• Title, Summary, Keyword: acetic acid fermentation

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Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Rumen Metabolites in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

  • Kumar, Ravindra;Dass, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.38-41
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted on 3 male rumen fistulated adult buffaloes fed on wheaten straw and concentrate mixture in a Latin square design to study the impact of niacin supplementation on rumen metabolites. Three animals were fed wheaten straw+concentrate mixture (group I, control), wheaten straw+concentrate mixture+100 ppm niacin (group II), and wheaten straw +concentrate mixture+200 ppm niacin (group III). After 21 days feeding, rumen liquor was drawn for 3 consecutive days at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h) to study the various rumen metabolites i.e., rumen pH, ammonia-N, total-N, trichloroacetic acid precipitable-N, non-protein nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, their fractions and number of protozoa. Mean pH values in strained rumen liquor (SRL) of animals in 3 groups were 6.64, 6.71 and 6.67, indicating no statistically significant difference. Results revealed a significant (p<0.01) increase in TVFA concentration among the supplemented groups (group II and III) in comparison to control group. Mean TVFA concentration (meq/dl) was 9.75, 10.97 and 11.44 in 3 groups respectively. The highest concentration of TVFA was observed at 4 h and minimum at 0 h in all the 3 groups. The percentage of acetic, propionic, butyric and isobutyric acid was statistically similar among the three groups. The mean ammonia-N concentration (mg/dl SRL) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in group II (16.38) and group III (15.42) than group I (18.14). Ammonia-N concentration was higher (p<0.01) at 4 h as compared to all the time intervals. The mean total-N concentration (mg/dl SRL) was higher (p<0.01) in group II (74.16) and group III (75.47) as compared to group I (62.04). Total-N concentration was higher (p<0.01) at 4 h as compared to other time intervals and lowest value was recorded at 0 h.Concentration of TCA-ppt-N (mg/dl SRL) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in control group as compared to niacin supplemented groups. Mean value of NPN (mg/dl SRL) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in group III (23.21) as compared to group I (25.71), whereas groups I and II, and groups II and III were similar to each other. Total protozoa number (${\times}10^4$/ml SRL) ranged from 18.06 to 27.41 in group I, 20.89 to 38.44 in group II and 27.61 to 39.45 in group III. The mean protozoa number was significantly (p<0.01) higher in SRL of group II (27.60) and III (30.59) as compared to group I (22.48). It can be concluded from the study that supplementation of niacin in the diet of buffaloes had improved the rumen fermentation by decreasing the concentration of ammonia-N and increasing protein synthesis.

Volatile Analysis of Commercial Korean Black Raspberry Wines (Bokbunjaju) Using Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction (Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction을 이용한 시판 복분자주의 휘발성분 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.425-431
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the volatile compounds in 24 commercial Korean black raspberry wines were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 43 volatile components, including 15 esters, 12 terpenes, 7 alcohols, 4 acids, 3 ketones, and 2 aldehydes, were identified. Ethyl esters and alcohols such as ethyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, isoamyl alcohol, and phenethyl alcohol were the most represented groups among the quantified volatiles. In particular, various terpenes such as DL-limonene, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and myrtenol were identified. The differences in volatile components among the 24 black raspberry wines and possible sample grouping were examined by applying principal component analyses to the GC-MS data sets. The first and second principal components explained 43.9% of the total variation across the samples. No apparent sample groupings were observed according to manufacturing locations. The samples KU, BH, SR, and MO showed higher overall levels in the concentrations of terpenes originating from black raspberry, while other samples such as BB and HB, showed higher in ethyl ester and alcohol contents produced by yeast fermentation, respectively.

