• Title, Summary, Keyword: acetoacetic acid

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Determination of plasma ketone body following oximation-trimethylsily| derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (혈장 중 케톤체의 옥심-TMS 유도체화 후 GC-MS/SIM을 이용한 분석)

  • Yoon, Hye-Ran
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2016
  • A ketone body (acetoacetic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) increases from blood or urine when bio-energy dependence pays more fatty acid than glucose. However, in case oxidation of fat is greater than the capacity of the citric acid cycle the fatty acid oxidation is made from acetoacetyl CoA to acetoacetate then, again form β-hydroxyburytic acid to acetone, the diffusion take place into the blood. Enzymes that oxidize ketone body in the brain and nerve tissue blood ketone dody is increased during prolonged fasting, brain used it as energy. In this study, we developed the rapid two step derivatization method for sensitive detection of the ketone body by GC-MS/SIM. The plasma was deproteinized and then the hydroxy and carboxyl groups of ketone body are subjected to extraction and drying then, keto-group were derivatized with hydoxylamine at 60℃ for 30 min for oximation. Then it was trimetyl-silylated with BSTFA at 80℃ for 30 min and analyzed using a GC-MS. The linear ranges were in between 0.001 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL for β-hydroxy butyrate, and acetoacetate. The method detection limits were below 0.1 pg over each target compound determined. The mean recoveries (%) of target compounds were ranged from 88.2 % to 92.3 % at 1 µg/mL, from 89.5 % to 94.8 % at 10 μg/mL, with RSD of 6.3-9.4 %. This method could be applied to quantification of ketone bodies which are seen in the keto-acidosis in children and adults from a variety of diseases that cause ketones in the blood and urine.

Disposable Strip-Type Biosensors for Amperometric Determination of Galactose

  • Gwon, Kihak;Lee, Seonhwa;Nam, Hakhyun;Shin, Jae Ho
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.310-317
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    • 2020
  • A development of disposable strip-type galactose sensor for point-of-care testing (POCT) was studied, which was constructed using screen-printed carbon electrodes. Galactose levels were determined by the redox reaction of galactose oxidase in the presence of potassium ferricyanide as an electron transfer mediator in a small sample volume (i.e., less than 1 µL). The optimal performance of biosensor was systematically designated by varying applied potential, operating pH, mediator concentration, and amount of enzyme on the electrode. The sensor system was identified as a highly active for the galactose measurement in terms of the sensitivity (slope = 4.76 ± 0.05 nA/µM) with high sensor-to-sensor reproducibility, the linearity (R2 = 0.9915 in galactose concentration range from 0 to 400 µM), and response time (t95% = <17 s). A lower applied potential (i.e., 0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl) allowed to minimize interference from readily oxidizable metabolites such as ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, uric acid, and acetoacetic acid. The proposed galactose sensor represents a promising system with advantage for use in POCT.

A Neonate with Alpha-methylacetoacetic Aciduria Identified by Newborn Screening (신생아 스크리닝으로 진단된 Alpha-methylacetoacetic Aciduria 증례)

  • Lee, Beom Hee;Kim, Yoo-Mi;Kim, Jae-Min;Kim, Gu-Hwan;Yoo, Han-Wook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.104-107
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    • 2012
  • Alpha-methylacetoacetic aciduria is a rare inborn metabolic disorder, caused by acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase-1 deficiency. This enzyme acts on the last step of isoleucine metabolism. It dissociates 2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA into propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. ACAT1 is the causative gene. Most patients manifest recurrent ketotic metabolic acidosis, but some patients can be identified in their presymptomatic period by newborn screening. Urinary organic acid profile is characterized by increased amounts of 2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tiglylglycine, and 2-methyl acetoacetic acid. In this report, a Korean patient with alpha-methylacetoacetic aciduria is described. This is the first Korean case report confirmed by genetic testing.

