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재래식과 개량식 발효식품의 유기산 분포 (Distribution of Organic Acids in Traditional and Modified Fermented Foods)

  • 오금순;강길진;홍영표;안영순;이향미
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1177-1185
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    • 2003
  • 전통발효식품(간장 및 된장, 고추장, 감식초 등)중에 재래식과 개량식 제품의 맛과 향에 기인하는 유기산의 분포정도를 확인하고자 하였고, 아울러 식품공전에 보존료로 고시되어 있는 propionic acid가 발효과정 중에 생성됨에 따라 그 분포정도를 알고자 하였다 재래식 간장에서는 citric acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, propionic acid가, 개량식에서는 acetic acid와 lactic acid가 상대적으로 많이 검출되었으며, propionic acid는 검출되지 않았다. 재래식 및 개량식 된장 모두 유사한 분포양상을 보였으며, 재래식에서는 개량식 보다 citric acid와 succinic acid를 제외하고 약간 높은 함량을 보였다. 고추장의 경우 재래식이 개량식보다 citric acid, formic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid가 다소 높은 함량을 보였고, 그 외 다른 유기산들은 비슷한 양상을 보였다. 그러나 재래식에서는 Propionic acid가 검출된 반면 개량식에서는 전혀 검출되지 않았다. 일반 양조식초에서는 acetic acid가 주요 유기산이었고 미량의 formic acid가 검출되었으며, 감식초의 경우 acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid가 검 출되었다. 감식초중 flavonoid계 인 tannic acid 함량은 다소 제품별로 차이는 있었으나 그 범위는 366.9 ∼ 909.8 mg%를 보였다. 결론적으로 재래식 발효식품과 개량식 발효식품의 유기산 분포는 그 함량이 서로 달랐으며, 특히 보존료로 사용되고 있는 propionic acid는 된장을 제외한 재래식 발효식품에서 생성되었고, 개량식 발효식품에서는 생성되지 않았다. 또한 식초의 경우 감식초에서만 검출되었다.

야채류(野菜類)의 성분(成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 2. A. altissima엽(葉)의 free amino acid및 organic acid함량(含量) - (Studies on the Components of Vegetables - 2. The free amino acid and organic acid contents in A. altissima leaves -)

  • 김석환;조수열;김덕진
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1977
  • A. altissima 엽(葉)의 free amino acid 및 free organic acid의 함량(含量)을 측정한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. free amino acid는 lysine, histidine, arginine, tryptophan, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine 등 17종(種)이 정량(定量)되었으며 이들 중 glutamic acid가 가장 많아 전(全)아미노산량의 48.3%를 차지하였다. 2. free organic acid는 formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, tartaric acid 등 8종(種)이 정량되었고 sorbic acid는 미량(微量)이었으며, 이들 중 fumaric acid가 가장 많았다.

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반추위내 서식하는 혼합곰팡이와 박테리아에 의한 Linoleic Acid 가수소화반응과 Stearic Acid 생산에 관한 연구 (Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid and Stearic Acid Production by Mixed Rumen Fungi and Bacteria)

  • 남인식
    • 한국미생물학회지
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 2007
  • 홀스타인 건유우의 반추위에서 분리한 혼합 곰팡이에 첨가한 linoleic acid가 biohydrogenation 과정 중 생산되는 지방산의 농도와 종류를 측정하고, 최종 산물로 생산되는 지방산이 trans-11 vaccenic acid인지 stearic acid인지 조사하기 위하여 본 연구를 수행하였으며 결과는 다음과 같다. 반추위 혼합 박테리아 배양구에 linoleic acid 용액을 첨가한 결과, 배양 90분 이내에 100%의 linoleic acid가 stearic acid로 biohydrogenation되었다. 반면에 linoleic acid 용액을 반추위 혼합 곰팡이에 첨가한 결과 24시간 이내에 모든linoleic acid는 conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11)와 trans-11 vaccenic acid로 biohydrogenation되었다. Linoleic acid가 함유된 혼합곰팡이 처리구는 배양시간이 증가할수록 stearic acid의 농도도 소량 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 또한 linoleic acid가 함유되지 않은 혼합곰팡이 대조구에서도 배양시간이 증가할수록 stearic acid 농도가 처리구와 비슷하게 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 그러나 혼합 박테리아의 linoleic acid 첨가구에서는 배양시간이 증가할수록 stearic acid의 농도가 급격하게 증가하는 것을 조사되어 반추위 혼합곰팡이의 stearic acid생산은 linoleic acid의 biohydrogenation과 무관하게 생산되는 것으로 조사되었다. 따라서 반추위 혼합 곰팡이에 의한 linoleic acid biohydrogenation의 최종 산물은 trans-11 vaccenic acid로 판단되며, 혼합 박테리아는 stearic acid로 나타났다.

