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Analysis of Amino Acid, Fatty Acid, and Vitamin in Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) Seeds (잣 종자(種子)의 아미노산(酸), 지방산(脂肪酸), 비타민 분석(分析))

  • Han, Sang Sup;Hwang, Byung Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.79 no.4
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 1990
  • The seeds of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, had been used as one of edible fruits for long time, but its chemical analysis of the nutrient components was extremely limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of chemical components of Korean pine seeds. The results obtained are as follows : 1. In general analysis of Korean pine seeds, moisture is 4.4%, crude protein 18.3%, crude fat 67.3%, crude fiber 4.7%, ash 2.2%, and nitrogen-free extract 3.4%, respectively, 2. The Korean pine seed contained 18 different kinds of amino acid : lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, cysteic acid, and tryptophan. The glutamic acid is highest content among 18 kinds of amino acid. 3. The Korean pine seed contains all the essential amino acids such as arginine, histidine, lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. 4. The Korean pine seed contains 13 different kinds of fatty acid such as myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid, 9-icosenoic acid, 9, 11-icosenoic acid, 8, 11, 14-icosatrienoic acid, and tn-o unknown substances. Also it contains all the essential fatty acids as linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The linoleic acid is highest content among 13 kinds of fatty acid. 5. The Korean pine seed contained 5 different kind., of vitamin such as vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, vitamin E and niacin. The content of vitamin E is the largest among 5 kinds of vitamin.

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Comparison of Chemical Constituents of Upland Wasabia japonica Matsum Grown by Different Propagation Methods (번식방법(繁殖方法)에 따른 밭고추냉이의 성분비교(成分比較))

  • Kim, Sang-Yeol;Park, Kee-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.294-301
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    • 1997
  • Fatty acid, amino acid and organic acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography, amino acid analyzer and high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively, in order to compare the chemical constituents of upland wasabi plant propagated by seed and auxiliary bud. Total fatty acid content and fatty acid composition of upland wasabi were not affected by the propagation methods. Generally, fatty acid content of leaf was higher than that of other parts such as enlarged stem, petiole, peduncle and root. In fatty acid composition, leaf had highest content of linolenic acid, 60-63%, in plant propagated by both seed and auxiliary bud, followed by palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid in the order. Similarly, total amino acid content was not influenced by propagation methods but plant propagated by seed had higher amount of amino acid content in enlarged stem, petiole and root than that by auxiliary bud -propagated plant. A total of 17 amino acids including 7 essential amino acids were identified in both seed and auxiliary bud propagations. Like total fatty acid content and fatty acid composition, leaf contained high amount of amino acids, especially glutamic acid, asparatic acid and leucine. Organic acid contents were similar in both propagation methods. The major organic acid in upland wasabi was acetic acid (60.0-78.2%), followed by succinic acid (9.9-29.7%) and malic acid (2.9-7.9%). Maleic acid content was least (0.5-2.6%). The result indicates that content and composition of fatty acid, amino acid, and organic acid in upland wasabi were not influenced by propagation methods.

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The Effect of Metal Compounds on Phospholipid Biosynthesis and Fatty Acid Composition in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis (Escherichia coli와 Bacillus subtilis의 당지질 생합성과 지방산 조성에 미치는 여러가지 금속화합물의 영향)

  • 이소은;이종삼
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.54-67
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    • 1995
  • The biosynthesis of galactolipid and galactose and their composition of fatty acid in E. coli and B. subtilis treated ] with copper chloride (10 ppm), nickel chloride (50 ppm), manganese chloride (100 ppm) during the culture were analyzed. The contents of MGDG, DGDG and total lipids in treatment with metal compounds were lower to compared with the control. In E. coli, the major fatty acid unitized for biosyntheis of MGDG were palimitic acid (ave. 36.87%) and linolenic acid (ave. 14.79%) in control. In MGDG, the major fatty acids were utilized for palmitic acid (ave. 20.00%) and myristic acid (ave. 7.32%) in treatment with copper chloride, lauric acid (ave. 11.71%) and linolenic acid (ave. 11.06%) in manganese chloride treatment. And in nickel chloride treatment, it was palmitic acid (ave. 36.16%) and oleic acid (ave. 6.43%) were use in MGDG formation. In DGDG, in copper chloride treatment, it was lauric acid (ave. 19.41%) and oleic acid (ave. 9.95%) in biosynthesis of galactolipid. and in treatment with nickel chloride linolenic acid (ave. 15.39%) and linoleic acid (ave. 13.51%), in manganese chloride treatment palmitic acid (ave. 29.76%) and palmitoleic acid (ave. 11.35%) were used in DGDG formation. In B. subtilis, the major fatty acids utilized for biosynthesis of galactolipid was palmitic acid (ave. 30.86%) and linolenic acid (ave. 8.36%) in control. Otherwise, in MGDG, the major fatty acids were utilized for palmitic acid (ave. 28.92%) and stearic acid (ave. 13.25%) in treatment with copper chloride, and palmitic acid (ave. 15.73%) and lauric acid (ave. 11.88%) in manganese chloride treatment. It was continned that nickel chloride treatment was palmitic acid (ave. 35.16%) and palmitoleic acid (ave. 12.47%). The major fatty acids in DGDG were utilized for palmitic acid(ave. 34.19%) and linoleic acid (ave. 17.45%) in copper chloride treatment, and lauric acid (ave. 11.16%) and myrisitic acid (ave. 8.65%) in manganese chloride treatment. In treatment with nickel chloride, it was palmitoleic acid (ave. 10.30%) and myristic acid (ave. 7.81%) were used galactolipid formation.

