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A Roentgenographic Study on the Development of Human Permanent Posterior Teeth (영구 구치 발육에 관한 방사선학적 연구)

  • Young-Ku Kim
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 1991
  • 저자는 연령을 추정하기 위한 기본자료를 얻기 위하여 상하악의 대구치, 소구치의 발육정도를 평가하였다. Orthopantomograph를 촬영한 722명의 3,464개 치아를 대상으로 crown-root ratio를 측정하여 발육정도를 평가하였으며, 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. 완전히 형성된 치아의 crown-root ration에는 남녀간에 유의한 차이가 없었다. 2. 발육중인 치아의 crown-root ratio에는 좌우측간에 유의한 차이가 없었다. 3. 각 치아의 crown-root ratio를 이용한 연령추정의 회귀방정식은 다음과 같다. 남자: 여자 : 하악좌측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.599X+7.832(r=0.8337) 하악 좌측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.857X+7.429(r=0.8975) 제 1대구치 : Y=5.179X+2.324(r=0.7948) 제 1대구치 : Y=5.919X+2.018(r=0.8144) 제 2소구치 : Y=3.863X+7.432(r=0.8638) 제 2소구치 : Y=3.679X+7.275(r=0.8819) 제 1소구치 : Y=3.472X+7.120(r=0.8352) 제 1소구치 : Y=4.001X+6.544(r=0.9024) 하악우측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.447X+7.938(r=0.8045) 하악 우측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.653X+7.365(r=0.8598) 제 1대구치 : Y=5.954X+1.495(r=0.7777) 제 1대구치 : Y=5.449X+2.012(r=0.7553) 제 2소구치 : Y=3.894X+7.253(r=0.8689) 제 2소구치 : Y=3.772X+7.025(r=0.8719) 제 1소구치 : Y=4.189X+6.717(r=0.8370) 제 1소구치 : Y=4.327X+6.193(r=0.8524) 상악좌측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.430X+7.722(r=0.7538) 상악 좌측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.876X+7.606(r=0.8311) 제 1대구치 : Y=4.645X+2.886(r=0.6894) 제 1대구치 : Y=6.754X+1.891(r=0.5378) 제 2소구치 : Y=4.391X+6.686(r=0.7700) 제 2소구치 : Y=1.245X+10.575(r=0.1908) 제 1소구치 : Y=5.564X+6.037(r=0.9032) 제 1소구치 : - 상악우측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.587X+7.966(r=0.7882) 상악 우측 제 2대구치 : Y=4.454X+7.803(r=0.8443) 제 1대구치 : Y=4.047X+4.124(r=0.6352) 제 1대구치 : Y=6.336X+2.911(r=0.4688) 제 2소구치 : Y=2.920X+8.089(r=0.7277) 제 2소구치 : Y=3.105X+8.082(r=0.6381) 제 1소구치 : Y=3.264X+6.970(r=0.7292) 제 1소구치 : - 4. Orthopantomograph상의 crown-root ratio를 이용한 연령의 추정에는 상악치아들 보다 하악치아들이 더 정확하게 사용될 수 있다.

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A study on the Degradation and By-products Formation of NDMA by the Photolysis with UV: Setup of Reaction Models and Assessment of Decomposition Characteristics by the Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behnken Technique (UV 공정을 이용한 N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 광분해 및 부산물 생성에 관한 연구: 박스-벤켄법 실험계획법을 이용한 통계학적 분해특성평가 및 반응모델 수립)

