• Title, Summary, Keyword: Wnt signaling pathway

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Cross-talk between Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo signaling pathways: a brief review

  • Kim, Minseong;Jho, Eek-hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.10
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    • pp.540-545
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    • 2014
  • Balanced cell growth is crucial in animal development as well as tissue homeostasis. Concerted cross-regulation of multiple signaling pathways is essential for those purposes, and the dysregulation of signaling may lead to a variety of human diseases such as cancer. The time-honored Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin and recently identified Hippo signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved in both Drosophila and mammals, and are generally considered as having positive and negative roles in cell proliferation, respectively. While most mainstream regulators of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway have been fairly well identified, the regulators of the Hippo pathway need to be more defined. The Hippo pathway controls organ size primarily by regulating cell contact inhibition. Recently, several cross-regulations occurring between the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin and Hippo signaling pathways were determined through biochemical and genetic approaches. In the present mini-review, we mainly discuss the signal transduction mechanism of the Hippo signaling pathway, along with cross-talk between the regulators of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin and Hippo signaling pathways.

Silybin Synergizes with Wnt3a in Activation of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin Signaling Pathway through Stabilization of Intracellular ${\beta}$-Catenin Protein (Silybin에 의한 Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin 신호전달체계의 활성화)

  • Kim, Tae-Yeoun;Oh, Sang-Taek
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2012
  • The Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway regulates diverse developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis. Inappropriate regulation of this pathway has been associated with human diseases, such as cancers, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Using a cell-based chemical screening with natural compounds, we discovered silybin, a plant flavonoid isolated from the Silybum marianum, which activated the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway in a synergy with Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM). In the presence of Wnt3a-CM, silybin up-regulated ${\beta}$-catenin response transcription (CRT) in HEK293-FL reporter cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through stabilization of intracellular ${\beta}$-catenin protein. Silybin and Wnt3a-CM synergistically reduced expression of important adipocyte marker genes including peroxisome-proliferator-activated $receptor{\gamma}$ ($PPAR{\gamma}$) and CAATT enhancer-binding protein ${\alpha}$ (C/$EBP{\alpha}$) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, accompanied by the activation of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that silybin is a small-molecule synergist of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway and can be used as a controllable reagent for investigating biological processes that involve the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway.

Down-regulation of EZH2 by RNA Interference Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of ACHN Cells via the Wnt/β-catenin Pathway

  • Yuan, Jun-Bin;Yang, Luo-Yan;Tang, Zheng-Yan;Zu, Xiong-Bing;Qi, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6197-6201
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    • 2012
  • Although enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been reported as an independent prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), little is known about the exact mechanism of EZH2 in promoting the genesis of RCC. However, several studies have shown that dysregulation of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role. Therefore, we determined whether EZH2 could affect ACHN human RCC cell proliferation and invasion via the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated EZH2 gene silencing on Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling in ACHN cells. EZH2-siRNA markedly inhibited the proliferation and invasion capabilities of ACHN, while also reducing the expression of EZH2, Wnt3a and ${\beta}$-catenin. In contrast, cellular expression of GSK-$3{\beta}$ (glycogen synthase kinase-$3{\beta}$), an inhibitor of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin pathway, was conspicuously higher after transfection of EZH2 siRNA. These preliminary findings suggest EZH2 may promote proliferation and invasion of ACHN cells via action on the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway.

SDC4 Gene Silencing Favors Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition via Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

  • Chen, Liang-Liang;Gao, Ge-Xin;Shen, Fei-Xia;Chen, Xiong;Gong, Xiao-Hua;Wu, Wen-Jun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.853-867
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    • 2018
  • As the most common type of endocrine malignancy, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 85-90% of all thyroid cancers. In this study, we presented the hypothesis that SDC4 gene silencing could effectively attenuate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote cell apoptosis via the $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway in human PTC cells. Bioinformatics methods were employed to screen the determined differential expression levels of SDC4 in PTC and adjacent normal samples. PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were prepared and their respective levels of SDC4 protein positive expression, in addition to the mRNA and protein levels of SDC4, $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway, EMT and apoptosis related genes were all detected accordingly. Flow cytometry was applied in order to detect cell cycle entry and apoptosis. Finally, analyses of PTC migration and invasion abilities were assessed by using a Transwell assay and scratch test. In PTC tissues, activated $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway, increased EMT and repressed cell apoptosis were determined. Moreover, the PTC K1 and TPC-1 cell lines exhibiting the highest SDC4 expression were selected for further experiments. In vitro experiments revealed that SDC4 gene silencing could suppress cell migration, invasion and EMT, while acting to promote the apoptosis of PTC cells by inhibiting the activation of the $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway. Besides, $si-{\beta}-catenin$ was observed to inhibit the promotion of PTC cell migration and invasion caused by SDC4 overexpression. Our study revealed that SDC4 gene silencing represses EMT, and enhances cell apoptosis by suppressing the activation of the $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway in human PTC.