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Changes of Fatty Acid during Germination by Seed Pretreatment, SMP, in Tobacco (SMP종자 전처리에 의한 담배 종자 발아과정의 지방산 변화)

  • Shin Ju-Sik;Kim Young-Sin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.156-160
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    • 2005
  • We studied the effect of SMP (solid matrix priming) treatment, seed pretreatment for germination enhancement, to tobacco seeds by measurement of germination rate and contents of fatty acid, energy source for tobacco germination. The results were as follows. In result of germination test, germinative ability was the highest in KF109 at nine day treatment and in KB108 at seven day treatment. The composition of fatty acid in tobacco seed confirmed by gas chromatography were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid+elaidic acid, linoleic acid+linole­laidic acid, and $\alpha-linolenic$ acid. Palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and elaidic acid, and linoleic acid and linole-laidic acid were highest in KF109 at eight or nine day treatment and in KB108 at six or seven day treatment. Especially, content of oleic acid + elaidic acid, and linoleic acid+linolelaidic acid were changed largely by treatment, so these might be used for index to examine treatment effect.

Effect of Acid Treatment Process on the Physicochemical Properties of Gelatin Extracted from Pork Skin (산처리 공정에 따라 추출한 돈피 젤라틴의 이화학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Yeom Geun-Woong;J Andrieu;Min Sang-Gi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of gelatin extracted from pork skin under soaking in various acid solutions (lactic acid, acetic acid, and citric acid). Gelatin sol was extracted at 8$0^{\circ}C$, frozen at -2$0^{\circ}C$ and lyophilized it for 3 days to be completely dried in freeze drying unit. In the evaluation of gelatin quality, gelatin soaked in citric acid showed higher L- and a-values than those of any other gelatin (p<0.05). Gelatin treated by acetic acid showed the highest gel strength, cohesiveness, and brittleness. The content of hydroxyproline amino acid in gelatin treated by acetic acid was larger than one of gelatin treated in lactic and citric acid in order. From the experimental results, the highest quality of gelatin in all of period, which was soaked in acetic acid and lactic acid, has a more good quality than gelatin soaked in citric acid.

Methodological Research on the Instruments of Fatty Acids Determination (지방산의 기기 측정 방법에 관한 연구)

  • 박선미;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 1991
  • In this study, several standard fatty acids were analyzed by three analysis instruments. And also, for the two kinds of soybean oils, fatty acids compositions were determined by three instruments. The results were obtained as follows: 1. In the case of Gas Chromatography (GC), standard fatty acids (Myristic, Stearic, Linoleic, Linolenic, Arachidonic acid) were determined with high reproducibility, but oleic acid/elaidic acid were not seperated. By Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC), most of standard fatty acids were determined with very high reproducibility than saturated fatty acids, and palmitic acid/oleic acid were not seperated. 2. In the analytical ability of cis-trans fatty acids isomer (oleic acid/elaidic acid), CGC was shown better analytical ability of geometrical isomer than HPLC. Oleic acid/elaidic acid were not seperated by packed column (15% DEGS). The rquire time for standard fatty acids analysis was as follows; GC, 7.21 min., CGC, 9.84 min., HPLC, 24.48 min. 3. The major compositions of fatty acids of each soybean oil (CSOY; refined, DSOY; unrefined) by GC and CGC were linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, linolenic acid and stearic acid. But in the case of HPLC, palmitic acid/oleic acid were not seperated. Analytical ability of three instruments on fatty acids composition in each soybean oil was same trend as in the standard fatty acids mixture.

