• Title, Summary, Keyword: Whole effluent toxicity testing

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Ecotoxicological effects of ballast water effluent teated by an electrolytic method on marine environment

  • Kim, Tae Won;Kim, Keun-Yong;Shon, Myung-Baek;Kim, Young-Soo;Lee, Ji Hyun;Moon, Chang Ho;Son, Min Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.1010-1020
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    • 2014
  • Ballast water effluent treated by an electrolytic method contains reactive chlorine species and disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, we conducted whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing and ecological risk assessment (ERA) to investigate its ecotoxicological effects on marine environment. WET testing was carried out for three marine pelagic organisms, i.e., diatom Skeletonema costatum, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and fish Paralichthys olivaceus. The biological toxicity test revealed that S. costatum was the only organism that showed apparent toxicity to the effluent; it showed no observed effect concentration (NOEC), lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) and effect concentration of 50% (EC50) values of 12.5%, 25.0% and 83.3%, respectively, at brackish water condition. In contrast, it showed insignificant toxicity at seawater condition. B. plicatilis and P. olivaceus also showed no toxicities to the effluent at the both salinity conditions. Meanwhile, chemical analysis revealed that the ballast water effluent contained total residual oxidants (TROs) below $0.03{\mu}g/L$ and a total of 20 DBPs including bromate, volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOCs), halogenated acetonitriles (HANs), halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) and chloropicrin. Based on ERA, the 20 DBPs were not considered to have persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) properties. Except monobromoacetic acid, the ratio of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of the other 19 DBPs did not exceed 1. Thus, our results of WET testing and ERA indicated that the ballast water effluent treated by electrolysis and subsequently neutralization was considered to have no adverse impacts on marine environment.

Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation Procedures for Toxic Effluents from the Aluminum Rolling Industry (알루미늄 가공 공장 배출 방류수의 독성 원인물질 탐색)

  • Ra, Jin-Sung;Lee, Jiho;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify toxicants causing acute toxicity in effluents from the aluminum rolling industry that violate the discharge limits in Korea. Methods: Whole effluent toxicity tests (WET) were conducted on effluent discharged from the aluminum rolling industry following the US EPA WET test methods. We collected effluent samples three times and evaluated acute toxicity by using Daphnia magna. We employed toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify toxicants causing toxicity in the effluent. Results: No specific chemical groups were identified in the seven different manipulations applied to the of wastewater effluent samples showing 1.3 toxic units (TU) according to the TIE phase I procedures. Water quality parameters for water hardness, electric conductivity and heavy metals (Mn) were 4,322 mg/l as $CaCO_3$, 11.39 mS/cm, and $5,551{\mu}g/l$, respectively. Considering water hardness and reference toxicity, high concentrations of Mn can be disqualified from the causative toxicants. Consequently, high ionic concentrations of $Na^+$(1,648 mg/l), $Ca^{2+}$(1,048 mg/l), $Mg^{2+}$(1,428 mg/l) and $SO_4{^{2-}}$(7,472 mg/l) were identified to be causative toxicants. Water hardness and electric conductivity exceed the $EC_{50}$ value obtained by biological toxicity tests using Daphnia magna. Conclusion: According to TIE procedures, high salt concentration is determined to be a major toxicant in the effluent of agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants receiving wastewater from the aluminum rolling industry.

Ecotoxicological Effects of NaDCC injection method in Ballast Water Management system on Marine Environments (NaDCC 주입 선박평형수 처리기술의 해양생태위해성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae won;Moon, Chang Ho;Kim, Young Ryun;Son, Min Ho
    • Proceedings of KOSOMES biannual meeting
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    • pp.236-236
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    • 2017
  • Effluent treated by an NaDCC injection method in Ballast water management system (BWMS) contains reactive chlorine species and disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, we conducted whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing and ecological risk assessment (ERA) to investigate its ecotoxicological effects on marine environment. WET testing was carried out for four marine pelagic and freshwater organisms, i.e., diatom Skeletonema costatum, Navicula pellicuosa, chlorophyta Dunaliella tertiolecta, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, Brachionus calyciflorus and fish Cyprinodon variegatus, Pimephales promelas. The biological toxicity test revealed that algae was the only biota that showed apparent toxicity to the effluent; it showed no observed effect concentration (NOEC), lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) and effect concentration of 50% (EC50) values of 25-50%, 50-100% and >100%, respectively, at three water condition, but did not show any significant toxicities on other biota. Meanwhile, chemical analysis revealed that the BWMS effluent contained total residual oxidants (TROs) below $0.03{\mu}g/L$ and a total of 25 DBPs such as bromate, volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOCs), halogenated acetonitriles (HANs), halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), chloropicrin and Isocyanuric acid. Based on ERA, the 25 DBPs were not considered to have persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) properties. The ratio of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of the other DBPs did not exceed 1 for General harbor environment. However, four substances (Isocyanuric acid, Tribromomethane, Chloropicrin and Monochloroacetic acid) were exceed 1 for Nearship environment. But observed toxicity in the test water on algal growth inhibition would be mitigated by normal dilution factor of 5 applied for nearship exposure. Thus, our results of WET testing and ERA showed that the BWMS effluent treated by NaDCC injection method would have no adverse impacts on marine environment.

