• Title, Summary, Keyword: acibenzolar-S-methyl

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Controlling activity of Bion-M against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (고추 세균점무늬병에 대한 Bion-M의 방제 효과)

  • Kim, A-Hyeong;Yeon, Cho-Long;Kim, Joo-Hyung;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2012
  • Pepper seedlings of 6-leaf stage were inoculated with cell suspension of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria 1523 7 days after the application of Bion-M by soil-drenching. Disease severity in the treatment with 20 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ of acibenzolar-S-methyl, with which Bion-M was composed, was 19%, whereas that of the untreated control was 75%. The resulting control value of acibenzolar-S-methyl was calaulated as much as 74.7%. The control value of acibenzolar-S-methyl was dependent with the applied concentrations and ranged 29.3% to 49.3% at 4.0 and 0.8 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ of acibenzolar-S-methyl, respectively. Phytotoxicity was observed at 20.0 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$, as lower leaves became to be yellowed and defoliated. The cell density of inoculum suspension of X. euvesicatoria 1523 affected the control value of acibenzolar-S-methyl. With optical density (O.D.) of 0.5 the control value of 4.0 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ of acibenzolar-S-methyl was 86.0%. However, the control value improved as high as 97.8% at the O.D. value of 0.1. The control value was 75.0% in adult plant of pepper, when acibenzolar-S-methyl was treated by soil-drenching 7 days before inoculation with cell suspension of X. euvesicatoria 1523. The control effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl on pepper bacterial spot was obtained in pepper field, showing that the control value at 10.0 ${\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ was 71.2%.

Induction of Disease Resistance by Acibenzolar-S-methyl, the Plant Activator against Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) in Tomato Seedlings (저항성 유도물질(acibenzolar-S-methyl)처리에 의한 토마토 잿빛곰팡이병 발병억제)

  • Lee Jung-Sup;Kang Nam-Jun;Seo Sang-Tae;Han Kyoung-Suk;Park Jong-Han;Jang Han-Ik
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 2006
  • The plant defence activator, Acibenzolar-S-methyl [benzo (1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester, ASM] was assayed on tomato seedlings for its ability to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in tomato. Pre-treatment of plants with ASM reduced the severity of the disease as well as the growth of the mycelium in plants. In ASM treated plants, reduction in disease severity (up to 55%) was correlated with suppression of mycelia growth (up to 46.5%) during the time course of infection. In plants treated with ASM, activities of peroxidase were determined as markers of resistance. Applications of ASM induced Progressive and significant increase of the enzyme in locally treated tissues. Such responses were expressed earlier and with a much higher magnitude when ASM-treated seedlings were challenged with the pathogen, thus providing support to the concept that a signal produced by the pathogen is essential for triggering enhanced synthesis and accumulation of the enzymes. No such activities were observed in water-treated control plants. Therefore, the slower symptom development and reduction in mycelium growth in ASM treated plants might be due to the increase in activity of oxidative and antioxidative protection systems in plants.

Effect of Acibenzolar-S-methyl and Rahnella aquatilis (Ra39) on Chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase Activities and Disease Resistance of Apple Plants

  • Abo-Elyousr, A.M. Kamal;Sallam, M.A.A.;Hassan, M.H.A.;Zeller, W.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2010
  • The effect of Acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and Rahnella aquatilis Ra39 against apple fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora were tested as a possible alternative to streptomycin. In vitro studies, no inhibition effect against the pathogen was found when ASM was tested. Under greenhouse conditions, application of R. aquatilis Ra39 with the highly susceptible M26 rootstock resulted in a marked disease suppression. Application of ASM and strain Ra39 caused a high decrease of the disease, 82% and 58% respectively; this was correlated with a reduction of the growth of the pathogen within host plants up to 64% and 49.5% respectively. Further studies in the field under artificial infection condition during full bloom revealed that application of ASM and R. aquatilis Ra39 with Gala variety resulted in a control effect up to 21 and 29% respectively. In physiological studies, enhanced activities of PR-proteins (chitinase and $\beta$-1, 3-glucanase) were detected, which are well known as biochemical markers for systemic acquired resistance. Application of ASM to apple shoots caused the highest chitinase activity followed by strain Ra39. The enzyme activity was increased after 2, 4 and 6 days from application. In addition, ASM-treatment caused the higher $\beta$-1, 3-glucanase activity than strain Ra39. Maximum enzyme activity was recorded after 6 days from application and then decreased after 8 and 10 days from application.

Screening of effective control agents against bacterial soft rot on Chinese cabbage in alpine area (고랭지 배추 무름병 방제를 위한 우수약제 선발)

