• Title, Summary, Keyword: Zoletil

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Anesthetic Effects of Zoletil on Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata) Reared in Zoological Garden (동물원에서 사육중인 Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata)에서 Zoletil 마취에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-il;Lee, Soo-Jin;Hong, Sung-hyeok;Shin, Nam-shik;Kim, Duck-hwan;Park, Chang-sik;Jun, Moo-hyung;Cho, Jong-min;Kim, Young-suk;Kim, Myung-cheol
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.301-305
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    • 2003
  • To evaluate the effects of Zoletil (tiletamine- zolazepam) that have been widely used for the chemical restraint and anesthesia of primates, on physiologic alteration, blood gas analysis and anesthetic duration in the Japanese macaque(Macaca fuscata), this study was carried out. Zoletil was administered by intramuscular injection. Evaluation of temperature, heart rate, respiration rate and blood gas analysis were performed before administration and at 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after administration, and induction and maintenance time was recorded. There was no significant difference in heart rate, $PCO_2$, $PO_2$ after Zoletil administration rut temperature, respiraticn rate, pH were significant difference compared with these of Mere administration. The induction time was $2.5{\pm}1.0min$ and maintenance time was $86{\pm}23.2min$. It was considered that Zoletil could be usefully used for the sedation and immobilization of Japanese macaque reared in zoological garden.

Analgesic Effect of Combination of Ketamine Hcl/Propionyl promazine HCI and Tiletamine HC1/Zolazepam HCl for Scaling in Dog (개의 치석제거를 위한 마취에 있어 Ketamine HCl/Propionyl promazine HCI과 Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl의 투여효과)

  • Shin Nam-Sik;Choi Youn-Ju;Kwon Soo-Wahn;Han Duk-hwan;Park Hyun-Jong;Kweon Oh-Kyeong
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.221-226
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    • 1993
  • To study effective dossage and administration route for scaling, ketamine HCl/propionyl promazine HCl(ketamine) combination and tiletamine HCl/zolazepam HCl(zoletil) were administered in one hundred six dogs. The dogs were toy poodle, Yorkshire Terrier, Pekingese and Chihuahua. Scaling and polishing time, possible treatment time after the first injection of anesthetics, the number of anethesia added, presence of tongue movement during anesthesia, the presence of swaying sign during recovery and respiration were evaluated. The possible treatment time after the first Injection of anesthetic in toy poodle were 26.3${\pm}$3.0 minutes with intravenous(IM) treatment of ketamine 10mg/kg, and 21.4${\pm}$6.6 minutes with intramuscula(IM) treatment of zoletil 8mg/kg, In Yorkshire Terrier were 19.51: 1.7 minutes with IV treatment of ketamine 10mg/kg. 19.0${\pm}$5.2 minutes IM and 20.8${\pm}$6.1 minutes with IM treatment of zoletil 5mg/kg,24.8${\pm}$3,5 minutes with IM treatment of zoletil 8mg/kg. In pekingese were 27.5${\pm}$2.1 minutes with IM treatment of ketamine 10mg/kg,28.0${\pm}$4.2 minutes with IM treatment of zoletil 8mg/kg. In Chihuahua were 19.5${\pm}$1.9 minutes with IV treatment of ketamine 7mg/kg, 17.5${\pm}$1.7 minutes with IM treatment of ketamine 10mg/kg and 20.3${\pm}$3.8 minutes with IM treatment of zoletil 5mg/kg, 21.2${\pm}$5.5 minutes with IM treatment of zoletil 8mg/kg. Swaying sign was observed in all group during recovery time, espically, in toy poodle and Yorkshire Terrier which administered zoletil 8mg/kg IM showed more severe swaying sign. The present results suggested that injection of zoletil 8mg/kg IM might be relatively effective for scaling in Chihuahua Within 20 minutes treatment for scaling in Yorkshire Terrier and Chihuahua, IM treatment of ketamine 7 to 10mg/kg is recommended.

