• Title, Summary, Keyword: Working memory load

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The Effects of Working Memory Load on Word Frequency (작업기억 부하가 단어빈도에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Chang-Hoan;Oh, Ji-Hyang;Pyun, Sung-Bom;Lim, Heui-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.567-571
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the role of working memory in word recognition. As a preliminary step in tackling this topic, word frequency and working memory load were manipulated in a naming task. The results showed that word frequency is significantly involved with the working memory load. The effects of working memory load were greater in low-frequency word processing than in high-frequency word processing. These results indicat that working memory is involved more in the processing of low-frequency words. The implications for the teaching of children at the early reading acquisition stage are discussed in this paper.

Assessment of long-term working memory by a delayed nonmatch-to-place task using a T-maze

  • Kim, Jung-Eun;Choi, Jun-Hyeok;Kaang, Bong-Kiun
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2010
  • Long-term working memory (LTWM) is a subdivision concept of working memory and indicates the enhancement of performance in a working memory task. LTWM has been shown in humans who have been engaged in a specific task requiring working memory over a long time. However, there is very little understanding of the exact mechanism of LTWM because of limitations of experimental methods in human studies. We have modified the standard T-maze task, which is used to test working memory in mice, to demonstrate LTWM in an animal model. We observed an enhancement of performance by repeated experience with the same working memory load in mice, which can be regarded as an LTWM. This effect seems to depend on the condition wherein a delay was given. This task may be a good experimental protocol to assess LTWM in animal studies.

The Effect of Memory Load on Maintenance in Face and Spatial Working Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Study (기억부하가 얼굴과 공간 작업기억의 유지에 미치는 효과: 사건유관 fMRI 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Hee;Jeong, Gwang-Woo;Kang, Heoung-Keun;Lee, Moo-Suk;Park, Tae-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.359-386
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    • 2010
  • In order to evaluate the domain-specific model and process-specific model of spatial and nonspatial working memory (WM), this study manipulated the memory load of the delayed response task and examined how the neural correlates of memory load effect was influenced by the stimulus domain (face and location) at the maintenance stage of WM using an event-related fMRI experiment. One or three face stimuli were presented as target stimuli and participants were asked to maintain the face itself (face WM) or the location of face stimuli (spatial WM). The results of recognition judgment accuracy showed no difference between face WM and spatial WM, and showed equivalent memory load effects of both WM. As a result of brian image analysis, memory load effect at maintenance stage showed that inferior, middle, and superior PFC were recruited by both face WM and spatial WM, and showed that VLPFC was the commonly activated area by both WM, supporting functional specialization of PFC by process components of WM. This study provides evidence for process-specific model in which maintenance of WM is associated with VLPFC.

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Overview of Understanding and Quantifying Cognitive Load (인지부하 기전과 평가방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Mun, Sungchul
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate physiological mechanisms underlying cognitive load and determine important factors that should be considered to quantify cognitive load. Background: Many studies have been conducted to propose measurement methods and effectively quantify effects that cognitive load has on user experiences, human performance, and human safety. However, few studies have been made to investigate which factors contributed to different findings of changes in physiological signals characterized with increasing cognitive load. Method: This study systematically reviews physiological mechanisms related to cognitive load based on working memory and selective attention theory. In order to determine the contributing factors to the different previous findings, subjective and objective measurement methods frequently and recently introduced in the literature have been overviewed. The contributing factors were determined by discussing the current advantages and limitations of the measurement methods. Results: Individual differences in inherent cognitive capability and differences in how to increase cognitive load affect human cognitive control, which results in the different findings of the physiological changes as a function of cognitive load. Minimizing the number of measures to quantify cognitive load is very important to address statistical issues such as increased false discovery rate. Conclusion: In order to evaluate accumulated cognitive load for ensuring human safety, objective measures indirectly reflecting neural connection between brain and heart can be considered while using multi-dimensional subjective measures such as NASA-TLX as an assistant method to validate the objective measures. In addition, EEG changes underlying cognitive load can be effectively measured by recording and analyzing brainwaves at just two midline electrodes (frontal and parietal) since the cortical regions are inextricably tied with cognitive control functions such as working memory and selective attention. Application: The findings in this overview are expected to provide practical guidelines to potential researchers who want to quantify cognitive load in their practical fields. With the updated knowledge of the measures, it can be possible to more precisely quantify cognitive load, determine contributing factors to the load, and then optimize various factors positively affecting man-machine interfaces.

Effects of Visual Working Memory Capacity and the Type and Contents of Graphic Annotation on Multimedia English Learning (시공간 작업기억 용량과 그림 자료의 유형과 내용이 초등학생의 영어 단어 학습에 미치는 영향)

  • Do, Kyung-Soo;Cha, Yu-Young
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.369-396
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of visual working memory, the types and contents of graphic annotations on English learning. The participants of the experiments were 5th and 6th graders. The result showed that animation was effective only in the word test for children with large visual working memory, whereas text-only-annotation yielded better performance in the comprehension test in Experiment 1. The effect of relevance of animations was tested in Experiment 2. Context-relevant-animations yielded better comprehension than the animations denoting the typical meaning, whereas the opposite pattern was reported in the word test. The result of the two experiments was interpreted in terms of cognitive load theory and the generative theory of multimedia learning.

