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Distribution of Organic Acids in Traditional and Modified Fermented Foods (재래식과 개량식 발효식품의 유기산 분포)

  • 오금순;강길진;홍영표;안영순;이향미
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1177-1185
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    • 2003
  • The contents of organic acids in traditional and modified fermented foods were compared, and propionic acid produced during fermentation was investigated. Organic acids in traditional and modified soy sauces were lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid while propionic acid was found in traditional soy sauces only. Similarly, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were found in traditional and modified soy paste. The organic acids in traditional and modified kochujang were citric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid and succinic acid while propionic acid was not found in modified kochujang. The major organic acid in persimmon and commercial (fermented) vinegars was acetic acid. Propionic acid was uniquely found in persimmon vinegars. Also, content of tannic acid in persimmon vinegars was 366.9 ∼ 909.8 mg%.

Studies on the Components of Vegetables - 2. The free amino acid and organic acid contents in A. altissima leaves - (야채류(野菜類)의 성분(成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 2. A. altissima엽(葉)의 free amino acid및 organic acid함량(含量) -)

  • Kim, Seuk-Hwan;Cho, Soo-Yeul;Kim, Duck-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1977
  • Contents of free amino acids and organic acids in the leaves of Ailanthus altissima were surveyed through the course of this study. The results were as follows; 1. Lysine, histidine, arginine, tryptophan, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were presented in the leaves of A. altissima, and glutamic acid showed the highest amount and was more than about 48% of total free amino acids. 2. Fumaric acid was the major organic acid in the leaves of A. altissima, and also formic acid, acetic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and sorbic acid were determined, and two unknown were found.

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Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid and Stearic Acid Production by Mixed Rumen Fungi and Bacteria (반추위내 서식하는 혼합곰팡이와 박테리아에 의한 Linoleic Acid 가수소화반응과 Stearic Acid 생산에 관한 연구)

  • Nam, In-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to confirm biohydrogenation of linoleic acid and stearic acid production by mixed men fungi and bacteria. In mixed fungal biohydrogenation study, when linoleic acid solution was added to fungal culture (after 24 hr pre-incubation), all linoleic acids were converted to trans-11 vaccenic acid via cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid production within 24 hr period of incubation. All linoleic acid solution was hydrogenated to trans-11 vaccenic acid within 24 hr incubation and this was continued until the end of incubation (48 hr). Both treatments (added linoleic acid solution or the same amount of solution without containing linoleic acid into fungal cultures) produced the similar amount of stearic acid. In contrast, 100% of linoleic acid solution was hydrogenated to stearic acid in mixed bacterial culture. It is concluded that the end product of mixed fungal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid is trans-11 vaccenic acid whereas mixed bacteria produced stearic acid as an end product of their biohydrogenation.

Organic Acid in Korean Soy-Sauces (한국(韓國) 간장중(中)의 유기산(有機酸)에 대(對)하여)

  • Chang, Chi-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.8
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1967
  • Korean soy-sauces were orepared by the ordinary and impreved method and its analyses on the organic acid. The results obtained is as following: 1. In analysing general components of prepared soy-sauce, total acid, volatile acid and non-volatile acid were found more in improved soy-sauce than in ordinary soy-sauce. 2. Volatile organic acid were analysed by gas-chromatography method. As a result, the followings was attained: a) In the ordinary soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were detected. Butyric acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid are followed in the order. b) In the improved soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were detected. Acetic acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, butyric acid and formic acid are followed in the nrder. 3. Non-volatile organic acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography method. As a result, the followings were attained: a) Lactic, glutaric, fumaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, and succinic acid and two unknown spots were detected in ordinary soysauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, glutaric, malic, fumaric and malonic acid are followed in the order. b) Lactic, glutaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, tartaric, succinic and tgalacturonic acid and two unknown spots were detected in the improved soy-sauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, malic, glutaric, tartaric, galacturonic and malonic acid are followed in the order. 4. ${\alpha}-keto$ acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography. As a result, the followings were attained: Pyruvic acid and ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid and an unknown spot were detected in the ordinary and improved soy-sauce. Pyruvic acid was in the highest amount and then ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid are ollowed in the order. 5. Stale flavor in the ordinary soy-sauces seems to be partly affected by butyric acid and propionic acid. 6. Substances influencing taste, such as lactic acid and succinic acid, were found more in improved soy-sauce than ordinary soy-sauce.