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A Case of Mental Change in a Patient Who Received a Zoletil Injection (조레틸 주사 후 의식 변화를 주소로 내원한 환자 1례)

  • Lee, Yeong Ki;Kang, In Gu;Park, Cheol Sang;Heo, Seok Jin;Chai, Youn Seok;Park, Seong Soo;Lee, Jae Kwang;Kim, Hyun Jin;Jeong, Won Joon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2013
  • Zoletil is a non-opioid, non-barbiturate animal anesthetic and proprietary combination of two drugs, a dissociative anesthetic drug, tiletamine, with the benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, zolazepam. Zoletil has greater potency than ketamine. Zoletil is abused for recreational purposes, especially by people with easy access to medicine. However, in Korea, it is available over-the-counter. Here we report on a case of an 83-year-old woman who received injection of seven vials of "Zoletil 50" by her daughter and presented with an altered mental change. Her mental state was stupor and vital sign was hypotension, bradycardia. Her blood tests indicated metabolic and respiratory acidosis and hyperkalemia. She was treated with intravenous naloxone and flumazenil but was not responsive. She was admitted to the ICU and treated with supportive therapy. Her mental state showed transient recovery, however, her clinical manifestation worsened and she expired.

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Clinical Antagonistic Effect of Atipamezole in Cats Anesthetized with Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Medetomidine (고양이에서 tiletamine-zolazepam과 medetomidine 마취에 대한 atipamezole의 임상적 길항 효과)

  • Kim, Hyung-Ung;Park, Chang-Sik;Jun, Moo-Hyung;Jeong, Seong-Mok;Kim, Myung-Cheol
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.104-108
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical antagonistic effect of atipamezole(0.25 mg/kg, IM) in cats anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam ($Zoletil^{(R)}$, 10 mg/kg, IM) and medetomidine (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Twelve healthy 1 year old Korean mixed breed cats were used for this study. They were 4 males and 8 females. These cats were randomly assigned to two groups. One was control group ($Zoletil^{(R)}$ + medetomidine, ZM), and the other was treatment group ($Zoletil^{(R)}$ + medetomidine and antagonism by atipamezole, ZMA). All cats were examined 15 minutes before, 5, 25, 65 and 105 minutes after administration of tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine. Atipamezole was injected intramuscularly 20 minutes after ZM administation. Recovery time, heart rate, respiratory rate, total plasma protein and blood glucose were significantly different between ZM group and ZMA group (P<0.05). However, rectal temperature was not significantly different between ZM group and ZMA group. Two groups were able to induce sternal recumbency within 2 minutes and lateral recumbency within 4 minutes after the anesthetics injection. Mean sternal position time ($mean{\pm}SD$) was $174.0{\pm}44.6\;and\;116.2{\pm}27.3$ minutes, and mean standing position time was $210.8{\pm}45.6\;and\;154.2{\pm}21.1$ minutes in ZM and ZMA group, respectively. In these two groups, adverse effects during recovery time from anesthesia were not seen. As a result, the ZMA group had a faster recovery than the ZM group. Thus it was concluded that atipamezole could exert a useful reversal effect in cats anesthetized with medetomidine-tiletamine/zolazepam combination.

Comparative Study of Two Anesthetic Combinations (Zoletil/Midazolam and Zoletil/Xylazine) in Pigs (돼지에서 Zoletil/Midazolam과 Zoletil/Xylazine의 2가지 병용마취에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Jee, Hyun-Chul;Lee, Jae-Yeon;Jeong, Seong-Mok;Lee, Soo-Jin;Park, Chang-Sik;Kim, Myung-Cheol
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.330-335
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to compare the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of the tiletamine/zolazepam/xylazine (TZX) combination and tiletamine/zolazepam/midazolam (TZM) combination. Eight healthy Landrace $\times$ Yorkshire pigs were randomly assigned to two groups. Each group was composed of four pigs. The pigs in group 1 (TZX) received tiletamine/zolazepam (2 mg/kg, IM) and xylazine (2 mg/kg, IM). The pigs in group 2 (TZM) received tiletamine/zolazepam (2 mg/kg, IM) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Induction time, anesthesia time and standing time were recorded for each pig. The scores of anesthetic effects were subjectively evaluated every 15 minutes during anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary parameters (heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate and rectal temperature) were monitored and recorded 0, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after administration of drugs. Arterial blood gases ($pH_a$, $P_aCO_2$ and $P_aO_2$) and oxygen saturation ($SO_2$) were analyzed at same times. The scores of anesthetic effects decreased in the TZX group compare with the TZM group. From 5 to 85 minutes the mean heart rate in the TZX group was significantly lower than those in the TZM group. Mean arterial blood pressure in the TZX group was significantly higher than those in the TZM group at 5, 15 and 30 minutes. Both drug combinations provided a smooth induction and good immobilization. Scores of anesthetic effects in the TZM group were better than those in the TZX group. The effects to the cardiorespiratory function and temperature were lesser in the TZM group than those in the TZX group. In conclusion, when the two drug combinations were compared, the TZM group showed better anesthetic effects and less cardiorespiratory effects.

