• Title, Summary, Keyword: Write amplification

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NVM-based Write Amplification Reduction to Avoid Performance Fluctuation of Flash Storage (플래시 스토리지의 성능 지연 방지를 위한 비휘발성램 기반 쓰기 증폭 감소 기법)

  • Lee, Eunji;Jeong, Minseong;Bahn, Hyokyung
    • The Journal of The Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2016
  • Write amplification is a critical factor that limits the stable performance of flash-based storage systems. To reduce write amplification, this paper presents a new technique that cooperatively manages data in flash storage and nonvolatile memory (NVM). Our scheme basically considers NVM as the cache of flash storage, but allows the original data in flash storage to be invalidated if there is a cached copy in NVM, which can temporarily serve as the original data. This scheme eliminates the copy-out operation for a substantial number of cached data, thereby enhancing garbage collection efficiency. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme reduces the copy-out overhead of garbage collection by 51.4% and decreases the standard deviation of response time by 35.4% on average.

Demand-based FTL Cache Partitioning for Large Capacity SSDs (대용량 SSD를 위한 요구 기반 FTL 캐시 분리 기법)

  • Bae, Jinwook;Kim, Hanbyeol;Im, Junsu;Lee, Sungjin
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2019
  • As the capacity of SSDs rapidly increases, the amount of DRAM to keep a mapping table size in SSDs becomes very huge. To address a Demand-based FTL (DFTL) scheme that caches part of mapping entries in DRAM is considered to be a feasible alternative. However, owing to its unpredictable behaviors, DFTL fails to provide consistent I/O response times. In this paper, we a) analyze a root cause that results in fluctuation on read latency and b) propose a new demand-based FTL scheme that ensures guaranteed read response time with low write amplification. By preventing mapping evictions while serving reads, the proposed technique guarantees every host read requests to be done in 2 NAND read operations. Moreover, only with 25% of a cache ratio, the proposed scheme improves random write performance and random mixed performance by 1.65x and 1.15x, respectively, over the traditional DFTL.

Write Request Handling for Static Wear Leveling in Flash Memory (SSD) Controller

  • Choo, Chang;Gajipara, Pooja;Moon, Il-Young
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.181-185
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    • 2014
  • The lifetime of a solid-state drive (SSD) is limited because of the number of program and erase cycles allowed on its NAND flash blocks. Data cannot be overwritten in an SSD, leading to an out-of-place update every time the data are modified. This result in two copies of the data: the original copy and a modified copy. This phenomenon is known as write amplification and adversely affects the endurance of the memory. In this study, we address the issue of reducing wear leveling through efficient handling of write requests. This results in even wearing of all the blocks, thereby increasing the endurance period. The focus of our work is to logically divert the write requests, which are concentrated to limited blocks, to the less-worn blocks and then measure the maximum number of write requests that the memory can handle. A memory without the proposed algorithm wears out prematurely as compared to that with the algorithm. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is to delay out-of-place updates till the threshold is reached, which results in a low overhead. Further, the algorithm increases endurance by a factor of the threshold level multiplied by the number of blocks in the memory.

An Empirical Study on Linux I/O stack for the Lifetime of SSD Perspective (SSD 수명 관점에서 리눅스 I/O 스택에 대한 실험적 분석)

  • Jeong, Nam Ki;Han, Tae Hee
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2015
  • Although NAND flash-based SSD (Solid-State Drive) provides superior performance in comparison to HDD (Hard Disk Drive), it has a major drawback in write endurance. As a result, the lifetime of SSD is determined by the workload and thus it becomes a big challenge in current technology trend of such as the shifting from SLC (Single Level Cell) to MLC (Multi Level cell) and even TLC (Triple Level Cell). Most previous studies have dealt with wear-leveling or improving SSD lifetime regarding hardware architecture. In this paper, we propose the optimal configuration of host I/O stack focusing on file system, I/O scheduler, and link power management using JEDEC enterprise workloads in terms of WAF (Write Amplification Factor) which represents the efficiency perspective of SSD life time especially for host write processing into flash memory. Experimental analysis shows that the optimum configuration of I/O stack for the perspective of SSD lifetime is MinPower-Dead-XFS which prolongs the lifetime of SSD approximately 2.6 times in comparison with MaxPower-Cfq-Ext4, the best performance combination. Though the performance was reduced by 13%, this contributions demonstrates a considerable aspect of SSD lifetime in relation to I/O stack optimization.