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Effects of Working Memory Load on Negative Facial Emotion Processing: an ERP study (작업기억 부담이 부적 얼굴정서 처리에 미치는 영향: ERP 연구)

  • Park, Taejin;Kim, Junghee
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.39-59
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    • 2018
  • To elucidate the effect of working memory (WM) load on negative facial emotion processing, we examined ERP components (P1 and N170) elicited by fearful and neutral expressions each of which was presented during 0-back (low-WM load) or 2-back (high-WM load) tasks. During N-back tasks, visual objects were presented one by one as targets and each of facial expressions was presented as a passively observed stimulus during intervals between targets. Behavioral results showed more accurate and fast responses at low-WM load condition compared to high-WM load condition. Analysis of mean amplitudes of P1 on the occipital region showed significant WM load effect (high-WM load > low-WM load) but showed nonsignificant facial emotion effect. Analysis of mean amplitudes of N170 on the posterior occipito-temporal region showed significant overall facial emotion effect (fearful > neutral), but, in detail, significant facial emotion effect was observed only at low-WM load condition on the left hemisphere, but was observed at high-WM load condition as well as low-WM load condition on the right hemisphere. To summarize, facial emotion effect observed by N170 amplitudes was modulated by WM load only on the left hemisphere. These results show that early emotional processing of negative facial expression could be eliminated or reduced by high load of WM on the left hemisphere, but could not be eliminated by high load on the right hemisphere, and suggest right hemispheric lateralization of negative facial emotion processing.

Cognitive Load and Instructional Design in Medical Education (인지부하를 고려한 의학교육 교수-학습 설계)

  • Oh, Sun A;Kim, Yeon Soon;Chung, Eun Kyung
    • Korean Medical Education Review
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to review the definition of cognitive load (CL), the relationship between CL and instructional design, and to provide a viewpoint of CL in curriculum and instructional design in medical education. Cognitive load theory (CLT) makes use of three hypotheses about the structure of human memory: working memory (WM) is limited in terms of the amount of information it can hold, in contrast with WM, long term memory is assumed to have no limits and organizes information as schemata. CL indicates the mental load on the limitation of WM. CLT has been used to design instructional interventions that help to ease the learning process. Extraneous CL is related to irrelevant instructional interventions, while intrinsic CL is the complexity of the information itself. Germane CL is the cognitive process for acquiring schema formation. It is a necessary CL to achieve deeper comprehension and solve problems. The range of medical education includes complex, multifaceted and knowledge-rich domains with clinical skills and attitudes. Therefore, CLT may be used to guide instructional design in medical education in terms of decreasing extraneous CL, adjusting intrinsic CL and enhancing the germane CL.

Does Story Enhance Social Cognitive Ability? Associations between Working Memory and Perspective Taking Ability (이야기는 사회인지능력을 향상시키는가? 작업기억과 관점채택 능력과의 관계)

  • Ahn, Dohyun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2019
  • This study was to examine association between working memory and social cognitive ability, and the influence of story-use on social cognitive ability. To this end, this study measured working memory(via n-back), and randomly assigned 82 participants into three groups(5th level intentionality, 3rd-level intentionality, and exposition conditions), and then compared the accuracy of perspective taking and emotion recognition(RMET: Reading Minds in the Eyes Test) as social cognitive ability. The results suggested that perspective taking accuracy was significantly associated with working memory capacity, whereas emotion recognition accuracy was not. Contrary to the hypothesis, perspective taking in the 5th-level intentionality story group were significantly lower than those in the 3rd-level intentionality story group. Emotions recognition accuracy was not significantly different among the three groups. Overall, this study produced inconsistent results, which has been discussed in terms of theory and methods.

Main Cause of the Interference between Visual Search and Spatial Working Memory Task (시각 탐색과 공간적 작업기억간 상호 간섭의 원인)

  • Ahn Jae-Won;Kim Min-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.155-174
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    • 2005
  • Oh and Kim (2004) and Woodman and Lurk (2004) demonstrated that spatial working memory (SWM) load Interfered concurrent visual search and that search process also impaired the maintenance of spatial information implying that visual search and SWM task both require access to the same limited-capacity mechanism. Two obvious possibilities have been suggested about what this shared limited-capacity mechanism is: common demand for attention to the locations where the items f9r the two tasks were presented (spatial attention load hypothesis), and common use of working memory to maintain a record of locations have been processed(SWM load hypothesis). To test these two hypothetical explanations, Experiment 1 replicated the mutual interference between visual search and SWM task in spite of difference of procedure with preceding researches; possible areas where the items for two tasks were presented were not separated. In Experiment 2, we presented the items for visual search either in the same quadrants where the items for SWM task had appeared (same-location rendition) or in the different quadrants (different-location condition). As a result, search efficiency was more impaired in the different-location condition than in the same-location condition. The memory accuracy was worse in the different-location rendition than in the same-location rendition. Overall results of study indicate that the mutual interference between SWM and visual search might be related to the overload of spatial attention, but not to that of SWM.

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The cognitive load of middle school students according to problem types in collaborative learning for solving the function problems (함수 영역 문제해결 협력학습 과정에서 문제 유형에 따른 중학생의 인지부하 분석)

  • Kim, Seong-Kyeong;Kim, Ji Youn;Lee, Sun Ji;Lee, Bongju
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.137-155
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    • 2018
  • From the assumption that an individual's working memory capacity is limited, the cognitive load theory is concerned with providing adequate instructional design so as to avoid overloading the learner's working memory. Based on the cognitive load theory, this study aimed to provide implications for effective problem-based collaborative teaching and learning design by analyzing the level of middle school students' cognitive load which is perceived according to the problem types(short answer type, narrative type, project) in the process of collaborative problem solving in middle school function part. To do this, this study analyzed whether there is a relevant difference in the level of cognitive load for the problem type according to the math achievement level and gender in the process of cooperative problem solving. As a result, there was a relevant difference in the task burden and task difficulty perceived according to the types of problems in both first and second graders in middle schools students. and there was no significant difference in the cognitive effort. In addition, the efficacy of task performance differed between first and second graders. The significance of this study is as follows: in the process of collaborative problem solving learning, which is most frequently used in school classrooms, it examined students' cognitive load according to problem types in various aspects of grade, achievement level, and gender.