• Title/Summary/Keyword: Waveguide

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Studies on the High-gain Low Noise Amplifier for 60 GHz Wireless Local Area Network (60 GHz 무선 LAN의 응용을 위한 고이득 저잡음 증폭기에 관한 연구)

  • 조창식;안단;이성대;백태종;진진만;최석규;김삼동;이진구
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit(MIMIC) low noise amplifier(LNA) for V-band, which is applicable to 60 GHz wireless local area network(WLAN), was fabricated using the high performance 0.1 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ $\Gamma$-gate pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor(PHEMT). The DC characteristics of PHEMT are drain saturation current density(Idss) of 450 mA/mm and maximum transconductance(gm, max) of 363.6 mS/mm. The RF characteristics were obtained the current gain cut-off frequency(fT) of 113 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency(fmax) of 180 GHz. V-band MIMIC LNA was designed using active and passive device library, which is composed of 0.1 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ $\Gamma$-gate PHEMT and coplanar waveguide(CPW) technology. The designed V-band MIMIC LNA was fabricated using integrated unit processes of active and passive device. The measured results of V-band MIMIC LNA are shown S21 gain of 21.3 dB, S11 of -10.6 dB at 60 GHz and S22 of -29.7 dB at 62.5 GHz. The measured result of V-band MIMIC LNA was shown noise figure (NF) of 4.23 dB at 60 GHz.

A 2 GHz Compact Analog Phase Shifter with a Linear Phase-Tune Characteristic (2 GHz 선형 위상 천이 특성을 갖는 소형 아날로그 위상천이기)

  • Oh, Hyun-Seok;Choi, Jae-Hong;Jeong, Hae-Chang;Heo, Yun-Seong;Yeom, Kyung-Whan
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.114-124
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we present a 2 GHz compact analog phase shifter with linear phase-tune characteristic. The compact phase shifter was designed base on a lumped all pass network and implemented using a ceramic substrate fabricated with thin-film technique. For a linear phase-tune characteristic, a capacitance of the varactor diode for a tuning voltage was linearized by connecting series capacitor and subsequently produced an almost linear capacitance change. The inductor and bias circuit in the all pass network was implemented using a spiral inductors for small size, which results in the size reduction to $4\;mm{\times}4\;mm$. In order to measure the phase shifter using the probe station, two CPW pads are included at the input and output. The fabricated phase shifter showed an insertion loss of about 4.2~4.7 dB at 2 GHz band and a total $79^{\circ}$ phase change for DC control voltage from 0 to 5 V, and showed linear phase-tune characteristic as expected in the design.

Development and Manufacture of W-band MMIC Chip and manufacture of Transceiver (W-대역 MMIC 칩 국내 개발 및 송수신기 제작)

  • Kim, Wansik;Jung, Jooyong;Kim, Younggon;Kim, Jongpil;Seo, Mihui;Kim, Sosu
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2019
  • For the purpose of Application to the small radar sensor, the MMIC Chip, which is the core component of the W-band, was designed in Korea according to the characteristics of the transceiver and manufactured by 0.1㎛ GaAs pHEMT process, and compared with the MMIC chip purchased overseas. The noise figure of low noise amplifier, insertion loss of the switch and image rejection performance of the down-converted mixer MMIC chip showed better characteristics than those of commercial chips. The MMIC chip developed in domestic was applied to the transmitter and receiver through W-band waveguide low loss transition structure design and impedance matching to verify the performance after the fabrication is 9.17 dB, which is close to the analysis result. As a result, it is judged that the transceiver can be applied to the small radar sensor better than the MMIC chip purchased overseas.

테라헤르츠 펄스 기술

  • Han, Hae-Ok;Yu, Nan-Lee;Jeon, Tae-In;Jin, Yun-Sik;Park, Ik-Mo;Kim, Jeong-Hoe;Mun, Gi-Won;Han, Yeon-Ho;Jeong, Eun-A;Gang, Cheol;Lee, Yeong-Rak;Go, Do-Gyeong;Lee, Ui-Su;Ji, Young-Bin;Kim, Geun-Ju;Han, Gyeong-Ho
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.87-103
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    • 2008
  • In recent years, the field of THz photonics based on THz pulse technology has gained tremendous, world-wide interest as a new exciting research subject. With a possibility of many commercial applications as well as fundamental scientific achievements in the field, many advanced nations are stepping up their effort in advancing the field of THz photonics. This fact is supported by the observation of the significant increase in the number of papers on THz pulse technology presented in renowned international journals and conferences. The subject that is interesting for the THz application is the development of THz pulse sources and detectors, and other passive devices. In this paper, we present a brief review on some of the key devices and their relavant measurement techniques such as THz photoconductive antennas, optical rectification, difference frequency geneneration with quasi-phase matching structures, electro-optic sampling, high speed real time measurements, THz transmission lines, and other various waveguide structures.

