• Title, Summary, Keyword: acetic acid fermentation

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Effect of Maturity at Harvest and Inoculants on the Quality of Round Baled Rye Silage (수확시 숙기 및 젖산균 제제가 호밀 라운드베일 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Kim, D.A.;Chung, E.S.;Kang, W.S.;Ham, J.S.;Seo, s.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of maturity at harvest and inoculants on the quality of round baled rye(Secale cereale L.) silage at the experimental field of Grassland and Forage Crops Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon in 1998. The experiment was consist of split-plot design with 3 replications. The main plots were 3 harvesting stages such as boot(20 April), heading(29 April), and flowering stages(14 May). The subplots wered inoculant treatments : control (untreated), inoculant A, and inoculant B. Acid detergent fiber(ADF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF), and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of rye silage were significantly increased with delayed harvesting date, but there was not significant difference between inoculants. Mean silage pH at flowering stage was the lowest(4.35), but the highest at early harvest(4.91). Inoculants significantly reduced acidity of silage compared with control. Dry matter(DM) content of the control was higher than that of inoculants. Ammonia-N as proportion of total N was below 10% which was maximum level of high quality silage. The addition of inoculants reduced ammonia-N. There were significant difference in organic acid contents between harvesting stages and inoculants. Lactic acid was increased with inoculants, but acetic and butyric acids were decreased. Various treatments increased colony forming unit(CFU) of lactic acid bacteria by 2 or 3 times compared with the control and the highest at flowering stage with inoculant B treatment. Results of this study indicate that use of microbial inoculant and harvesting after heading stage will improve the silage fermentation and quality of round baled rye silage.

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Effects of Extruded Linseed Supplementation on Methane Production in Holstein Steers (Extruded linseed 첨가가 홀스타인 거세우 장내발효 메탄발생량에 미치는 효과)

  • Woo, Yang Won;Lee, Chang Hyun;Rajaraman, Bharanidharan;Yeo, Joon Mo;Lee, Won Young;Kim, Do Hyung;Jang, Seon-Sik;Kim, Kyoung Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 2017
  • The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of extruded linseed supplementation on methane production in Holstein steers. Four Holstein steers fitted with permanent cannulas were assigned to two dietary treatments in a duplicated $2{\times}2$ Latin square design: a control diet consisting of tall fescue straw (65%) and concentrate (35%), and a treatment diet supplemented with 3.8% extruded linseed by replacing a part of ingredients in the concentrate of the control diet. The concentrates of the control and the treatment diet were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Extruded linseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake but significantly (P<0.05) increased the intake of lipid. Rumen pH was significantly (P<0.05) lower for control than for treatment. Although there was no significant difference between treatments, the concentration of total VFA in control was 21% higher than in treatment. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were not different between treatments. Extruded linseed supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced methane output(g/d) and emission factor. Methane conversion rate was lower for treatment than for control but no significant difference was found. The results of the present study showed that extruded linseed supplementation in the diet of Holstein steers could reduce methane output.

Particle Size Effects in Buffer System using Calcium Carbonate Bead Immobilized with Alginate for the Cultivation of Bifidobacterium (Alginate에 고정화된 Calcium Carbonate를 이용한 Buffer System에서 비드 크기에 따른 Bifidobacterium의 배양에 대한 효과)

  • Lee, Ki-Yong;Heo, Tae-Ryeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.425-433
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    • 1998
  • The characteristics of the reaction of calcium carbonate $(CaCO_3)$ immobilized with alginate as buffer system for the high concentration cultivation of bifidobacteria in fermenter are described by the mathematical model, and tested for the reusing possibility of the used $CaCO_3$ beads. When$CaCO_3$ beads with the various diameters were reacted in 0.1 M of the mixed organic acids (0.6 M of acetic acid and 0.4 M lactic acid) and in fermenter inoculated Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, the change of bead diameters can be calculated with the amount of the decreased $CaCO_3$ from the surface of bead using the mathematical model. These values was similar to the directly measured bead diameter by a micrometer. Therefore, it was considered that the mathematical model could be used for explaining the reaction charateristics of the $CaCO_3$ bead reacted with the organic acids. When Bifidobacterium longum was incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 20 hours in fermenter with $CaCO_3$ beads, the buffering effect of $CaCO_3$, the reduce rate of the bead diameter, and the growth rate of Bifidobacterium longum were higher at the smaller beads than beads with the larger diameters. Also, when Bifidobacterium longum was incubated in fermenter with the mixed beads which were added new beads to the recovered beads in order to equalize with the total surface area of initial beads, the buffering effect of $CaCO_3$ bead and the growth rate of Bifidobacterium longum were very corresponded with the results of the fermentation using the only initial beads. Therfore, it is expected that the used beads can be reused by adding the initial beads.