  • Chung, Eun-Kyoung;Zhang, Xuan-Zhe;Yeoung, Young-Rog;Kim, Byung-Sup
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 2003
  • Bacterial soft rot by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is one of the diseases causing the biggest problem in Chinese cabbage. Chemical screening was conducted to select effective agents for controlling bacterial soft rot. Control effect of antibiotics, plant activator, and Biokeeper (avirulent Erwinia) to soft rot were tested by in vitro assay, nursery test, and field experiment. The in vitro assay was done by paper disc method and potato slice method. The nursery test was performed by using mineral oil inoculation method with consistent disease induction. The in vitro assay showed that streptomycin, oxolinic acid, bronopol, and copper hydroxide significantly suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacterium and the decomposition of potato slice. However, plant activators including acibenzolar-S-methyl did not show the suppressive effect on the growth of pathogenic bacterium and the decomposition of potato slice. When applied by the nursery test condition using mineral oil inoculation method with Chinese cabbage 'Kangruckyeurum', Biokeeper, oxolinic acid, antibiotics streptomycin, validamycin, and copper compound provided 83.5%, 95.2%, 91.2%, 57.5% and 79.9% in control efficacy, respectively. However, the control effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl showed to be low to cause phytotoxicity. Also acibenzolar-S-methyl showed a significant control effect in the field experiment with Chinese cabbage 'Sanchon' in 2000, but the field experiment with Chinese cabbage 'Kangruckyeurum' in 2001 revealed it had phytotoxicity to Chinese cabbage. Such a difference was considered to be caused by differences in phytotoxic reaction of Chinese cabbage cultivars to the chemical. Streptomycin+copper, copper hydroxide and Biokeeper showed 79.7%, 71.9% and 60.9% in control efficacy, respectively, in the field experiment with Chinese cabbage 'Sanchon' in 2002.

Acibenzolar-S-Methyl(ASM)-Induced Resistance against Tobamoviruses Involves Induction of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase(RdRp) and Alternative Oxidase(AOX) Genes

  • Madhusudhan, Kallahally Nagendra;Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda;Prakash, Harishchandra Sripathi;Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar;Jwa, Nam-Soo;Rakwal, Randeep
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2008
  • Tobamoviruses are the major viral pathogens of tomato and bell pepper. The preliminary results showed that Acibenzolar-Smethyl(ASM; S-methylbenzo(1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothiate) pre-treatment to tomato and tobacco plants reduces the concentration of Tomato mosaic tobamovirus(ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus(TMV) in tomato and bell pepper seedlings, respectively. Pre-treatment of the indicator plant(Nicotiana glutinosa) with the ASM followed by challenge inoculation with tobamoviruses produced a reduced number and size of local lesions(67 and 79% protection over control to TMV and ToMV inoculation, respectively). In order to understand the mechanism of resistance the gene expression profiles of antiviral genes was examined. RT-PCR products showed higher expression of two viral resistance genes viz., alternative oxidase(AOX) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase(RdRp) in the upper leaves of the ASM-treated tomato plants challenge inoculation with ToMV. Further, the viral concentration was also quantified in the upper leaves by reverse transcription PCR using specific primer for movement protein of ToMV, as well as ELISA by using antisera against tobamoviruses. The results provided additional evidence that ASM pre-treatment reduced the viral movement to upper leaves. The results suggest that expressions of viral resistance genes in the host are the key component in the resistance against ToMV in the inducer-treated tomato plants.

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Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas

  • Ozyilmaz, Umit;Benlioglu, Kemal
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.418-426
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    • 2013
  • Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching ($1{\times}10^9$ cells/ml), ASM ($0.1{\mu}g$ a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil.

Ecological Characteristics of Bacteriophages Infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Their Use as Biocontrol Agents (벼 흰잎마름병균 파지의 생태학적 특성 및 이를 이용한 생물방제)

  • Yu, Sang-Mi;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Min;Jeon, Tae-Woog;Lee, Young-Kee;Lee, Se-Won;You, Oh-Jong;Kim, Byung-Seok;Lee, Yong-Hoon
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.90-94
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    • 2011
  • Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice growing regions of the world. There are no effective ways of protecting rice from the disease. In this study, the bacteriophage (phage) mixtures infecting Xoo were investigated as biological control agent on BLB. The effects of pH, heat and ultraviolet on the stability of phages were investigated to check and increase the possibility of practical use in the field. Phages were rather stable between pH 5 and pH 10. The infectivity dropped sharply when the phages were incubated at $50^{\circ}C$ and more than 90% of the phages were inactivated after two minutes of ultraviolet treatment. The phages were stable for 7 days at the rice plant leaves, and the phages survived 10 times more than other treatments when mixed with skim milk. Although the skim milk increased the stability of the phages, the control efficacy was not effective. However, the phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with Tecloftalam WP or Acibenzolar-S-methyl simultaneously. The results indicated that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals.

Analysis of Control Efficacy of Bacterial Fruit Blotch Caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in Recent Issues (최근 문제시 되는 수박 과일썩음병에 대한 방제효과 분석)

  • Back, Chang-Gi;Lee, Sung-Chan;Park, Mi-Jeoung;Han, Kyung-Sook;Kim, Hong-Ki;Lee, Yoon-Su;Park, Jong-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2016
  • Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is defective disease to watermelon cultivated areas. To control of BFB, we investigated control efficiency to use commercial antibacterial pesticides. Growth inhibition zone on medium were formed as oxolinic acid WP and oxytetracycline WP. Control efficacy of four anti-bacterial pesticides on seed and seedling stage were performed. As a results, oxytetracyclin WP is shown over 90% control efficiency on seed and acibenzolar-S-methyl + mancozeb WP shown over 90% control efficiency on seedling stage Hot-water treatment method could be possible to reduced infection rate on seed. The conditions of hot-water treatments are $50{\sim}55^{\circ}C$ on 20~30 minutes. These results suggested that the methods were helpful watermelon seedling nursery to control of the bacterial fruit blotch by A. avenae subsp. citrulli.