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A Study of Ecotoxicity Test for Byproducts of Ozone in the Ballast Water Treatment System with Ozonation

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Ha, Shin-Young;Kim, In-Soo
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.741-747
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    • 2011
  • Ecological toxicity testing of the whole-effluent from the ozone ballast water treatment system was conducted as specified in the quality assurance project plans (QAPP). The growth inhibition test with microalgae, acute aquatic toxicity test with the Rotifer reproduction, toxicity test (or population growth) with the Rotifer, survival and growth toxicity test with larval fish and sediment toxicity test with amphipod were carried out to evaluate ecological toxicity on the movile test barge.

Validation of Suitability on Proficiency Testing Samples for Acute Toxicity Test with Daphnia magna (생태독성 숙련도 시료의 적절성 평가)

  • Shin, Kisik;Park, Woosang;Lee, Jungseo;Yu, Soonju;Park, Taejin;Kim, Jongmin
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2015
  • Acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna has a variety of factors such as incubation condition of test species, food quality and proficiency of laboratory workers. Therefore, proper proficiency testing samples were required for evaluating the competence of laboratory workers. This study aims to propose some appropriate proficiency testing samples for laboratory workers of acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna. Proposed four kinds of standard samples (Sample A, B, C, and D) for proficiency testing were selected from reference materials which were recommended from Canada and USA WET(Whole Effluent Toxicity) authorities. Proposed standard samples were tested by trial application of proficiency testing, homogeneity and stability checks using repeatability test. Sample A, C and D were estimated ad the suitable candidates for proficiency test standard samples except for Sample B. In addition, Sample A was proved to be the most suitable sample.

A Study on Marine Ecological Risk Assessment of Ballast Water Management Technology Using the Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) Injection Method (이염화이소시아뉼산나트륨(NaDCC) 주입 선박평형수 처리기술의 해양생태위해성평가에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae Won;Moon, Chang Ho;Park, MiOk;Jeon, MiHae;Son, Min Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.203-214
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    • 2018
  • Ballast water treated by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) injection method in ballast water management system (BWMS) contains reactive bromine, chlorine species and disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, we conducted whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing and ecological risk assessment (ERA) to investigate its ecotoxicological effects on the marine environment. WET testing was carried out for eight marine and fresh water organisms, i.e. diatom, Skeletonema costatum, Navicula pelliculosa, green algae, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, Brachionus calyciflorus and fish, Cyprinodon variegatus, Pimephales promelas. The WET test revealed that diatom and green algae were the only organisms that showed apparent toxicity to the effluent; it showed no observed effect concentration (NOEC), lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) and effect concentration of 50 % (EC50) values of 25.0 %, 50.0 % and over 100.0 %, respectively, in seawater conditions. In contrast, rotifer and fish showed no toxicities to the effluent in the all salinity conditions. Meanwhile, chemical analysis revealed that the BWMS effluent contained total of 25 DBPs such as bromate, isocyanuric acid, formaldehyde, chloropicrin, trihalomethanes (THMs), halogenated acetonitriles (HANs) and halogenated acetic acids (HAAs). Based on ERA, the 25 DBPs were not considered to have persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) properties. The ratio of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of the all DBPs did not exceed 1.0 for general harbour environments, but isocyanuric acid, tribromomethane, chloropicrin and monochloroacetic acid exceed 1.0 for near ship environments. However, when NOEC (25.0%) of the WET test results where actual effluent was applied, it was concluded that the NaDCC injection method did not have unacceptable ecological risks to the general harbor including near ship environments.