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Effects of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds Based on Rice-straw and Six Forage Crops on the Productivity of Holstein Cows (청예사료작물과 볏짚 위주의 완전배합발효사료 급여가 Holstein 착유우의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, H. J.;Kim, H. S.;Ki, K. S.;Jeong, H. Y.;Baek, K. S.;Kim, J. S.;Cho, K. K.;Cho, J. S.;Lee, H. G.;Woo, J. H.;Choi, Y. J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the value of total mixed fermentation feeds(TMFF) as completely mixed ration and to observe the effect of various kinds of TMFF on the palatability, feed intake, and milk performance in Holstein cows. The dry matter (DM) content of TMFF used in the experiment was 23.98-28.42% range, and CP, TDN, ADF and NDF were 16.2${\sim}$19.2%, 58.3-65.1%, 34.4-39.6% and 46.9${\sim}$49.9% levels, respectively. The relative feed value (RFV) in rape-, alfalfa-, grass-, oat-, corn-TMFF groups were 138.6, 133.9, 116.5, 111.8, 111.4 and 108.1, respectively. Among these groups, RFV of rye-TMFF group was lowest. Dry matter disappearance(DMD) showed 0.8${\sim}$.9% to the all kinds of TMFF groups. The pH was 3.89${\sim}$.87 and $NH_3$-N concentration was 6.93-8.66 mg/$d\ell$. The acetic acid concentration in the raw material of TMFF showed low level of 0.19${\sim}$0.57%, lactic acid showed high level of 1.17${\sim}$3.21% and butyric acid was very high as 0.03${\sim}$0.32%. Therefore, these results provide evidence that the quality of TMFF was not so bad. In the daily fresh matter intake on the alfalfa-, grass-, rape-, corn-, oats- and rye-TMFF were showed 62.85, 60.48, 58.04, 57.11, 54.61 and 45.74 kg respectively. All TMFF showed high palatability as daily dry matter intake of 1.95 to 2.90% by body weight of experimental cows. Body condition score(BCS) was gradually increased in during 60 days of the experiment term. Average daily gain(ADG) showed about 140.0${\sim}$326.7g. In alfalfa-TMFF group, the ADG was higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). Also, the increase in BCS was observed in grass-TMFF group (3.07 to 3.34) and rye-TMFF group was decreased in 3.07 to 3.34 (p<0.05). The milk yield appropriately showed a range of 16.16${\sim}$18.95 kg in all groups. Among these groups, alfalfa-TMFF group was highest(P<0.05). Average milk fat contents showed high levels of 4.06${\sim}$4.79% and the level was high in order of rape-, grass-, corn-, alfalfa-, rye- and oats-TMFF. Milk protein was highest in forage-TMFF and level of lactose in milk was approximately 4.56% in overall groups. Solid non fat(SNF) and total solid(TS) contents were 8.75% and 12.8%, respectively. However, milk composition was not significantly affected by TMFF.