Design of a Low Phase Noise Vt-DRO Based on Improvement of Dielectric Resonator Coupling Structure (유전체 공진기 결합 구조 개선을 통한 저위상 잡음 전압 제어 유전체 공진기 발진기 설계)

  • Son, Beom-Ik;Jeong, Hae-Chang;Lee, Seok-Jeong;Yeom, Kyung-Whan
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.691-699
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we present a Vt-DRO with a low phase noise, which is achieved by improving the coupling structure between the dielectric resonator and microstrip line. The Vt-DRO is a closed-loop type and is composed of 3 blocks; dielectric resonator, phase shifter, and amplifier. We propose a mathematical estimation method of phase noise, using the group delay of the resonator. By modifying the coupling structure between the dielectric resonator and microstrip line, we achieved a group delay of 53 nsec. For convenience of measurement, wafer probes were inserted at each stage to measure the S-parameters of each block. The measured S-parameter of the Vt-DRO satisfies the open-loop oscillation condition. The Vt-DRO was implemented by connecting the input and output of the designed open-loop to form a closed-loop. As a result, the phase noise of the Vt-DRO was measured as -132.7 dBc/Hz(@ 100 kHz offset frequency), which approximates the predicted result at the center frequency of 5.3 GHz. The tuning-range of the Vt-DRO is about 5 MHz for tuning voltage of 0~10 V and the power is 4.5 dBm. PFTN-FOM is -31 dBm.

An Algorithm for Submarine Passive Sonar Simulator (잠수함 수동소나 시뮬레이터 알고리즘)

  • Jung, Young-Cheol;Kim, Byoung-Uk;An, Sang-Kyum;Seong, Woo-Jae;Lee, Keun-Hwa;Hahn, Joo-Young
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.472-483
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    • 2013
  • Actual maritime exercise for improving the capability of submarine sonar operator leads to a lot of cost and constraints. Sonar simulator maximizes the capability of sonar operator and training effect by solving these problems and simulating a realistic battlefield environment. In this study, a passive sonar simulator algorithm is suggested, where the simulator is divided into three modules: maneuvering module, noise source module, and sound propagation module. Maneuvering module is implemented in three-dimensional coordinate system and time interval is set as the rate of vessel changing course. Noise source module consists of target noise, ocean ambient noise, and self noise. Target noise is divided into modulated/unmodulated and narrowband/broadband signals as their frequency characteristics, and they are applied to ship radiated noise level depending on the vessel tonnage and velocity. Ocean ambient noise is simulated depending on the wind noise considering the waveguide effect and other ambient noise. Self noise is also simulated for flow noise and insertion loss of sonar-dome. The sound propagation module is based on ray propagation, where summation of amplitude, phase, and time delay for each eigen-ray is multiplied by target noise in the frequency domain. Finally, simulated results based on various scenarios are in good agreement with generated noise in the real ocean.

High Conversion Gain and Isolation Characteristic V-band Quadruple Sub-harmonic Mixer (고 변환이득 및 격리 특성의 V-band용 4체배 Sub-harmonic Mixer)

  • Uhm, Won-Young;Sul, Woo-Suk;Han, Hyo-Jong;Kim, Sung-Chan;Lee, Han-Shin;An, Dan;Kim, Sam-Dong;Park, Hyung-Moo;Rhee, Jin-Koo
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, we have proposed a high conversion and isolation characteristic V-band quadruple sub-harmonic mixer monolithic circuit which is designed and fabricated for the millimeter wave down converter applications. While most of the sub-harmonic mixers use a half of fundamental frequency, we adopt a quarter of the fundamental frequency. The proposed circuit is based on a sub-harmonic mixer with APDP(anti-parallel diode pair) and the 0.1 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ PHEMT's (pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors). Lumped elements at IF port provide better selectivity of IF frequency and increase isolation. Maximum conversion gain of 0.8 ㏈ at a LO frequency of 14.5㎓ and at a RF frequency of 60.4 ㎓ is measured. Both LO-to-RF and LO-to-IF isolations are higher than 50 ㏈. The conversion gain and isolation characteristic are the best performances among the reported quadruple sub-harmonic mixer operating in the V-band millimeter wave frequency thus far.

