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Establishment of discrimination system using multivariate analysis of FT-IR spectroscopy data from different species of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) (FT-IR 스펙트럼 데이터 기반 다변량통계분석기법을 이용한 아티초크의 대사체 수준 품종 분류)

  • Kim, Chun Hwan;Seong, Ki-Cheol;Jung, Young Bin;Lim, Chan Kyu;Moon, Doo Gyung;Song, Seung Yeob
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 2016
  • To determine whether FT-IR spectral analysis based on multivariate analysis for whole cell extracts can be used to discriminate between artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) plants at the metabolic level, leaves of ten artichoke plants were subjected to Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectral data from leaves were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). FT-IR spectra confirmed typical spectral differences between the frequency regions of 1,700-1,500, 1,500-1,300 and $1,100-950cm^{-1}$, respectively. These spectral regions reflect the quantitative and qualitative variations of amide I, II from amino acids and proteins ($1,700-1,500cm^{-1}$), phosphodiester groups from nucleic acid and phospholipid ($1,500-1,300cm^{-1}$) and carbohydrate compounds ($1,100-950cm^{-1}$). PCA revealed separate clusters that corresponded to their species relationship. Thus, PCA could be used to distinguish between artichoke species with different metabolite contents. PLS-DA showed similar species classification of artichoke. Furthermore these metabolic discrimination systems could be used for the rapid selection and classification of useful artichoke cultivars.

Effect of High Temperature and High Pressure on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Korean Red Ginseng (고온고압 처리가 홍삼의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eunyoung;Jin, Yan;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Lim, Tae-Gyu;Jang, Mi;Cho, Chang-Won;Rhee, Young Kyoung;Hong, Hee-Do
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.438-447
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the physiochemical properties and antioxidative activity of red ginseng manufactured using the high temperature high pressure (HTHP) process, which is faster and simpler than the conventional process. According to increasing the steaming temperature, pressure and time, the content of minor non-polar ginsenosides, such as Rg3, Rk3, Rh4, Rk1 and Rg5 gradually increased. Also, the contents of acidic polysaccharide, total phenolic compounds and maltol gradually increased. Based on the results of the physiochemical properties and appearance quality, the optimum conditions of HTHP process were estimated as $140^{\circ}C$, $3kg/cm^2$ in 20 min. The total phenolic compounds and maltol contents of the HTHP process red ginseng (1.0% and 2.49 mg%, respectively) were higher than those of conventional red ginseng (0.23% and 0.60 mg%, respectively). In addition, the antioxidative activity was investigated using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-aziono-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of HTHP process red ginseng increased by 3.4 and 3.6 folds, respectively, compared with conventional red ginseng. In addition, total phenolic compounds and maltol contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of the HTHP process red ginseng were similar to black ginseng. The present results suggest that the HTHP process is available for the development of value-added red ginseng products.

Chemical Compositions of the Four Lines of Korean Native Chickens (4계통 재래종 닭고기의 화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Kyu Chul;Lee, Sung-Ki;Kim, Hye Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to compare nutritional composition and taste-related compounds of breast and thigh meats from four lines of Korean native chickens (KNC) Yeonsan Ogye, Hyunin Black, Hwangbong, and Hoengseong Yakdak. White Leghorn (WL) was used as a control. Fifteen male chickens (three chickens in each line) were grown under same condition and slaughtered at 53 weeks old. The contents of Fe and K in KNC, especially Hwangbong breast meat and thigh meat of Hyunin Black and Hoengseong Yakdak, were higher than WL. The contents of Na were lower in KNC compared with WL regardless of parts (p<0.05). Vitamin A contents were higher in thigh meat of WL and Hyunin Black, and vitamin $B_1$ contents were lower in Hoengseong Yakdak than other lines. Vitamin $B_3$ were higher in breast meat of four lines of KNC and thigh meat of Hoengseong Yakdak than WL. Total amino acid contents were higher in breast meat of KNC than WL. The level of good-tasting amino acids were significantly higher in breast meat of Hoengseong Yakdak and WL, and thigh meat of Hyunin Black and WL than other lines of chickens (p<0.05). The ratio of good-tasting amino acids to bitter tasting amino acids was higher in breast meat of Hoengseong Yakdak and thigh meat of Hyunin Black than WL. IMP contents were higher in Hyunin Black and WL than other lines of chickens. Based on these results, it can be concluded that four lines of KNC may have superior nutritional quality and taste when compared with WL.