한국(韓國) 간장중(中)의 유기산(有機酸)에 대(對)하여 (Organic Acid in Korean Soy-Sauces)

  • 장지현
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.8
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1967
  • Korean soy-sauces were orepared by the ordinary and impreved method and its analyses on the organic acid. The results obtained is as following: 1. In analysing general components of prepared soy-sauce, total acid, volatile acid and non-volatile acid were found more in improved soy-sauce than in ordinary soy-sauce. 2. Volatile organic acid were analysed by gas-chromatography method. As a result, the followings was attained: a) In the ordinary soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were detected. Butyric acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid are followed in the order. b) In the improved soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were detected. Acetic acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, butyric acid and formic acid are followed in the nrder. 3. Non-volatile organic acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography method. As a result, the followings were attained: a) Lactic, glutaric, fumaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, and succinic acid and two unknown spots were detected in ordinary soysauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, glutaric, malic, fumaric and malonic acid are followed in the order. b) Lactic, glutaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, tartaric, succinic and tgalacturonic acid and two unknown spots were detected in the improved soy-sauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, malic, glutaric, tartaric, galacturonic and malonic acid are followed in the order. 4. ${\alpha}-keto$ acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography. As a result, the followings were attained: Pyruvic acid and ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid and an unknown spot were detected in the ordinary and improved soy-sauce. Pyruvic acid was in the highest amount and then ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid are ollowed in the order. 5. Stale flavor in the ordinary soy-sauces seems to be partly affected by butyric acid and propionic acid. 6. Substances influencing taste, such as lactic acid and succinic acid, were found more in improved soy-sauce than ordinary soy-sauce.

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법랑질(琺瑯質)의 산탈회(酸脱灰)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究) (A STUDY ON THE MICROSCOPIC CHANGE OF THE ENAMEL SURFACE AFTER ACID ETCHING)

  • 민병덕
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1980
  • Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination on the labial surface of 91 permanent upper incisors were made after etching procedure with phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydro chloric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid, citric acid and zinc phosphate liquid for 2 minutes. Following results were obtained. 1. In the surfaces etched by 10%. 50% phosphoric acid, 50% sulfuric acid, 10%. 30% nitric acid, 10%. 50% oxalic acid, 10%. 30%. 50% formic acid, 30%. 50% citric acid and zinc phosphate liquid, there appeared to be a preferential removal of prism cores, but in the surfaces etched by 10% phosphoric acid, 50% nitric acid, 10%. 30% hydrochloric acid and 30% oxalic acid, the prism peripheries were removed preferentially. 2. According to Silverstone classification on enamel etching pattern the surface treated by zinc phosphate liquid, 30. 50% citric acid, 10%. 30%. 50% formic acid, 10%. 50% oxalic acid, 10%. 30% nitric acid, 50% sulfuric acid and 10%. 50%. phosphoric acid showed Type 1, and etched by 30% oxalic acid, 10%. 30% hydrochloric acid, 50% nitric acid and 10% phosphoric acid showed Type II. Etching of prism cores was by far the most common occurence. The changes produced could be related to intrinsic differences in histology and / or solubility of enamel.

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일반란 및 기능란의 난황속의 지방산 조성 및 함량 비교 (Comparison of Composition and Content of Fatty Acid in Egg Yolk Oil among General and Functional Eggs)

  • 왕수경;구난숙
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.14-19
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to compare content and composition of fatty acid in egg yolk oil among general eggs from chicken, quail, duck. We also compared those of general and functional chicken egg. Fatty acids were determined by GC method and the results were as follows: Palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and timnodonic acid were identified in egg of chicken, quail and duck. The major fatty acid was oleic acid and palmitic acid in three kinds of eggs. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were analyzed in egg of quail , but no in chicken. Monounsaturaterd fatty acid (MUFA) was higher in egg yolk oil of chicken and quail. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was higher in duck egg. Ginseng egg had significantly higher palmitic acid and oleic acid lower than general chicken egg. Gamgoal egg had lower palmitic acid and oleic acid, and higher palmitoleic acid and stearic acid than general chiekcn egg. The content of oleic acid was lower in DHA egg than in general chiecken egg, but arachidonic acid was detected only in DHA egg. Ginseng egg had the highest content of saturated fatty acid among chicken eggs. The content of MUFA acid was the highest in gamgoal egg and general chicken egg. DHA egg had the most amount of PUFA among all chicken egg.

