;79.75\times10^{12}m^3)$ in the East Sea. The paleo-Tsushima Water influx might have changed the surface water properties within a geologically short time, potentially decreasing sea surface salinity. However, the effect of volume transport on the low sea surface salinity essentially depends on freshwater amounts within the paleo-Tsushima Water and excessive evaporation during the glacial lowstands of sea level. Even though the paleo-Tsushima Water is assumed to have been entirely freshwater at that time period, it would annually reduce only about 1‰ of salinity in the surface water of the East Sea. Thus, the paleo-Tsushima Water influx itself might not be large enough to significantly reduce the paleosalinity of about 100 m-thick surface layer during the LGM. This further suggests contribution of additional river discharges from nearby fluvial systems (e.g. the Amur River) to freshen the surface water.