Anesthetic Effects of the Xylazine-Tiletamine/Zolazepam(Zoletil$\circledR$) Combination in Dogs (Xylazine과 Tiletamine/Zolazepam(Zoletil$\circledR$)의 투여 농도 변화가 개의 마취에 미치는 영향)

  • 김준일;장환수;장광호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.168-171
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    • 2004
  • The effects of alterations of dose of xylaznie (X) and Zoltil$\circledR$ (TZ) on canine anesthesia were examined. Experimental groups were divided into three (Group 1: X 1.1 mg/kg and TZ 10 mg/kg, Group 2: X 1.65 mg/kg and TZ 7.5 mg/kg, Group 3: X 2.2 mg/kg and TZ 5 mg/kg), and each had 5 dogs. A femoral artery was catheterized for measurement of blood pressure, and baseline value was measured. The dogs were sedated with xylazine intramuscularly, then after 10 minutes TZ were injected intravenously. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAP), duration of analgesia, mean arousal time (MAT) and mean walking time (MWT) after TZ injection were measured, and the depth of analgesia and the quality of recovery were scored. The values of MAP were recorded from the time of pre-xylazine injection to arousal. Duration of analgesia and was assessed by tail clamping test, and which were done at 10 minutes intervals after TZ injection. The decreases of MAP from 40 minutes after TZ injection were significant (p<0.05). In group 2, MAP at 20 minutes, and from 40 minutes to arousal were significantly decreased (p<0.05). In group 3, MAP were significantly decreased from 40 minutes. MAT were 62.2$\pm$9.2 minutes in group 1, 60.2$\pm$7.5 minutes in group 2, and 71.0$\pm$6.9 minutes in group 3. MAT in group 3 was significantly increased compared with group 2 (p<0.05), and the differences of MWT among each groups were not significant (p>0.05). The scores of quality of recovery were significantly lowered in group 3 compared with group 1 or group 2, which means the side effects of recovery were less occurred. Thus, it was considered that the combination X 2.2 mg/kg IM and TZ 5 mg/kg IV is more effective to surgical procedures and to prevent long and rough recovery of Zoletil anesthesia.

Anesthetic Effects of Medetomidine-Tiletamine/Zolazepam Combination in Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana) (그린 이구아나에서 Medetomidine-Tiletamine/Zolazepam의 병용마취효과)

  • Jung So Young;Kim Min-Su;Kim Sun Young;Seo Kang-Moon;Nam Tchi-Chou
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.194-197
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate the anesthetic effects of intramuscularly administered medetomidinetiletamine/zolazepam ($Zoletil^{(R)}$) in the green iguana. The doses of medetomidine were 50, 100 and 150 ${\mu}g/kg$ in each groups and tiletamine/zolazepam was administered at doses of 10 mg/kg in all groups. Heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured. Anesthetic depth was evaluated by righting reflex. In all study groups, heart rate and respiratory rate significantly decreased at 5 minutes after anesthetic administration, and gradually increased after 30 minutes. The present study suggested that the combination of 100 ${\mu}g/kg$ of medetomidine and 10 mg/kg of tiletamine/zolazepam provided rapid, safe, and effective anesthesia for the green iguana.