  • Chang, Soon-Woong;Lee, Si-Jin;Cho, Il-Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2010
  • We investigated and estimated at the characteristics of decomposition and by-products of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a design of experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behken design in an UV process, and also the main factors (variables) with UV intensity($X_2$) (range: $1.5{\sim}4.5\;mW/cm^2$), NDMA concentration ($X_2$) (range: 100~300 uM) and pH ($X_2$) (rang: 3~9) which consisted of 3 levels in each factor and 4 responses ($Y_1$ (% of NDMA removal), $Y_2$ (dimethylamine (DMA) reformation (uM)), $Y_3$ (dimethylformamide (DMF) reformation (uM), $Y_4$ ($NO_2$-N reformation (uM)) were set up to estimate the prediction model and the optimization conditions. The results of prediction model and optimization point using the canonical analysis in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions were $Y_1$ [% of NDMA removal] = $117+21X_1-0.3X_2-17.2X_3+{2.43X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2+{3.2X_3}^2-0.08X_1X_2-1.6X_1X_3-0.05X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 96%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 88%) and 99.3% ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;190\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.2$), $Y_2$ [DMA conc] = $-101+18.5X_1+0.4X_2+21X_3-{3.3X_1}^2-{0.01X_2}^2-{1.5X_3}^2-0.01X_1X_2+0.07X_1X_3-0.01X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 99.4%, 수정 $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 35.2 uM ($X_1$: 3 $mW/cm^2$, $X_2$: 220 uM, $X_3$: 6.3), $Y_3$ [DMF conc] = $-6.2+0.2X_1+0.02X_2+2X_3-0.26X_1^2-0.01X_2^2-0.2X_3^2-0.004X_1X_2+0.1X_1X_3-0.02X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 94.4%) and 3.7 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;$mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;290\;uM$, $X_3:\;6.2$) and $Y_4$ [$NO_2$-N conc] = $-25+12.2X_1+0.15X_2+7.8X_3+{1.1X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2-{0.34X_3}^2+0.01X_1X_2+0.08X_1X_3-3.4X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98.5%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 74.5 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;220\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.1$). This study has demonstrated that the response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken statistical experiment design can provide statistically reliable results for decomposition and by-products of NDMA by the UV photolysis and also for determination of optimum conditions. Predictions obtained from the response functions were in good agreement with the experimental results indicating the reliability of the methodology used.

CHOW GROUPS OF COMPLETE REGULAR LOCAL RINGS III

  • Lee, Si-Chang
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2002
  • In this paper we will show that the followings ; (1) Let R be a regular local ring of dimension n. Then $A_{n-2}$(R) = 0. (2) Let R be a regular local ring of dimension n and I be an ideal in R of height 3 such that R/I is a Gorenstein ring. Then [I] = 0 in $A_{n-3}$(R). (3) Let R = V[[ $X_1$, $X_2$, …, $X_{5}$ ]]/(p+ $X_1$$^{t1}$ + $X_2$$^{t2}$ + $X_3$$^{t3}$ + $X_4$$^2$+ $X_{5}$ $^2$/), where p $\neq$2, $t_1$, $t_2$, $t_3$ are arbitrary positive integers and V is a complete discrete valuation ring with (p) = mv. Assume that R/m is algebraically closed. Then all the Chow group for R is 0 except the last Chow group.group.oup.

Effect of Soil Physical Characteristics on Rhizome Rot Incidence of Platycodon grangiflorus (토양 물리적특성이 도라지 근경부패병에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Young-Han;Choi, Yong-Jo;Park, Sang-Ryeol;Kim, Min-Keun;Cho, Soo-Jeong;Yun, Han-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of soil physical characteristics on rhizome rot incidence of platycodon. Sampling sites were Keochang 4, Kimhae 7, Haman 6, Chinju 6 and Koseong 3 fields in Kyongnam province and Hongcheon 6 fields in Kangwon province. The root disease incidence rate was correlated with soil depth Y=-0.747X+88.19($R^2=0.394^{***}$), soil hardness Y=4.36X+8.93($R^2=0.201^*$), bulk density Y=104.7X-80.99($R^2=0.295^{**}$), clay content Y=1.24X+14.14($R^2=0.196^*$), porosity Y=-3.11X+215.9($R^2=0.220^*$) and silt content Y=-0.75X+67.85($R^2=0.178^*$). The yield was correlated with soil depth Y=0.263X+0.971($R^2=0.105^*$), clay content Y=-0.688X+32.74($R^2=0.158^*$), porosity Y=1.974X-93.19($R^2=0.231^{**}$) and silt content Y=53.05X-108.65($R^2=0.232^*$), The optimum cultivated land of perennial platycodon was soil depth over 1m, soil hardness under $5kg\;cm^{-2}$, bulk density $1.0Mg\;m^{-3}$, moisture content 13~17%. clay content 5~10%, porosity 58~63%, silt content 38~64% and soil texture of silt loam.