TEM 도파관을 이용한 전자파 장해 측정 연구 및 표준화 동향

  • 권종화
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.51-62
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    • 2002
  • EMI/EMS 측정을 위해서는 주변 전자파 잡음(background noise)이 낮은 야외시험장(Open Area Test Site)이 가장 바람직하나, 근래 전자(전기 기기 사용의 증가와 방송.무선통신 시스템의 다양화로 인한 인공잡음(artificial noise)의 증대로 조건에 부합된 부지 선정이 어렵고, 설치 비용이 매우 크며 날씨 변화에 따라 시험 계획이 변경 될 수도 있는 단점이 있다. 전자파 분-무반사실(Semi Anechoic Chamber)은 대부분의 환경 잡음을 감쇠시키므로 야외시험장처럼 장소의 구애를 받지 않아 도시나 혹은 제품 생산지 가까이에 설치 운용이 가능하다. 그러나 큰 설치 공간과 많은 시설 유지 비용을 필요로 하며, 저주파 대역에서는 반사에 의한 공진을 완전히 제거할 수 없어 성능이 떨어진다. 또한, 최근 컴퓨터 CPU의 동작주파수가 급속하게 높아지고 PCS, IMT-2000 등과 같은 이동전화의 사용주파수도 계속해서 높아짐에 다라 미연방통신위원회(Federal Communication Commission)에서는 5㎓까지의 복사 방출 시험을 요구하고 있다. IEC 61000-4-3 복사 내성 시험규격도 휴대폰 주파수인 2㎓까지 확장되었으며 IMT-2000, Bluetooth 등 새로운 이동통신서비스가 속속 개발됨에 따라 18㎓ 까지 시험 주파수가 확장되는 추세이다. 그러나, 현재 국내 각 연구실에서 보유하고 있는 야외시험장이나 전자파 반-무반사실의 경우 1㎓이상에서의 시험이 곤란하여 수 ㎓주파수대역에서 시험이 가능한 복사 및 내성시험 시설이 필요하게 되었다. 이러한 문제점들을 해결하기 위해 고안된 대용 측정 시설 중 대표적인 것이 TEM 셀이나 GTEM셀과 같은 TEM 도파관(waveguide) 형태의 장비들이다. 이들은 본래 EMS 측정을 위한 장비이지만 협소한 공간이나 외부와의 전자파 간섭의 우려가 없고, 설치가 비교적 자유로워 여러 연구기관에서 도파관 원리를 이용한 측정 방식을 연구(개발하여 범용적인 전자파 적합성 측정 장비로서 활용하고 있다. 야외시험장과 무반사실 등이 안테나에 의한 피시험기기 주변 공간에서의 1점 측정으로 인해 시험 시간이 많아 소요되는 공통적인 단점이 있는 반면, TEM 도파관에 의한 측정은 일단 피시험기기의 모델링 정보만 얻어지면 계산에 의해 EMI 측정을 바로 할 수 있다. <표 1>에서 현재 상용화되어 사용되고 있는 TEM/GTEM 셀, 야외 시험장 및 전자파 무반사실에 대해 EMI 측정과 관련된 몇 가지 사안에 대해 비교하였다. 본 문서에서는 야외시험장이나 전자파 반-무반사실 등과 같은 기존 EMI/EMS 측정 시설의 단점을 보완하고, 광대역 특성을 갖는 대용 측정 시설로서의 TEM 도파관에 대해 소개하고 야외시험장 결과와의 상관관계 알고리즘 및 표준화 동향에 대해 기술하였다. 2절에서는 대표적인 TEM 도파관 구조의 측정 시설인 TEM 셀과 GTEM 셀의 전기적.구조적 특징에 대해 간단히 기술하고, 3절에서는 TEM 셀과 GTEM 셀에서이 측정결과를 이용하여 야외 시험장 결과를 얻어내는 상관관계 알고리즘에 대해 기술하였다. 4절에서는 IEC/CISPR와 TC77에서의 표준화 활동을 중심으로 현재 진행중인 TEM 도파관 관련 표준화 동향과 내용에 대해 기술하고자 한다.

Prediction of Noise Power Disturbance from Antenna to Transmission Line System (안테나로부터 인접 전송선로에 전달되는 노이즈 전력 예측)

  • Ryu, Soojung;Jeon, Jiwoon;Kim, Kwangho;Jo, Jeongmin;Lee, Seungbae;Kim, SoYoung;Nah, Wansoo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1172-1182
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    • 2014
  • In these days, many kinds of goods are more light and more integrated. As frequency range of mobile applications have increased to improve performance of antenna furthermore, EMI(ElectroMagnetic Interference) problem has frequently caused by disturbance of antenna in device which aggravates other circuit. This paper proposes a technique for the prediction of noise power to the transmission line from antenna located near the line. Although noise power transferred to transmission line is varied by source impedance of antenna and load impedance of transmission line basically, the power magnitude can be presented in a square form of S-parameter between antenna and transmission line due to small variation of transferred power. For this reason, we can use the index expressed the transferred power varied along geometrical shapes of transmission line. As a result, big difference is occurred along location of antenna especially the bended line. And this such experiment is correspond with simulation, these results have meaning physically considering electromagnetic field distribution in near and far field. HFSS of Ansys and CPW with ground is used in this paper.

Correlation Analysis between Wave Parameters using Wave Data Observed in HeMOSU-1&2 (HeMOSU-1&2의 파랑 관측 자료를 이용한 파랑 변수 간 상관관계 분석)

  • Lee, Uk-Jae;Ko, Dong-Hui;Cho, Hong-Yeon;Oh, Nam-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2021
  • In this study, waves were defined using the water surface elevation data observed from the HeMOSU-1 and 2 marine meteorological observation towers installed on the west coast of Korea, and correlation analysis was performed between wave parameters. The wave height and wave period were determined using the wave-train analysis method and the wave spectrum analysis method, and the relationship between the wave parameters was calculated and compared with the previous study. In the relation between representative wave heights, most of the correlation coefficients between waves showed a difference of less than 0.1% in error rate compared to the previous study, and the maximum wave height showed a difference of up to 29%. In addition, as a result of the correlation analysis between the wave periods, the peak period was estimated to be abnormally large at rates of 2.5% and 1.3% in HeMOSU-1&2, respectively, due to the effect of the bimodal spectrum that occurs when the spectral energy density is small.