Effect of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Quality of Italian Ryegrass and Whole-crop Barley Silage (Hetero 발효 유산균주 첨가가 사일리지용 이탈리안 라이그라스와 총체보리의 품질에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Ho Il;Choi, Yeon Jae;Mamuad, Lovelia;Kim, Eun Joong;Oh, Young Kyoon;Park, Keun Kyu;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to determine the quality of italian ryegrass (IRG) and whole- crop barley (WCB) silage combined with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during fermentation. Six strains of LAB (L. plantarum IMAU 70164, L. acidophilus KACC 12419, L. casei KACC 12413, L. reuteri KCTC 3594, L. buchneri KACC 12416 and L. diolivorans KACC 12385) were used in this study. L. casei and L. reuteri had the highest propionic acid production and were therefore used for fermenting the forages. The forages were fermented using monoculture and co-culture of L. casei and L. reuteri for 30, 45 and 60 days of ensiling. Addition of LAB lowered the pH of the IRG silage (p<0.05). Moisture content, lactic acid and acetic acid contents were higher (p<0.05) after addition of LAB. Water soluble carbohydrate was significantly lower (p<0.05) in WCB with a co-culture containing L. casei and L. reuteri. Propionic acid production was comparatively higher after addition of LAB to WCB on days 30, 45 and 60 while butyric acid was only detected in the IRG control on day 60. Fungi was not detected within 60 days after addition of LAB in IRG and WCB. Through this experiment, improved forage preservation was achieved using a co-culture containing L. casei and L. reuteri. WCB silage had higher propionic acid concentration and thus, it was a better forage for ensiling using co-culture of L. casei and L. reuteri.

The Effect of Anaerobic Fermentation Treatment of Rice or Wheat bran on the Physical and Chemical property of Plastic Film House Soil (쌀겨와 밀기울의 토양 혐기발효 처리가 시설 재배지 토양의 물리 화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hong-Lim;Sohn, Bo-Kyun;Jung, Kang-Ho;Kang, Youn-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.366-371
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    • 2006
  • This study was done to assess the physical and chemical properties after anaerobic fermentation treatment which use rice bran or wheat bran in plastic film house soil. The results which investigates the change of soil physical property after treatment 150 days showed a dramatic difference. The physical properties of control soil were the bulk density $1.46Mg\;m^{-3}$, hardness $2.30Kg\;cm^{-3}$, hydraulic conductivity $4.8cm\;hr^{-1}$, water stable aggregate(>0.5mm) 6.7%. Of the soil which treatment the rice bran in comparison to control soil, bulk density and hardness was diminished 12% and 58%, respectively. hydraulic conductivity and water stable aggregate(>0.5mm) were increased 4.5 and 5.2 fold, respectively. And, in the soil which treatment the wheat bran, bulk density and hardness was diminished 14% and 67%, respectively. Hydraulic conductivity and water stable aggregate(>0.5mm) were increased 6.3 and 6.5 fold, respectively. $NO_3-N$ contents of the soil which treated the rice bran or wheat bran after treatment 20 days were diminished 98% in comparison to control soil. The decrease of $NO_3-N$ contents in the soil was investigated with the fact that it is caused by with increase of the soil-microbial biomass. EC of the soil which treated the rice bran were $1.48dS\;m^{-1}$ which was diminished 58% in comparison to control soil. That of soil which treated the wheat bran was increased $3.65dS\;m^{-1}$ in the early stage because of acetic and butyric acid. But it was reduced as under $2.0dS\;m^{-1}$ after treatment 30 days. As the conclusion the anaerobic fermentation treatment with rice or wheat bran was effective to the improvement of soil physical and salt accumulation of the plastic film house soil.

Studies on Natural Plant Extracts for Methane Reduction in Ruminants (반추동물의 메탄감소를 위한 천연식물 추출물에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Eom, Jun-Sik;Lee, Su-Kyoung;Lee, Il-Dong;Kim, Hyun-Sang;Kang, Han-Beyol;Lee, Sung-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.901-916
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate natural plant extracts for methane gas reduction in ruminants. Rumen fluid was collected from cannulated Hanwoo cow ($450{\pm}30kg$) consuming 400 g/kg concentrate and 600 g/kg timothy. The 15 ml of mixture comparing McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid in the ratio 2 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into 50 ml serum bottles. Rumen fluid contents were collected and in vitro fermentation prepared control (timothy, 300 mg), ginseng, balloon flower, yucca plant, camellia, tea plant and ogapi extracts were added at the level of 5% against 300 mg of timothy as a substrate (v/w) and incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. In vitro pH values range 6.55~7.41, this range include rumen titration. The dry matter digestibility was not differ between all treatments and control. Total gas emission was significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng and balloon flower treatments on 24 h than in control. Carbon dioxide emission was not differ all treatments on 9 h than in control and significantly higher (p<0.05) yucca plant, camellia and tea plant treatments on 12 h than control. Methane emission was not differ all treatments on 6 h than in control. The rumen microbial growth rate was significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng, balloon flower on 12 h and significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng, yucca plant, tea plant and ogapi treatments on 24 h than in control. Total VFA was significantly higher (p<0.05) in tea plant and ogapi treatments on 12 h than in control and significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng, balloon flower treatments on 48 h than in control. Acetic acid was significantly lower (p<0.05) in ginseng and balloon flower treatments on 24 h than in control. Propionic acid was significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng and balloon flower treatments on 48 h than in control. As a results, sixth natural plant extracts had no significant effect dry matter digestibility and negative on rumen fermentation, but not effect methane reduction.