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Effects of Starvation on Lipid Metabolism and Gluconeogenesis in Yak

  • Yu, Xiaoqiang;Peng, Quanhui;Luo, Xiaolin;An, Tianwu;Guan, Jiuqiang;Wang, Zhisheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1593-1600
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    • 2016
  • This research was conducted to investigate the physiological consequences of undernourished yak. Twelve Maiwa yak ($110.3{\pm}5.85kg$) were randomly divided into two groups (baseline and starvation group). The yak of baseline group were slaughtered at day 0, while the other group of yak were kept in shed without feed but allowed free access to water, salt and free movement for 9 days. Blood samples of the starvation group were collected on day 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and the starved yak were slaughtered after the final blood sample collection. The liver and muscle glycogen of the starvation group decreased (p<0.01), and the lipid content also decreased while the content of moisture and ash increased (p<0.05) both in Longissimus dorsi and liver compared with the baseline group. The plasma insulin and glucose of the starved yak decreased at first and then kept stable but at a relatively lower level during the following days (p<0.01). On the contrary, the non-esterified fatty acids was increased (p<0.01). Beyond our expectation, the ketone bodies of ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid decreased with prolonged starvation (p<0.01). Furthermore, the mRNA expression of lipogenetic enzyme fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase in subcutaneous adipose tissue of starved yak were down-regulated (p<0.01), whereas the mRNA expression of lipolytic enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and hormone sensitive lipase were up-regulated (p<0.01) after 9 days of starvation. The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase, responsible for hepatic gluconeogenesis were up-regulated (p<0.01). It was concluded that yak derive energy by gluconeogenesis promotion and fat storage mobilization during starvation but without ketone body accumulation in the plasma.

The Biochemical Studies on Stored Soy-sauce (저장(貯藏)간장의 생화학적(生化學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Chi-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.9-27
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    • 1968
  • Studies were carried out in order to elucidate chemical components and microflora in three types of soy-sauce, 12-year aged soy-sauce prepared by improved method. 7-year aged and 20-year aged soy-sauce prepared by ordinary method. They results are summarized as follows: 1. The followings are found to be the important factors affecting the quality of soy sauce. a. Organic acids, reducing sugars and free amino acids were increased in the course of storage. b. In the aged soy-sauces under study non-volatile organic acid increased while volatile organic acid decreased and the total acidity was dependent only upon tie latter. c. It was found that suit concentration decreased during the storage. 2. The results of investigation of microflora in the stored soy-sauce are shown as follows. Soy-sauce Improved Ordinary Microbe 12-Y. 20-Y. 7-Y. Aerobic bacteria colony/1ml. 6 123 2 Halophilic lactic acid bacteria colony/1ml. 4 6 10 Osmophilic yeast colony/1ml. $828{\times}10^4$ 248 - b. In the stored soy-sauces, aerobic bacteria are incapable of growing due to drop in pH value and the influence of salt concentration. c. Halophilic lactic acid bacteria are incapable of growing due to drop in pH value, even the salt concentrations decreased during the storage. d. Osmophilic yeast are still growing in low pH value and in the decreasing salt concentration during the strage. 3. The results of amino acid analysis by paper partition chromatographic and calorimetric methods are shown as follows. a. Fourteen kinds of amino acid and thirteen amino acids were detected in the soy-sauce of 12-year aged improved soy-sauce and 7-year aged and 20-year aged ordinary one, respectively. b. The contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, valine, leucine, lysine, histidine and methionine increased in the 20-year aged ordinary soy-sauce compared to the 7-year aged one. On the other hand those of alanine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and cystine decreased. 4. The results of sugar analysis by paper chromatography are as follows. a. In the 12-year aged improved soy-sauce, galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, maltose and an unknown were detected, and their amounts were in the above order except maltose and an unknown. b. Both in the 7 and 12-year aged ordinary soy-sauces, galactose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and rhamnose were detected and the amounts of the sugars were in the above order. c. In the non-aged ordinary soy-sauce, glucose was not detected but detected from 7-year and 20-year aged ordinary soy-sauce. 5. The results of organic acid analysis by paper chromatography were as follows. a. As volatile acids, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were detected in the 7-year aged ordinary soy-sauce. On the other hand in both the 20-year aged ordinary soy-sauce and the 12-year aged improved ones, only acetic acid was abundant while propionic and butyric acids were round in trace. It was found that propionic and butyric acids, as the unpleasant flavor components, decreased during the storage. b. In the ordinary soy-sauce, citric acid were produced during the storage and lack, malic and tartaric acids increased in the course of aging while succinic, glycolic, fumaric and malonic acids were shown to decrease. Glutaric and oxalic acids disappeared. Citric acid was produced also in the improved soy-sauce, but lactic, tartaric, succinic, malic, and glycolic acids decreased, while both malonic and glutaric acids disappeared. From the above results the citric acid production was considered to be a favorable factor for the taste. c. In the aged soy-sauces, pyruvic, α-ketoglutaric and probably acetoacetic and oxaloacetic acids (both in trace) were present and their amounts were in the above order. All of the α-keto acid abruptly decreased during the storage.

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