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유류된 잠재지문의 지방산조성에 관한 연구 (Study on fatty acids composition by latent fingerprint deposition)

  • 최미정;하재호;박성우
    • 분석과학
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.212-221
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    • 2008
  • 사건현장에 잔류하는 잠재지문의 효과적인 탐색 및 감식을 위한 자료를 얻고자 비다공성 증거물에 잔류된 잠재지문의 지방산 조성분석을 실시하고 7개월간의 지문유류에 따른 조성 변화에 대하여 알아보고자 하였다. 지문시료는 한국인 29-50 세 남성 8인과 여성(36 세) 1명으로부터 제공받았다. 모든 지문에서는 lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), linoleic acid (C18:2n6c), arachidic acid (C20:0), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), erucic acid (C22:1n9)와 docosadienoic acid (C22:2)의 11종의 지방산이 검출됨을 확인하였고, palmitic acid (35.45-48.37%), oleic acid (14.84-28.49%), stearic acid (9.71-24.96%)와 linoleic acid (7.68-18.85%)가 확인된 지방산조성의 75%이상을 차지하여 주요 구성성분임을 알 수 있었다. 또한 7개월간 온도 $20-25^{\circ}C$, 습도 40-50%의암실환경에서의장기간유류에따라총지방산의함량이 12-25% 감소하였으며, 이는 elaidic acid (C18:1n9t), arachidic acid (C20:0), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), erucic acid (C22:1n9), docosadienoic acid (C22:2)의 장쇄지방산들의 소실과 단쇄지방산인 myristic acid (C14:0), myristoleic acid (C14:1), pentadecanoic acid (C15:0)의 생성에 따른 결과임을 확인하였다.

Chlorella ellipsoidea 엽록체막과 틸라코이드막의당지질 대사에 미치는 식품보존제의 효과 (The effect of Antiseptics on the Galactolipid Metabolism of Chlorella ellipsoidea Chloroplast and Thylakoid Envelope)

  • 최은아;장재선;이종삼
    • 한국식품위생안전성학회지
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 1998
  • Chlorella ellipsoidea의 엽록체막 및 틸라코이드 막의 당지질 생합성과 그의 지방산 조성에 식품 보전제가 미치는 영향을 분석하고자 potassium sorbate(0.3 mM, P.S) , sodium bensoate(0.4mM, S.b), calcium propionate(2 mM, C.P)를 처리한 배지에서 세포를 배양한 후 배양초와 배양 중간기에 세포를 수확하여 막을 분리하고, 이들 막을 구성하고 있는 당지질 중 MGDG, DGDG의 함량 및 그의 지방산 조성을 대조구와 비교 분석하였다. Total lipid와 MGDG, DGDG 함량은 대조구와 비교해 볼 때 처리구에서 현저하게 감소하였다. 염록체막의 BGDG를 구성하는 지방산은 대조구에서는 palmitoleic acid 15.55% , oleic acid 15.09%가 이용되었으며, P.S 처리구는 linolenic acid 14.36%, oleic acid 14.71%, S.B 처리구는 palmitoleic acid 18.26%, oleic acid 17.26%, C.P 처리구는 palmitoleic acid 16.31%, oleic acid 16.88%를 당지할 합성에 주로 이용하였다. DGDG 형성에 이용된 지방산은 대조구의 경우 linolenic acid 17.74%, oleic acid 15.75%, P.S처리구는 palmitoleic acid 15.97%, oleic acid 14.90%, S.B 처리구는 oleic acid 15.74%, palmitoleic acid 13.29% C.P 처리구에서는 oleic acid 14.52%, palmitoleic acid 14.03%가 당지질 합성에 도입되었다. 틸라코이ㅡ막에서의 당지질 중 MGDG 생합성에 이용되는 지방산은 대조구에서는 linolenic acid 가 14.76%, oleic acid가 12.90% 사용되었으며 P.S 처리구에서는 palmitic acid와 palmitoleic acid가 각각 13.00%씩 이용되었다. S.B 처리구는 palmitoleic acid 12.94%, oleic acid 12.44% , C.P 처리구는 oleic acid 13.27 %, palmitoleic acid 9.66%를 당지질 생합성에 이용하였다. DGDG 합성에 이용되는 지방산은 대조구의 경우 linolenic acid 18.01% , oleic acid 15.53%로 나타났으며, P.S 처리구는 linolenic acid 19.20%, linoleic acid 14.14%, S.B 처리구는 oleic acid 14.85%, palmitoleic acid 9.03%, C.P 처리구는 linolenic acid 12.66%, olei acid 13.90%를 주로 이용하였다.