Quality Comparison of Static-culture and Commercial Brown Rice Vinegars (정치배양 및 시판 현미식초의 품질특성 비교)

  • Woo, Seung-Mi;Jo, Yong-Jun;Lee, Su-Won;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.301-307
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    • 2012
  • The quality of brown rice vinegar that was produced via static culture (A) was compared with the quality of three types of domestic commercial brown rice vinegar (B, C, and D) and of three types of Japanese brown rice vinegar (E, F, and G). The results showed titratable acidity levels of 6.39%, 4.52-6.32%, and 4.51-4.89% in the static-cultured brown rice vinegar, the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and the Japanese brown rice vinegars, respectively. The pH levels were 3.28, 2.58-2.97, and 3.03-3.27 in the static-culture brown rice vinegar, the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and the Japanese brown rice vinegars, respectively, which show similar values of the static-culture brown rice vinegar and the Japanese brown rice vinegars. The total nitrogen (TN) values of the static-culture brown rice vinegar, the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and the Japanese brown rice vinegars were 0.24, 0.03-0.16, and 0.12-0.17, respectively, with the highest value for the static-culture brown rice vinegar, substantial differences among the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and similar contents among the Japanese brown rice vinegars. For free sugar, glucose was either detected only in a small quantity or not detected at all in the static-culture brown rice vinegar and the Japanese brown rice vinegars, which showed perfect fermentation. The glucose and maltose contents were higher in the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars. The organic acid content of the static-culture brown rice vinegar was similar to that of the Japanese brown rice vinegars. Therefore, the total acidity content, TN value, sensory property, and quality of the static-culture brown rice vinegar (A) were superior to those of the domestic and Japanese brown rice vinegars.

Development of an Onion Vinegar Beverage Containing Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) and Its Biological Activity (유자 첨가 양파발효음료의 제조 및 생리활성)

  • Jeong, Eun-Jeong;Cha, Yong-Jun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.563-570
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    • 2016
  • Onion vinegar has an undesirable flavor and taste that results from alcohol and acetic acid production from fermentation. In this study, we have used onion vinegar to develop an onion vinegar beverage with better sensory quality. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum blending ratio by using response surface methods to produce an onion vinegar beverage containing Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka). The optimal formula for a fermented onion beverage was determined using a central composite design by the response surface methodology. The independent variables were obtained by regression analysis of the reaction surface of brown sugar, apple extracts and Yuza extracts. The optimum mixing ratio for onion vinegar:water:brown sugar:apple extracts:Yuza extracts was 6.0:77.6:4.9:9.2:2.3 (w/w). The actual overall acceptance was 7.08 under optimum conditions, which was close to the maximum predicted value of 6.96. The concentration of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and quercetin present in the onion vinegar beverage was 14.8 mg/100 g, 2.6 mg/100 g and 1.4 mg/100 g, respectively. The onion vinegar beverage showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes. It also showed antioxidant effects, with a DPPH radical inhibition rate of 18.2% and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of 11.5%. In conclusion, the onion vinegar beverage described here seems to have nutritional value and potential biological activity.