Study on the Manufacturing Properties of Korean-type Koumiss (한국형 Koumiss제조 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Ik;Song, Kwang-Young;Chon, Jung-Whan;Hyeon, Ji-Yeon;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2011
  • For this study, Korean-type Koumiss was made by the fermentation of mixed cultures, in which yeast, Kuyveromyces, and microflora, Streptococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, were inoculated into 10% skimmed milk with added whey powder(control: A, 2%: B, 4%: C, 6%: D, and 8%: E). Fat, protein, lactose, titratable acidity, pH, the number of lactic acid bacteria, the number of yeast, alcohol content, volatile fatty acids, volatile free amino acids and minerals were measured in the products. The results were as follows: As the dosage of whey powder increased, fat increased from 0.74% in the control to 2.30% in sample E, protein increased from 2.95% in the control to 4.39% in sample E and lactose increased from 3.10% in the control to 7.43% in sample E. Titratable acidity and pH increased gradually. The number of lactic acid bacteria increased from $10^9\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in the control to $3.8{\times}10^9\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in sample E, and the number of yeast increased from $6.1{\times}10^7\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in the control to $1.65{\times}10^8\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in sample E, according to the increase of whey powder content. For alcohol content, the average values were 0.863%, 0.967%, 0.890%, 1.290%, and 1.313% for the control and samples B, C, D, and E, respectively. As the dosage of whey powder increased, alcohol content showed a tendency to gradually increase. The average alcohol content of E was 1.313 and this was higher than the alcohol content of Kazahstana-type Koumiss with 1.08%. Sixteen types of free amino acids were detected. Glycine was the lowest in the control at $0.38mg/m{\ell}$ and sample E contained $0.64mg/m{\ell}$. Histidine was also low in the control at $0.42mg/m{\ell}$ and sample E contained $0.65mg/m{\ell}$. On the other hand, glutamic acid was highest at $4.13mg/m{\ell}$ in the control whereas sample E had $6.96mg/m{\ell}$. Proline was also high in the control at $1.71mg/m{\ell}$ in control, but E contained $2.80mg/m{\ell}$. Aspartic acid and leucine were greater in sample E than in the control. For volatile free fatty acids, content generally had a tendency to increase in the control, and samples B, C, D, and E. Content of acetic acid gradually increased from $12,661{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in the control to $37,140{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in sample E. Butyric acid was not detected in the control and was measured as $1,950{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in sample E. Caproic acid content was $177{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in the control and $812{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in sample E, and it increased according to the increase of whey powder content. Valeric acid was measured in a small amount in the control as $22{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$, but it was not detected in any other case. Mineral contents of Ca, P, and Mg increased from 1,042.38 ppm, 863.61 ppm, and 101.28 ppm in the control to 1,535.12 ppm, 1,336.71 ppm, and 162.44 ppm in sample E, respectively. Na content was increased from 447.19 ppm in the control to 1,001.57 ppm in sample E. The content of K was increased from 1,266.39 ppm in the control to 2,613.93 ppm in E. Mineral content also increased with whey powder content. In sensory evaluations, the scores increased as whey powder content increased. Flavor was lowest in the control with 6.3 points and highest in E with 8.2 points. Body and texture were highest at 4.2 points in the control, which did not have added whey powder. In the case of appearance, there were no great differences among the samples.

Effect of Vinegar Made with Hydroponic-cultured Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer on Body Weight and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice (수경재배 인삼으로 제조한 식초가 고지방 식이를 섭취한 마우스의 체중 및 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Young-Joo;Kwon, Seung-Hyuk;Choi, Kum Boo;Kim, Tae-Seok;Yeo, Ik-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.743-749
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to develop hydroponic-cultured ginseng vinegar (HGV) containing ginsenoside Rg2 in order to its anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in C57BL/6J mice. HGV was prepared by two-stage fermentation. The ginsenoside Rg2 contained in acetic acid-fermented HGV increased by 4.0 times compared to that in pre-fermented HGV. To measure the anti-obesity effect of HGV, thirty two mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group (ND), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet-supplemented with HGV group (HGV), and high-fat diet-supplemented with green tea extract group (GT). Body weight, fat weight, and liver weight decreased in the HGV group. The HGV group also showed lower plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides, and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared to the corresponding levels in the HFD group. Furthermore, there were significant decreases in plasma aspartase aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the HGV group compared to the corresponding levels in the HFD group. These results suggest that HGV can be used as an anti-obesity therapeutic agent or functional ingredient.