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Physical Properties of Polycrystalline Zinc-Substituted Lithium Ferrite (ZnO가 Lithium ferrite의 물리적 특성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 고재귀
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 1999
  • Lithium ferrites are prominent in the element of microwave frequency communication core and high frequency memory core because of their low coercivity and the high squareness ratio. This paper reports primarily the development of lithium ferrites with the low coercivity and high squareness ratio. The materials with $Li_{0.48-0.5x}Bi_{0.02}Ni_{0.04}Zn_xFe_{2.46-0.5x}O_4$ (x = 0,0.01, 0.02, 0.03) have been prepared to investigate the physical properties. The addition of ZnO gave raised maximum induction $(B_m)$ and decreased coercive force $(H_c)$, but the squareness ratio $(R\;=\;B_m/B_r)$ was decreased. The specimen of squareness ratio R=0.82, coercive force $H_c=\;1.80\;Oe$ was obtained for $Li_{0.48-0.5x}Bi_{0.02}Ni_{0.04}Zn_xFe_{2.46-0.5x}O_4$ (X=0) sintered at 105$0^{\circ}C$. Also the sample of squareness ratio R = 0.75, coercive force $H_c=\;1.70\;Oe$ for $Li_{0.48-0.5x}Bi_{0.02}Ni_{0.04}Zn_xFe_{2.46-0.5x}O_4$ (X = 0) sintered at 110$0^{\circ}C$ was measured. The Tc was obtained 463$^{\circ}C$ and the Br of environmental temperature variation was stable.

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A Statistical Study on the Warmth Retaining Properties of Fabrics (직물의 보온성에 관한 통계학적연구)

  • Lee Kwang Bae;Lee Dong Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 1985
  • In order to investigate the warmth retaining properties of fabrics some characteristics such as thickness. porosity, packing density, thermal conductivity, moisture regain and air permeability were measured and experimental results were analysed statistically to relate the warmth retaining properties with those characteristics. From the analysis, the following results were obtained. 1. When the warmth retaining properties of fabrics (Y) are dependent variable and thickness ($x_1$), porosity ($x_2$), packing density ($x_3$), thermal conductivity ($x_4$), moisture regain ($x_5$) and air permeability ($x_6$) are independent variables, the regression equation of warmth retaining properties can be represented as follows. 1) Y= 1.6005+46.817$x_1$, (R=0.9487) 2)Y=-1.4187+26.5072$x_1$+0.2055$x_2$(R=0.9704) 3) Y= -3.6908+17.4482$x_1$+0.1782$x_2$+28.3243$x_3$ (R=0.9756) 4) Y=0.9202+16.9553$x_1$+0. 1167$x_2$+30.3577$x_3$+1.8884$x_4$ (R=0.9792) 5) Y=0.9353+17.2266$x_1$+0.1177$x_2$+28.9821$x_3$-1.8302$x_4$+0.0151$x_5$ (R=0.9792) 6) Y=0.7583+17.2343$x_1$+0.1196$x_2$+28.8830$x_3$-1.8336$x_4$+0.0187$x_5$0.0004$x_5$ (R=0.9792) 2. The warmth retaining properties of fabrics are merely affected by adding thermal conductivity, moisture regain and multiple regression equation which contains thickness, porosity and packing density as variables. Therefore the multiple regression which contains thickness, porosity and packing density as variables Y=-3.6908+17.4482$x_1$+0.1782$x_2$+28.3243$x_3$ is highly practical.

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Kinetics and Mechanism of the Pyridinolysis of (2R,4R,5S)-(+)-2-Chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-Sulfide in Acetonitrile

  • Barai, Hasi Rani;Lee, Hai-Whang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.1047-1051
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    • 2012
  • The nucleophilic substitution reactions of (2R,4R,5S)-(+)-2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-sulfide with X-pyridines are investigated kinetically in acetonitrile at $5.0^{\circ}C$. The free energy relationships for substituent X variations in the nucleophiles exhibit biphasic concave upwards with a break point at X = 3-Ac. Unusual positive $\rho_X$ (= +4.73) and negative ${\beta}_X$ (= -0.75) values are obtained with the weakly basic pyridines, and rationalized by the isokinetic relationship with isokinetic temperature at $t_{ISOKINETIC}=39.3^{\circ}C$. A concerted mechanism involving a change of nucleophilic attacking direction from a frontside attack with the strongly basic pyridines to a backside attack with the weakly basic pyridines is proposed on the basis of greater magnitudes of selectivity parameters ($\rho_X$ = -6.15 and ${\beta}_X$ = 1.11) with the strongly basic pyridines compared to those ($\rho_X$ = 4.73 and ${\beta}_X$ = -0.75) with the weakly basic pyridines.