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A STUDY ON THE MICROSCOPIC CHANGE OF THE ENAMEL SURFACE AFTER ACID ETCHING (법랑질(琺瑯質)의 산탈회(酸脱灰)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Min, Byoung-Duck
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1980
  • Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination on the labial surface of 91 permanent upper incisors were made after etching procedure with phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydro chloric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid, citric acid and zinc phosphate liquid for 2 minutes. Following results were obtained. 1. In the surfaces etched by 10%. 50% phosphoric acid, 50% sulfuric acid, 10%. 30% nitric acid, 10%. 50% oxalic acid, 10%. 30%. 50% formic acid, 30%. 50% citric acid and zinc phosphate liquid, there appeared to be a preferential removal of prism cores, but in the surfaces etched by 10% phosphoric acid, 50% nitric acid, 10%. 30% hydrochloric acid and 30% oxalic acid, the prism peripheries were removed preferentially. 2. According to Silverstone classification on enamel etching pattern the surface treated by zinc phosphate liquid, 30. 50% citric acid, 10%. 30%. 50% formic acid, 10%. 50% oxalic acid, 10%. 30% nitric acid, 50% sulfuric acid and 10%. 50%. phosphoric acid showed Type 1, and etched by 30% oxalic acid, 10%. 30% hydrochloric acid, 50% nitric acid and 10% phosphoric acid showed Type II. Etching of prism cores was by far the most common occurence. The changes produced could be related to intrinsic differences in histology and / or solubility of enamel.

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Comparison of Composition and Content of Fatty Acid in Egg Yolk Oil among General and Functional Eggs (일반란 및 기능란의 난황속의 지방산 조성 및 함량 비교)

  • 왕수경;구난숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.14-19
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to compare content and composition of fatty acid in egg yolk oil among general eggs from chicken, quail, duck. We also compared those of general and functional chicken egg. Fatty acids were determined by GC method and the results were as follows: Palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and timnodonic acid were identified in egg of chicken, quail and duck. The major fatty acid was oleic acid and palmitic acid in three kinds of eggs. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were analyzed in egg of quail , but no in chicken. Monounsaturaterd fatty acid (MUFA) was higher in egg yolk oil of chicken and quail. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was higher in duck egg. Ginseng egg had significantly higher palmitic acid and oleic acid lower than general chicken egg. Gamgoal egg had lower palmitic acid and oleic acid, and higher palmitoleic acid and stearic acid than general chiekcn egg. The content of oleic acid was lower in DHA egg than in general chiecken egg, but arachidonic acid was detected only in DHA egg. Ginseng egg had the highest content of saturated fatty acid among chicken eggs. The content of MUFA acid was the highest in gamgoal egg and general chicken egg. DHA egg had the most amount of PUFA among all chicken egg.

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Study on fatty acids composition by latent fingerprint deposition (유류된 잠재지문의 지방산조성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Mi Jung;Ha, Jaeho;Park, Sung Woo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.212-221
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    • 2008
  • In order to investigate the information for effective detection and developing of latent fingerprints, we identified fatty acids composition of latent fingerprints on non-porous evidence surface and the chemical changes of latent fingerprint residue after print deposition during 7 months. Fingerprints from eight Korean male donors (aged 29-50 years) and one female donor (aged 36 years) were collected. All fingerprints were found to contain lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), linoleic acid (C18:2n6c), arachidic acid (C20:0), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), erucic acid (C22:1n9) and docosadienoic acid (C22:2) and primarily palmitic acid (35.45-48.37%), oleic acid (14.84-28.49%), stearic acid (9.71-24.96%) and linoleic acid (7.68-18.8%) occupied 75% of total fatty acids. When the fingerprints were deposited at dark room for 7 months, total fatty acids components decreased about 12-25%. It can be explained that significant degradation of long-chain fatty acids such as elaidic acid (C18:1n9t), arachidic acid (C20:0), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and docosadienoic acid (C22:2) resulted in the generation of myristic acid (C14:0), myristoleic acid (C14:1) and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0).

The effect of Antiseptics on the Galactolipid Metabolism of Chlorella ellipsoidea Chloroplast and Thylakoid Envelope (Chlorella ellipsoidea 엽록체막과 틸라코이드막의당지질 대사에 미치는 식품보존제의 효과)

  • 최은아;장재선;이종삼
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 1998
  • The biosynthesis of galactolipid and the composition of fatty acid in chloroplast and thylakoid envelope isolated from C. ellipsoidea treated with antiseptics (potassium sorbate: PS, sodium benzoate:SB, calcium propionate:CP) were analyzed. The contents of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and total lipid in treatment with antiseptics were lower to compared with the control. The major fatty acid utilized for biosynthesis of MGDG in chloroplast envelope were palmitoleic acid (ave. 15.55%), oleic acid (ave. 15.09%) in control. Otherwise, the major fatty acids in P.S treatment were utilized for oleic acid (ave. 13.71%), linolenic acid (ave. 14.36%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 18.26%), oleic acid (ave. 17.26%) in S.B treatment, and oleic acid (ave. 16.88%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 16.31%) in CP treatment. It was showed that the major fatty acids in chloroplast envelope DGDG were oleic acid (ave. 15.75%), linolenic acid (ave. 17.74%) in control, oleic acid (ave. 14.90%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 15.97%) in P.S treatment, palmitoleic acid (ave. 13.29%), oleic acid (ave. 15.74%) in S.B treatment, and oleic acid (ave. 14.52%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 14.03%) in C.P treatment. The major fatty acid utilized for biosynthesis of MGDG in thylakoid envelope were linolenic acid (ave. 14.78%), oleic acid (ave. 12.90%) in control. Otherwise, the major fatty acids were utilized for palmitoleic acid (ave. 13.00%), palmitic acid (ave. 13.00%) in P.S treatment, palmitoleic acid (ave. 12.94%), oleic acid (ave. 12.43%) in S.B treatment, and oleic acid (ave. 12.43%), palmitoleic acid (ave. 12.43%) in C.P treatment. It was showed that the major fatty acids in thylakoid envelope DGDG were linolenic acid (ave. 18.01 %), oleic acid (ave. 15.53%) in control, linolenic acid (ave. 19.20%), linoleic acid (ave. 14.14%) in P.S treatment, palmitoleic acid (ave. 9.03%), oleic acid (ave. 14.85%) in S.B treatment, oleic acid (ave. 13.90%), linolneic acid(ave. 12.66%) in C.P treatment.