Comparison of the Rate of Demineralization of Enamel using Synthetic Polymer Gel (합성 폴리머 겔의 법랑질 탈회 속도 비교)

  • Lee, June-Hang;Shin, Jisun;Kim, Jongsoo
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.190-199
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    • 2019
  • $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 used as surface protecting agent in White's method is the one of the artificial caries lesion producing solution was discontinuing of production. New surface protecting material to substitute of $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 was required. The author prepared an artificial caries lesion producing solution as follows White's method with $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 and also another artificial caries lesion producing solution with $Carbopol^{(R)}$ $2050^{(R)}$. 96 flattened and polished enamel samples were immersed in a demineralizing solution of 0.1 mol/L lactic acid, 0.2% carboxyvinylpolymer and 50% saturated hydroxyapatite for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18 and 20 days. All samples from each group were subjected to polarized microscopy observed and image analysis for measuring the lesion depth. From the review of polarized images, the artificial caries lesion producing solution using $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 and $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 2050 can produced an artificial caries that was very similar to natural caries characters. From the regression analysis of the lesion depth produced by the artificial caries lesion producing solution using $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 and $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 2050, $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 2050 estimate as Y = 9.8X + 8.0 and $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 was Y = 8.4X - 0.4. R square value of $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 2050 and $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 was 0.965 and 0.945 respectively. The rate of demineralization by the artificial caries lesion producing solution using $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 2050 was faster than that of $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907. And R square value of $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 2050 and $Carbopol^{(R)}$ 907 were very high and it means that the lesion depth was very high coefficient to demineralization period.

Study on ZnO Nanoparticle Dispersions in Test Media Including Natural Organic Matter for Ecotoxicological Assessment (천연유기물을 포함한 산화아연 나노입자 분산배지의 생태독성평가 적용성 연구)

  • Park, Sun-Young;Kim, Kyung-tae;Shin, Yu-jin;Kim, Ji-eun;Lee, Jae-woo;Jo, Eunhye;Sung, Hwa kyung;Kim, Pil-je;Choi, Kyung-hee;Eom, Ig-chun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.634-640
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    • 2017
  • Toxicity and fate assessment is necessary in the evaluation of the environmental, health and safety risks of engineered nanomaaterials (ENMs). Therefore, in order to ensure the reproducibility, reliability and relevance of ENMs toxicity results, stable and monomodal dispersion protocols in toxicity test media are needed. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are widely used in various products such as cosmetic products, paper, paints etc. In this study, nZnO dispersions in ecotoxicity test media were produced by following a series of steps of modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special publication 1200-5. In addition, natural organic matter (humic acid (HA)) was used as a stabilizing agent to disperse nZnO in the test media. The hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) of the nZnO in dispersion ranged between 150 and 200 nm according to the dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement. Based on these dispersions in ecotoxicity test using ecological species (Oryzias latipes, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chironomusus riparius), dispersion protocol was found to have a considerable potential in ecotoxicity test of ENMs.

Distribution of Organic Matter and Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments from Fishery Resources Protection Areas in the Southwestern Coast of Korea (남서해연안 수산자원보호구역 표층 퇴적물 중 유기물 및 중금속 농도분포)

  • Koo, Jun-Ho;Lee, Garam;Hwang, Hyunjin;Kim, Jeong-Bae;Kim, Sang-Su;Hwang, Dong-Woon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.666-677
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    • 2019
  • In order to understand the distribution of organic matter and heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediments of fishery resources protection areas (FRPAs), we measured the grain size, ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (COD), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in the surface sediments collected at 54 stations of 5 FRPAs (Gamak Bay, Yeoja Bay, Deukryang Bay, Wando coast, and Youngkwang coast) in the southwestern coast of Korea in February 2017. The surface sediments consisted of fine sediment such as mud, with 2.9~8.8Ø (7.4±0.1Ø) of mean grain size. The average concentrations of IL, COD, and AVS in the sediments were 4.63±0.96 %, 13.0±3.1 mgO2/g·dry, and 0.092±0.124 mgS/g·dry, respectively, and were lower for sediments from the Youngkwang coast than those from other FRPAs. The average concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment were 7.5±0.9 mg/kg for As, 0.04±0.02 mg/kg for Cd, 70.2±9.7 mg/kg for Cr, 15.3±2.8 mg/kg for Cu, 3.3±0.5 % for Fe, 0.014±0.003 mg/kg for Hg, 25.0±6.0 mg/kg for Pb, and 99±14 mg/kg for Zn, respectively, and were relatively higher for sediments in the inner bays than those from the outer bays and coasts. Based on the assessment of sediment samples using the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the pollutant load index (PLI), and the ecological risk index (ERI), the surface sediments of FRPAs in the southwestern coast of Korea do not appear to be polluted by heavy metals, suggesting that the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments would not adversely impact aquatic and benthic organisms.

Analysis of Biological Activities and Functional Components in Different Parts of Asparagus (아스파라거스 부위별 유효성분 및 생리활성 분석)

  • Kwon, Soon-Bae;Kwon, Hye-Jeong;Jeon, Shin-Jae;Seo, Hyun-Taek;Kim, Hee-Yeon;Lim, Jae-Gil;Park, Ji-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2020
  • In this study, various constituents and biological activities of different parts of asparagus were analyzed and compared. The Ca content was high in the leaves, K was significantly high in the top 25 cm of the spear, and Fe and Na were significantly high in the roots. The ascorbic acid, rutin, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid contents were high in the leaves, and the asparagine and glutathione contents were significantly high in the top 25 cm of the spear and roots, respectively. The bottom 5 cm of the spear had the highest saponin content compared with all other parts. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were the highest in the leaves. The bottom 5 cm of the spear had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, whereas the stem showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the usually inedible parts of asparagus may be highly valuable as high-quality functional components owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.