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Analysis of dye components using MECC and ion-pairing chromatography (MECC법과 Ion-Pairing 크로마토그래피법을 이용한 염료성분의 분석)

  • Jeong, Hyuk
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2006
  • Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography(MECC) and HPLC with ion-pairing mechanism were applied for the separation of the well known environmental wastes from dye industry. These compounds include H-acid, J-acid, ${\gamma}$-acid, orthanilic acid, sulfanilic acid and 2-naphthylamine-1,5-disulfonic acid, and are known to be the diazo components of the azo dye. MECC method was also applied to separate few acid dyes including Acid Orange 7, Acid Orange 5 and Acid Blue 92 and direct dye such as Direct Red 80. Informations about the diazo components of any azo dye could be obtained by comparison of electropherogram of the reduction solution of a given dye with those obtained from standard materials such as H-acid, J-acid, ${\gamma}$-acid, orthanilic acid, sulfanilic acid and 2-naphthylamine-1,5-disulfonic acid. It has been concluded that MECC and HPLC with ion-pairing mechanism could be successfully applied for the analysis of unknown dyes and their diazo components.

Varietal Differences of Major Chemical Components and Fatty Acid Composition in Mungbean (녹두의 주요 성분함량과 지방산 조성의 품종간 차이)

  • 이성춘;임태곤;김동철;송동석;김영국
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1997
  • These experiments were conducted to obtain basic information for breeding material on the utility characteristics in mungbean, The crude protein, fat and ash content were 24.3, 0.67, 3.6%, repectively, and the fat content showed varietal differences, whereas the protein and ash content was not significantly differences among the varieties. The negative correlation existed between protein and carbohydrate content, seed moisture and fat content, seed weight and fat content. The unsaturated fatty acid contain 60∼67% and there were oleic, linoleic, linolenic and archidonic acid, and the saturated fatty acid contain 33∼40% and there were stearic, palmitic, behenic and lignoceric acid. The major fatty acids in mungbean were linoleic, linolenic and palmitic acid, and have contained 33.46, 21.87, 21.72, respectively, and oleic, stearic and arachidonic acid contained 5.98, 5.88, 4.87, respectively, and the behenic and lignoceric acid left traces. Highly positive correlation existed between palmitic and linoleic acid, oleic and lignoceric, behenic. However; palmitic and arachidonic, lignoceric acid, oleic and linolenic acid, arachidonic and liniceric acid showed negative correlations with each other. Seed weight of tested varieties showed highly positive correlation with oleic, arachidonic and behenic acid.

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Chemical Compositions of Schizandra nigra Maxim. (흑오미자의 성분분석)

  • 현규환;김학진;신수철
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2000
  • The results from the determination of contents of components in Schizandra nigra are as follows. The contents of malic acid and citric acid in Schizandra nigra was 38,691 and 3,330 ppm/dry weight 100g. The contents of total phenolic compounds in Schizandra nigra was 1.560%. The predominating phenolic acid was cinnamic acid, gentisic acid, coumalic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. Contents of crude lipids in Schizandra nigra was 160.5mg/g. Most of fatty acid in lipids was oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid as a unsaturated fatty acid, and palmitic acid as a saturated fatty acid. In case of essential oils, The predominating components in Schizandra nigra was caryophyllene, calarene, cubebene, acoradiene and $\beta$-himachalene.

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The Effects of Surfactants on the Biosynthesis of Galactolipid and the Composition of Fatty Acids in Chloroplast Envelope rind Thylakoid Membrane of Chlorella ellipsoidea

  • Choe, Eun-A;Cheong, Gyeong-Suk;Lee, Cheong-Sam
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 1998
  • To analyze the effects of surfactants on the biosynthesis of galactolipid and the composition of fatty acids, the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid membrane were cultivated in medium treated with anionic surfactants, such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (0.002%, LAS), a-olefin sulfonate (O.01%, AOS), and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (0.08%, SLES), respectively. During the cultivation, the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid membrane were isolated from the cells collected at the early and middle phase of the culture and the contents of their fatty acid composition were compared with the control. When treated with surfactants, the contents of total lipid MDGD methylesters, and DGDG methylesters decreased significantly when compared with the control. It was also confirmed that more unsaturated fatty acids were involved in the biosynthesis of galactolipid. The fatty acids utilized in the biosynthesis of MGDG were in the chloroplast envelope and in the control, and linoleic acid in LAS, linolenic acid and oleic acid in AOS, and linolenic acid and oleic acid in SLES. The fatty acids in the biosynthesis of DGDG were linolenic acid and oleic acid in the control linolenic acid and stearic acid in LAS, oleic acid and linolenic acid in AOS, oleic acid and linolenic acid in SLES. In the thylakoid membrane, the major fatty acids in the biosynthesis of MGDG were linolenic acid and oleic acid in the control, oleic acid and linolenic acid in LAS, linolenic acid and linoleic acid in AOS, linolenic acid and palmitoleic acid in SLES. The fatty acids in the biosynthesis of DGDG were linolenic acid and oleic acid in the control, oleic acid and linolenic acid in LAS, linolenic acid and linoleic acid in AOS, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in SLES.

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