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돼지에 있어서 생식기관액 중 지방산 조성과 조성율 (Fatty Acid Constituents and Relative Compositions of Reproductive Tract Fluids in Sow)

  • 신원집;정진우;최광수;신수길
    • 한국수정란이식학회지
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.137-145
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    • 2000
  • To investigate fatty acid constituents and relative compositions in the fluid of the follicles, oviducts, uterine ho군 and uterine body in sows, the fluids of the reproductive tract were analyzed using Gas chromatography. The samples were taken from various reproductive tract of 21 sows slaughtered. 1. Caprylic acid(C8: 0), capric acid(C10:0), lauric acid(C12:0), myristic acid(C14:0), palmitic acid(C16:0), plamitolele acid(C16:1), stearic acid(C18:0), oleic acid(C18:1), linoleic acid(C18:2) and arachidonic acid(C20:4) were found in the reproductive tracts of the sows, which made 10 kinds of fatty acid intotal. 2. Two kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and archidonic acid were found inthe reproductive tracts. 3. Palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids and oleic acid among unsaturated fatty acids were the hihgest level in all of the reproductive tracts. 4. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid showed higher rate with 44.89%, 23.69% and 14.36%, respectively, and lauric acid, capric acid, palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid ad myristic acid showed lower rate with 0.62%, 1.13%, 1.65%, 1.97% and 2.24%, respectively in the reproductive fluid. 5. The highest level of arachidonic acid was found in the uterine horn. 6. The sum of the palmitic acid and oleic acid were 66.91%, 70.41%, 66.14% and 73.36% in the fluid of follicle, oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body, respectively. 7. The relative composition of arachidonic acid was higher during the follicular stage than during the luteal phase in the fluid of oviduct and uterine. 8. The long chain fatty acids such as the palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid showed higher relative compositions during the follicular phase(93.18%∼96.83%) than during the luteal phase(82.56%∼88.37%). 9. Caprylic acid, luric acid and palmitoleic acid were undetected in the fluid of all of the reproductive tracts during the follicular phase. Low relative compositions of capric acid, myristic acid andarachidonic acid were found during the follicular phase, while the low relative compositions (<5%)of capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, plamitoleic acid and arachidonic acid were found during the luteal phase.

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한우에 있어서 생식기관액 중 지방산 조성과 조성율 (Fatty Acid constituents and Relative Compositions of Reproductive Tract Fluids in Korean Native Cows)

  • 신원집;정진우;최광수;신수길
    • 한국수정란이식학회지
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2000
  • To investigate fatty acid constituents and relative compositions in the fluid of the follicles, oviducts, uterine body and uterine body in Korean native cow, the fluids of the reproductive tract were analyzed using gas chromatography. The samples were taken from various reproductive tract of 23 Korean native cows. q. Caprylic acid (C8:0), myristic acid(C14:0), palmitic acid(C16:0), palmitoleic acid(C16:1), stearic acid(C18:0), oleic acid(C18:1), linoleic acid(C18:2), arachidonic acid(C20:4) were found in the reproductive tracts of the cows, which made 8 kinds of fatty acid in total. 2. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid were predominant with 35.67%, 24.98% and 17.52%, respectively. while low levels of fatty acids(<5%) were myristic acid, palmitoleic acid and caprylic acid with 1.75%, 1.28% and 2.69%, respectively. 3. Two kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid arachidonic acid were found in the reproductive tracts of cows. 4. Palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids and oleic acid among unsaturated fatty acids were the highest level in all of the reproductive tracts. 5. The Highest level of arachidonic acid was found in the uterine horn. 6. The sum of the palmitic acid and oleic acid were 61.72%, 63.72%, 57.66% and 57.65% for the fluid of follicle, oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body of the cows, respectively. 7. The relative compositions of palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and caprylic acid were higher during the luteal phase than during the follicular phase. 8. The relative compositions of arachidonic acid was higher during the follicular phase in the fluid of uterine horn and uterine body of the cows. 9. The long chain fatty acid, the palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acidshowed higher relative compositions during the follicular phase(86.49%∼95.51%) than during the luteal phase(85.64%∼88.93%).

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