Acupuncture on ST36 Increases c-Fos Expression in vlPAG of Visceral Pain-induced Mice

  • Choo, Jin-Suk;Song, Yun-Kyung;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2008
  • Background : Acupuncture has been used as a clinical treatment in Oriental medicine for various diseases including pain relief. The descending pain control system of periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a powerful pain control system in mammalians. Expression of c-Fos is used as a marker for stimuli-induced metabolic changes of neurons. Objective : In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on analgesic effect in visceral pain were investigated through the writhing reflex and c-Fos expression in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) area using immunohistochemistry in mice. Method : For the writhing test, mice were divided into five groups. Immediately after finishing the behavioral test, the animals were weighed and overdosed with Zoletil. After a complete lack of response was observed, the brains of the mice were dissected into serial coronal sections, and c-Fos immunohistochemistry was performed. Statistical analysis of all data was performed using one-way ANOVA. Result : The present results showed that acupuncture affected the writhing reflex and that Choksamni (zusnali) acupoint and aspirin significantlysuppressed acetic acid treatment-induced increased writhing reflex, and the expression of c-Fos in vlPAG was significantly increased in the acupunctured group. Conclusion : The present study suggests that acupuncture has an antinociceptive effect on acetic acid-induced visceral pain by increase of c-Fos expression in mice. Aspirin also showed analgesic effect, however the mechanism is different from the acupuncture.

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The Reverse Effects of Atipamezole on Medetomidine-tiletamine/zolazepam Combination Anesthesia in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) (그린 이구아나에서 medetomidine-tiletamine/zolazepam의 병용 마취시 atipamezole의 길항작용)

  • Jung So-Young;Kim Min-Su;Lee Na-Young;Kim Sun-Young;Seo Kang-Moon;Nam Tchi-Chou
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.18-21
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the reverse effects of atipamezole in green iguana anesthetized with intramuscular administration of medetomidine-tiletamine/zolazepam ($Zoletil^{\circledR}$). Heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured. Anesthetic depth was evaluated by righting reflex. In all study groups, heart rate and respiratory rate significantly decreased at 5 min after anesthetic administration, and gradually increased after atipamezole administration. The present study suggested that $500{\mu}g/kg$ atipamezole was effective reversal dosage for $500{\mu}g/kg$ medetomidine and 10 mg/kg liletamine/zolazepam combination anesthesia in green iguanas.

Effects of Melatonin on Improvement of Neurological Function in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats

  • Lee, Seung-Hoon;Shin, Jin-Hee;Lee, Min-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Kil;Lee, Sang-Rae;Chang, Kyu-Tae;Hong, Yong-Geun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2011
  • Acute ischemic stroke results from sudden decrease or loss of blood supply to an area of the brain, resulting in a coinciding loss of neurological function. The antioxidant action of melatonin is an important mechanism among its known effects to protective activity during ischemic/reperfusion injury. The focus of this research, therapeutic efficacy of melatonin on recovery of neurological function following long term treatment in ischemic brain injured rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40; 8 weeks old) were divided into the control group, and MCAo groups (Vehicle, MT7 : MCAo+ melatonin injection at 7:00, MT19 : MCAo+melatonin injection at 19:00, and MT7,19 : MCAo+melatonin injection at 7:00 and 19:00). Rat body weight and neurological function were measured every week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the rats were anesthetized with a mixture of zoletil (40 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) and sacrificed for further analysis. Tissues were then collected for RNA isolation from brain tissue. Also, brain tissues were analyzed by histological procedures. We elucidated that melatonin was not toxic in vital organs. MT7,19 was the most rapidly got back to mild symptom on test of neurological parameter. Also, exogenous melatonin induces both the down-regulation of detrimental genes, such as NOSs and the up-regulation of beneficial gene, including BDNF during long term administration after focal cerebral ischemia. Melatonin treatment reduced the loss of primary motor cortex. Therefore, we suggest that melatonin could be act as prophylactic as well as therapeutic agent for neurorehabilitative intervention.