A Survey on the Application of Preservatives to Processed Food Types (보존료의 가공식품 유형별 사용 현황 연구)

  • Jeong, Eun-Jeong;Jin, Kyoung Nam;Choi, Hyeonjeong;Jeong, Yusang;Kim, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.261-270
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    • 2020
  • The application of color retention agents (3 items), preservatives (17 items), and bleaching agents (6 items) as food additives in processed foods were investigated by food type. Among color retention agents, sodium nitrite was used the most with 257 cases, mainly in seasoned jeoktal (71.21%), ready-to-eat foods (7.78%), and breads (4.87%). Of the benzoates (1,236 cases) used as a preservative, sodium benzoate showed up most, in 1,215 cases, while 81.16% of these were in beverages such as beverage base (39.51%), mixed beverages (22.47%), and ginseng/red ginseng beverages (8.89%). Grapefruit seed extracts (3,291 cases) were applied to 44 types of processed foods such as sauces (54.65%), liquid tea (10.46%), and other products (5.15%). Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (2,957 cases) was applied to products (total 96.44%) such as sauces (92.15%), blended soy sauce (2.77%), and pickled foods (1.52%). Potassium sorbate was applied to a total of 789 cases, mainly pickled foods (40.43%) and processed fishery products (47.15%). All 27 cases of sorbic acid were applied to fish paste (100%). Of the bleaching agents, sodium bisulfite and sodium hydrosulfite were mainly used in confectioneries, breads or rice cakes, and potassium metabisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and sulfur dioxide were mainly found in alcoholic beverages including fruit wine, while sodium sulfite was mostly used in pickled foods. These results are deemed useful in applying food additives to processed foods.

Growth Promotion in Red Pepper and Tomato Seedlings by Fermented Liquid Fertilizers and Elution of Mineral Nutrients by Extraction Methods (발효액비별 고추와 토마토 육묘 생육 촉진 및 추출방법별 무기양분 용출)

  • Jang, Se Ji;Kuk, Yong In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.130-141
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to determine which fermented liquid fertilizer and application method yields the greatest amount of growth in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.) plants. Additionally, we investigated which extraction methods produce the most effective fertilizer with the highest levels of mineral nutrients. The liquid fertilizers used in this study were made from fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake, and were extracted using fermentation or water and boiled water. In tomato plants, foliar-application of fermented fertilizer is known to promote more growth than application by drenching, regardless of the number of treatments (once or twice). In our studies, however, drenching with fertilizer promoted growth more effectively than foliar-application in red pepper plants. Studies in both tomato and red pepper have shown that the number of treatments does not significantly alter growth. Liquid fertilizers produced by a fermentation-extraction method promoted greater levels of growth in tomato compared to red pepper, and growth was greater when fertilizers were applied 20 (rather than 40) days post-sowing. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight were affected more by fermented fertilizers than plant height 20 days post-sowing. In red pepper, we observed increased shoot fresh weight when using fermented liquid fertilizers with concentrations of 0.1% or greater. Tomato shoot fresh weight increased similarly in response to fermented fertilizer treatments at the same concentration levels, except those derived from fish. Fermented fish liquid fertilizer was only effective in increasing tomato shoot fresh weight in concentrations exceeding 1%. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight also increased more than plant height in our studies using fermentation liquid fertilizers at 40 days after sowing. Red pepper fresh weight increased with application of bone + fish meal, red pepper leaf, and oil cake fertilizers at concentrations of 0.1%, but not with fish liquid fertilizer in concentrations under 0.5%. Shoot fresh weight in tomato increased with all liquid fertilizers. Growth in red pepper and tomato may be influenced by different kinds of fertilizers due to combinations of macro- and micro-nutrients, or specific macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. The mineral nutrients found in fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake were not easily extracted by fermentation; thus, liquid fertilizers made using water and boiled water methods more effectively promoted growth in red pepper and tomato due to the larger amounts of macronutrients eluted.

Monitoring of Heavy Metals Migrated from Glassware, Ceramics, Enamelware, and Earthenware (유리제, 도자기제, 법랑 및 옹기류 재질의 식품용 기구 및 용기·포장의 중금속 이행량 모니터링)

  • Cho, Kyung Chul;Jo, Ye-Eun;Park, So-Yeon;Park, Yongchjun;Park, Se-Jong;Lee, Hye Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the migration levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) from food contact articles (glassware, ceramics, enamelware, and earthenware) into a food stimulant (4% v/v, acetic acid). Migration tests were performed at 25℃ for 24 h and all analyses were performed using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by linearity of calibration curves, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, precision, and uncertainty. In glassware, the migration concentrations ranged from not-detected (N.D.) to 752.21 ㎍/L and N.D. to 1.99 ㎍/L for Pb and Cd, respectively. In ceramics, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 1,955.86 ㎍/L, N.D. to 74.06 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 302.40 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. In enamelware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 4.48 ㎍/L, N.D. to 7.00 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 52.00 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and Sb, respectively. In earthenware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 13.68 ㎍/L, N.D. to 0.04 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 6.71 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. All results were below the migration limits of Korea standards and specifications for food utensils, containers, and packages.