Prediction of Physical Properties in the Design of Mono-Acetate Filter Cigarette by Response Surface Methodology (반응표면 실험 계획법에 의한 Mono-Acetate 필터담배 설계의 물리성 예측)

  • 김영호;이영택;김성한;김윤동;임광수;김용태
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.3-13
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    • 1994
  • To minimize the time ordinarily spent in mono filter cigarette design, we studied the relationship between major seven independant variables ; filament(X1) and total denier(X2), porosity of the aller plug wrap(X3), filter length(X4), Porosity of the tip paper(X5) and cigarette paper(X6) and net weight of the reference cut tobacco(X7). Ninty trial numbers were obtained as a results of using rotatable central composite design and it is analyzed by the multiple regression analysis with stepwise in SAS/pc under restricted conditions. That is, UPD (Y1) = 82.96 - 3.80X1 + 2.50X2 - 3.29X3 - 3.15X5 - 0.83X22 + 1.88X5X6 - 1.38 X5X7(R2: 0.63), EPD(Y2) : 120.91 - 5.70X1 + 3.60X2 + 4.23X4 - 0.93X6 + 4.06X7 (R2=0.84), TVR(Y3) = 49.70 - 0.78X1 + 3.60X3 + 2.00X4 + 4.20X5 - 0.93X6 + 2.64X7 - 1.07X1X2 + 1.0IX1 X3 + 1.05X2X6 + 0.45X22 - 0.64X42 + 1.29X4X6 - 0.97X4X7 - 1.28X5X6 + 1.53X5X7 + 1.39X6X7(R2=0.65), and EVR(Y4) : 3.24-0.21X3-0.20X4 -0.24X5+0.67X6+0.26X4X7 (R2=0.55), where EPD : encapsulated pressure drop, VPD : unencapsulated pressure drop, TVR ; tip ventilation rate, and En : envelope ventilation rate. All variables in the model are significant at the 0.05 level.

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Molybdenum(Ⅴ)-Oxo Complexes with Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur Donors. Synthesis, Spectral and Electrochemical Properties (산소, 질소, 그리고 황 주개 원자의 몰리브덴(Ⅴ)-산소 착물 합성과 분광학적 및 전기화학적 성질)

  • Kim, Hee-Jung;Koo, Bon-Kweon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.434-439
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    • 1995
  • Six-coordinate molybdenum(Ⅴ)-oxo complexes, (R4N)[MoO(NCS)2L](R=CH3, C2H5, n-C4, H9) with S-methyl-3-(2-hydroxy-x-phenyl)methylenedithiocarbazate(L1: x=5-H) and its derivatives (L2:x=5-CH3, L3: x=3-CH3O, L4: x=5,6-C4H4 and L5: x=5-NO2) have been synthesized and the structural, spectral and electrochemical properties of the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, and CV (cyclic voltammetry).

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Magnetic properties of $(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$ (R=Y, Pr) ($(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$ (R=Y, Pr)의 자기특성)

  • 김만중;김윤배;김희태;김택기
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.271-274
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    • 1998
  • Spin reorientation and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of magnetically aligned $(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$ (R=Y, Pr) power were studied. The spin reorientation temperature $(T_{SR})$ of $(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$ decreases linearly by increasing Pr-substitution with the ratio of ${\Delta}T_{SR}=-1.35$ K/Pr at.% in composition range of 0$\leq$x$\leq$0.75. The spin reorientation temperature of $(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$ decreases by increasing Pr-substitution to 118 K (x=0.5) then increases to 122 K (x=0.75). The spin reorientation angle at 4.2 K decreases by increasing rare earth substitution with the ratio of $\Delta$SRA=-0.073$^{\circ}$/Y at.% and $\Delta$SRA=-0.258$^{\circ}$/Pr at.% in composition range of 0$\leq$x$\leq$0.5. The spin reorientation is expected to disappear at x$\geq$0.9 in case of $(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$ and at x$\geq$0.8 in case of $(Nd_{1-x}R_x)_2Fe_{14}B$.

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