Effect of Maturity at Harvest and Inoculants on the Quality of Round Baled Rye Silage (수확시 숙기 및 젖산균 제제가 호밀 라운드베일 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Kim, D.A.;Chung, E.S.;Kang, W.S.;Ham, J.S.;Seo, s.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of maturity at harvest and inoculants on the quality of round baled rye(Secale cereale L.) silage at the experimental field of Grassland and Forage Crops Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon in 1998. The experiment was consist of split-plot design with 3 replications. The main plots were 3 harvesting stages such as boot(20 April), heading(29 April), and flowering stages(14 May). The subplots wered inoculant treatments : control (untreated), inoculant A, and inoculant B. Acid detergent fiber(ADF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF), and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of rye silage were significantly increased with delayed harvesting date, but there was not significant difference between inoculants. Mean silage pH at flowering stage was the lowest(4.35), but the highest at early harvest(4.91). Inoculants significantly reduced acidity of silage compared with control. Dry matter(DM) content of the control was higher than that of inoculants. Ammonia-N as proportion of total N was below 10% which was maximum level of high quality silage. The addition of inoculants reduced ammonia-N. There were significant difference in organic acid contents between harvesting stages and inoculants. Lactic acid was increased with inoculants, but acetic and butyric acids were decreased. Various treatments increased colony forming unit(CFU) of lactic acid bacteria by 2 or 3 times compared with the control and the highest at flowering stage with inoculant B treatment. Results of this study indicate that use of microbial inoculant and harvesting after heading stage will improve the silage fermentation and quality of round baled rye silage.

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Changes of chemical Composition According to the Ensiling Periods of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds using Rice Straw and Green Forages (청초와 볏짚을 이용한 완전배합발효사료의 저장기간에 따른 화학조성분의 변화)

  • Lee, H.J.;KIm, W.H.;Kim, H.S.;Lim, K.B.;Ahn, B.S.;Cho, K.K.;Kang, S.H.;Kang, S.K.;Lee, H.G.;Woo, J.H.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.769-782
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    • 2002
  • Three kinds of green forages(rye, oats and mixed forages) was harvested and mixed with rice straw, wheat bran and 2 grains(corn and soybean), which harvested 2 different dates(common harvesting dates, 7 days early to common harvesting dates). And each mixture was ensiled in 6 poly vinyl chlorides that was 60 liter, immediately. They were opened at 0, 5, 10, 25, 35, 60 and 100 days after ensiling for chemical analysis. And its effects of those TMFFs on feed values were observed. Average contents of water, crude protein, ADF, NDF, Ca and P of formulated TMFs were 72 to 75%, 14.75 to 18.24, 12.47 to 19.07, 39.82 to 47.01, 0.99 to 1.07 and 0.38 to respectively. Crude protein content was the highest in the mixed forages-TMFF and the lowest in the rye-TMFF. The ADF and NDF contents of rye-TMFF were higher than orthers. And CP, ADF, NDF, TDN, P and Ca contents were no significant difference among treatments regardless of storage period and harvest time, but all treatments indicated good quality. Intenal temperatures of TMFF were shown to be 1 to 5$^{\circ}C$ higher than ambient temperatures. The temperature of the Oat-TMFF formulated during winter sustained higher to the level of 6${\sim}$9$^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. The pH of TMFF were 4.0 to 4.2 and the content of $NH_3$-N was shown to be 7.79 to 8.23mg/$d{\ell}$. In the VFA contents, any tendency was not shown at all treatments depending on harvest time. Even though rye-TMFF showed the lowest VFA value. At all treatments except rye-TMFF, propionate production was increased and stable after 25 days of storage. Digestibility of rice straw from TMFF on DM basis was 15${\sim}$20% higher compared with non-treated rice straw.

Effects of Extruded Linseed Supplementation on Methane Production in Holstein Steers (Extruded linseed 첨가가 홀스타인 거세우 장내발효 메탄발생량에 미치는 효과)

  • Woo, Yang Won;Lee, Chang Hyun;Rajaraman, Bharanidharan;Yeo, Joon Mo;Lee, Won Young;Kim, Do Hyung;Jang, Seon-Sik;Kim, Kyoung Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 2017
  • The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of extruded linseed supplementation on methane production in Holstein steers. Four Holstein steers fitted with permanent cannulas were assigned to two dietary treatments in a duplicated $2{\times}2$ Latin square design: a control diet consisting of tall fescue straw (65%) and concentrate (35%), and a treatment diet supplemented with 3.8% extruded linseed by replacing a part of ingredients in the concentrate of the control diet. The concentrates of the control and the treatment diet were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Extruded linseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake but significantly (P<0.05) increased the intake of lipid. Rumen pH was significantly (P<0.05) lower for control than for treatment. Although there was no significant difference between treatments, the concentration of total VFA in control was 21% higher than in treatment. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were not different between treatments. Extruded linseed supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced methane output(g/d) and emission factor. Methane conversion rate was lower for treatment than for control but no significant difference was found. The results of the present study showed that extruded linseed supplementation in the diet of Holstein steers could reduce methane output.