Protein Kinases Involved in the Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin Signaling (Wnt/β-catenin 신호를 조절하는 인산화 효소)

  • Shin, Eun-Young;Park, Edmond Changkyun;Hong, Yeonhee;Kim, Gun-Hwa
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.947-954
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    • 2013
  • The Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling network that is critical for embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance. In addition, aberrant activation of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling is implicated in the formation of various human diseases, including cancers. Thus, study of the underlying molecular mechanism of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling regulation is important to understand and treat diseases. Inhibition of aberrant Wnt pathway activity in cancer cell lines efficiently blocks their growth, highlighting the great potential of therapeutics designed to achieve this in cancer patients. Recently, protein kinases have emerged as key regulating components of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling. In this review, we provide the most recent information on Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling, describe protein kinases involved in Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling, and discuss their potential as drug targets.

The Research Progress of the Interactions between miRNA and Wnt/beta-catenin Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer of Human and Mice

  • Ye, Ni;Wang, Bin;Quan, Zi-Fang;Pan, Hai-Bo;Zhang, Man-Li;Yan, Qi-Gui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1075-1079
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    • 2014
  • MicroRNA expression is a research focus in studies of tumors. This article concentrates attention on potential links between tumors caused by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and human breast cancer, in order to provide theoretical basis for using mouse model to search for miRNA effects mediated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in human breast cancer. By analyzing interactions between miRNAs and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer, we hope to casts light on more biological functions of miRNAs in the process of tumor formation and growth and to explore their potential value in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Our endeavor aimed at providing theoretical basis for finding safer, more effective methods for treatment of human breast cancer at the miRNA molecular level.

BMP-2-Enhanced Chondrogenesis Involves p38 MAPK-mediated Down-Regulation of Wnt-7a Pathway

  • Jin, Eun-Jung;Lee, Sun-Young;Choi, Young-Ae;Jung, Jae-Chang;Bang, Ok-Sun;Kang, Shin-Sung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 2006
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family has been implicated in control of cartilage development. Here, we demonstrate that BMP-2 promotes chondrogenesis by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which in turn downregulates $Wnt-7a/{\beta}$-catenin signaling responsible for proteasomal degradation of Sox9. Exposure of mesenchymal cells to BMP-2 resulted in upregulation of Sox9 protein and a concomitant decrease in the level of ${\beta}$-catenin protein and Wnt-7a signaling. In agreement with this, the interaction of Sox9 with ${\beta}$-catenin was inhibited in the presence of BMP-2. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway using a dominant negative mutant led to sustained Wnt-7a signaling and decreased Sox9 expression, with consequent inhibition of precartilage condensation and chondrogenic differentiation. Moreover, overexpression of ${\beta}$-catenin caused degradation of Sox9 via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway. Our results collectively indicate that the increase in Sox9 protein resulting from downregulation of ${\beta}$-catenin/Wnt-7a signaling is mediated by p38 MAPK during BMP-2 induced chondrogenesis in chick wing bud mesenchymal cells.

Role of Wnt signaling in fracture healing

  • Xu, Huiyun;Duan, Jing;Ning, Dandan;Li, Jingbao;Liu, Ruofei;Yang, Ruixin;Jiang, Jean X.;Shang, Peng
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.12
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    • pp.666-672
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    • 2014
  • The Wnt signaling pathway is well known to play major roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. In certain aspects, fracture repair mimics the process of bone embryonic development. Thus, the importance of Wnt signaling in fracture healing has become more apparent in recent years. Here, we summarize recent research progress in the area, which may be conducive to the development of Wnt-based therapeutic strategies for bone repair.

Cyclic tensile stress inhibits Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling in human periodontal ligament cells

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Yang, Daum;Kim, Ha-Neui;Jung, Kyoung-Suk;Chang, Young-Il;Lee, Zang-Hee
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2009
  • Periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue is a connective tissue that is interposed between the roots of the teeth and the inner wall of the alveolar bone socket. PDL is always exposed to physiologic mechanical force such as masticatory force and PDL cells play important roles during orthodontic tooth movement by synthesizing and secreting different mediators involved in bone remodeling. The Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway was recently shown to play a significant role in the control of bone formation. In the present study, we applied cyclic tensile stress of 20% elongation to cultured human PDL cells and assessed its impact after six days upon components of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway. RTPCR analysis showed that Wnt1a, Wnt3a, Wnt10b and the Wnt receptor LRP5 were down-regulated, whereas the Wnt inhibitor DKK1 was up-regulated in response to these stress conditions. In contrast, little change was detected in the mRNA expression of Wnt5a, Wnt7b, Fz1, and LRP6. By western blotting we found decreased expression of the ${\beta}$-catenin and p-GSK-3${\beta}$ proteins. Our results thus show that mechanical stress suppresses the canonical Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway in PDL cells.

Gene Targeting of Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) Receptor Related Protein 5(LRP5) Involved in the Wnt Signaling Pathway

  • Jeong, Young-Hee;Kim, Suck-Ho;Kim, Dong-Ho;Moon, Seung-Ju;Tokuo Yamamoto;Kang, Man-Jong
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.82-82
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    • 2002
  • The Wnt signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in embryonic development and oncogenesis through various signaling molecules inculding Frizzled receptor, recently characterized LRP5/6 and Dickkopf protein. Although Wnt signaling has been characterized in both developmental and oncogenic processes, little is known about its function in the normal adult. The ability of LRP5 to bind apolipoprotein E(apoE) and the abundant expression of LRP5 transcripts in hepatocytes, raise the possibility that LRP5 plays a role in the hepatic clearance of ApoE-containing chylomicron remonants, a major plasma lipoprotein carrying diet-derived cholesterol. (omitted)

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