The Study on the Marine Eco-toxicity and Environmental Risk of Treated Discharge Water from Ballast Water Management System using Plasma and MPUV (Plasma와 MPUV를 이용한 평형수관리장치의 배출수에 대한 해양생태독성 및 해양환경위해성에 관한 연구)

  • Shon, M.B.;Son, M.H;Lee, J.;Lee, S.U.;Lee, J.D.;Moon, C.H.;Kim, Y.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.281-291
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    • 2012
  • In this study, WET (whole effluent toxicity) test with Skeletonema costatum, Tigriopus japonicus and Paralichthys olivaceus and ERA (environmental risk assessment) were conducted to assess the unacceptable effect on marine ecosystem by emitting the treated discharge water from 'ARA Plasma BWTS' BWMS (ballast water management system) using filtration, Plasma and MPUV module. 34 psu treated discharge water from ARA Plasma BWTS shown slight chronic toxicity effect on the P. olivaceus ($7d-LC_{50}{\Rightarrow}100.00%$ treated discharge water, $7d-LC_{25}{\Rightarrow}85.15%$ treated discharge water). Bromobenzene, chlorobenzene and 4-chlorotoluene in 34 psu treated discharge water from ARA Plasma BWTS were higher than in the background original content of seawater. The PECs (predictive environmental concentrations) of bromobenzene, chlorobenzene and 4-chlorotoluene calculated by MAMPEC (marine antifoulant model to predict environmental concentrations) program (ver. 3.0) were 3.34E-03, 2.10E-03 and 1.73E-03 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, respectively and PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations) of them were 1.6, 0.5 and 1.9 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$. The PEC/PNEC ratio of bromobenzene, chlorobenzene and 4-chlorotoluene did not exceed one and 3 substances did not consider as persistence, bioaccumulative and toxic. Therefore, it was suggested that treated discharge water from ARA Plasma BWTS did not pose unacceptable effect on marine ecosystem.

The Study on the Marine Eco-toxicity and Ecological Risk of Treated Discharge Water from Ballast Water Management System Using Electrolysis (전기분해원리를 이용한 선박평형수관리장치의 배출수에 대한 해양생태독성 및 해양환경위해성에 관한 연구)

  • Shon, M.B.;Son, M.H.;Lee, J.;Son, Y.J.;Lee, G.H.;Moon, C.H.;Kim, Y.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.88-101
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    • 2013
  • The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments was adopted at 2004 and then various BWMS (ballast water management system) have been developed. In this study, WET (whole effluent toxicity) test with algae (diatom) Skeletonema costatum as primary producer, invertebrate (rotifera) Brachionus plicatilis as 1st consumer and fish (olive flounder) Paralichthys olivaceus as predator, chemical analysis and ERA (environmental risk assessment) were conducted to assess the unacceptable effect on marine ecosystem by emitting the discharge water treated with AquaStar$^{TM}$ BWMS using electrolysis as main treatment equipment for removing the marine organisms in the ship's ballast water. The most sensitive test organism on discharge water treated with AquaStar$^{TM}$ BWMS was S. costatum that gave the NOEC value of 25.00%, LOEC value of 50.00% and 72hr-$EC_{50}$ value of 69.97% from WET test result for 20 psu salinity treated discharge water. NOEC and LOEC value of B. plicatilis and P. olivaceus exposed at 20 psu salinity treated discharge water were 50.00% and 100.00%, respectively. In the chemical analysis results, total number of substances produced by AquaStar$^{TM}$ BWMS was 18 which were bromate, 7 volatile halogenated organic compounds, 7 halogenated acetic acids, 3 halogenated acetonitriles and chloropicrin. Eighteen substances did not consider as persistence and bioaccumulative chemicals. Uncertainty of toxic property of 18 substances was high. PECs of 18 substances calculated by MAMPEC model were ranged from $4.58{\times}10^{-4}$ to $4.87{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, PNECs of them were ranged from $1.6{\times}10^{-2}$ to $3.2{\times}10^2{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$. And, the PEC/PNEC ratio of 18 substances did not exceed 1. Therefore, ERA for produced substances indicate that the discharge water treated with AquaStar$^{TM}$ BWMS does not pose unacceptable effect on marine life. And $EC_{50}$ value of S. costatum on discharge water treated by BWMS using the electrolysis had positive correlation with initial TRO concentration, concentration and kind & level of HAAs.