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Fatty Acid Constituents and Relative Compositions of Reproductive Tract Fluids in Sow (돼지에 있어서 생식기관액 중 지방산 조성과 조성율)

  • 신원집;정진우;최광수;신수길
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.137-145
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    • 2000
  • To investigate fatty acid constituents and relative compositions in the fluid of the follicles, oviducts, uterine ho군 and uterine body in sows, the fluids of the reproductive tract were analyzed using Gas chromatography. The samples were taken from various reproductive tract of 21 sows slaughtered. 1. Caprylic acid(C8: 0), capric acid(C10:0), lauric acid(C12:0), myristic acid(C14:0), palmitic acid(C16:0), plamitolele acid(C16:1), stearic acid(C18:0), oleic acid(C18:1), linoleic acid(C18:2) and arachidonic acid(C20:4) were found in the reproductive tracts of the sows, which made 10 kinds of fatty acid intotal. 2. Two kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and archidonic acid were found inthe reproductive tracts. 3. Palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids and oleic acid among unsaturated fatty acids were the hihgest level in all of the reproductive tracts. 4. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid showed higher rate with 44.89%, 23.69% and 14.36%, respectively, and lauric acid, capric acid, palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid ad myristic acid showed lower rate with 0.62%, 1.13%, 1.65%, 1.97% and 2.24%, respectively in the reproductive fluid. 5. The highest level of arachidonic acid was found in the uterine horn. 6. The sum of the palmitic acid and oleic acid were 66.91%, 70.41%, 66.14% and 73.36% in the fluid of follicle, oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body, respectively. 7. The relative composition of arachidonic acid was higher during the follicular stage than during the luteal phase in the fluid of oviduct and uterine. 8. The long chain fatty acids such as the palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid showed higher relative compositions during the follicular phase(93.18%∼96.83%) than during the luteal phase(82.56%∼88.37%). 9. Caprylic acid, luric acid and palmitoleic acid were undetected in the fluid of all of the reproductive tracts during the follicular phase. Low relative compositions of capric acid, myristic acid andarachidonic acid were found during the follicular phase, while the low relative compositions (<5%)of capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, plamitoleic acid and arachidonic acid were found during the luteal phase.

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Fatty Acid constituents and Relative Compositions of Reproductive Tract Fluids in Korean Native Cows (한우에 있어서 생식기관액 중 지방산 조성과 조성율)

  • 신원집;정진우;최광수;신수길
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2000
  • To investigate fatty acid constituents and relative compositions in the fluid of the follicles, oviducts, uterine body and uterine body in Korean native cow, the fluids of the reproductive tract were analyzed using gas chromatography. The samples were taken from various reproductive tract of 23 Korean native cows. q. Caprylic acid (C8:0), myristic acid(C14:0), palmitic acid(C16:0), palmitoleic acid(C16:1), stearic acid(C18:0), oleic acid(C18:1), linoleic acid(C18:2), arachidonic acid(C20:4) were found in the reproductive tracts of the cows, which made 8 kinds of fatty acid in total. 2. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid were predominant with 35.67%, 24.98% and 17.52%, respectively. while low levels of fatty acids(<5%) were myristic acid, palmitoleic acid and caprylic acid with 1.75%, 1.28% and 2.69%, respectively. 3. Two kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid arachidonic acid were found in the reproductive tracts of cows. 4. Palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids and oleic acid among unsaturated fatty acids were the highest level in all of the reproductive tracts. 5. The Highest level of arachidonic acid was found in the uterine horn. 6. The sum of the palmitic acid and oleic acid were 61.72%, 63.72%, 57.66% and 57.65% for the fluid of follicle, oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body of the cows, respectively. 7. The relative compositions of palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and caprylic acid were higher during the luteal phase than during the follicular phase. 8. The relative compositions of arachidonic acid was higher during the follicular phase in the fluid of uterine horn and uterine body of the cows. 9. The long chain fatty acid, the palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acidshowed higher relative compositions during the follicular phase(86.49%∼95.51%) than during the luteal phase(85.64%∼88.93%).

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