• Title, Summary, Keyword: acid

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Studios on the Glutamic Acid Production by an Alkalophilic Bacterium (알칼리성 세균에 의한 글루탐산 생산에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Kae-Ran;Lee, Kang-Man;Bae, Moo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.563-567
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    • 1989
  • An alkalophilic bacterium isolated from compost was selected, identified and tested for the production of glutamic acid from ammonium fumarate. The bacterium was closely related to Bacillus brevis. The conditions for glutamic acid production were pH 8.0, 2% fumaric acid, and 0.8% nutrient broth. The mechanism of glutamic acid formation in this strain was postulated as following scheme. (1) Ammonium fumarate longrightarrow Aspartic acid (2) Aspartic acid + $\alpha$-Ketoglutaric acid longrightarrow Glutamic acid + Oxaloacetic acid.

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Anti-stress Effect of Cholic acid Derivatives in Restraint Stress Induced Rats (구속스트레스를 가한 흰쥐에서 Cholate류의 항스트레스 작용에 관한 연구)

  • Park, In;Kim, Yang-Il;Lee, Sun-Mee;Cho, Tai-Soon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.162-166
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    • 1996
  • This study was done to investigate whether cholic acid derivatives have anti-stress activity and what is a cause of this anti-stress effect. Seven cholic acid derivatives (cholic acid, taurocholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, tauroursodeoxychoic acid, chenodeoxy cholic acid, dehydrocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) were used, silymarin and valproic acid were used as positive controls. Stress was induced by restraint immobilization technique plus water immersion (24hrs) and adrenal weight, spleen weight, adrenal ascorbic acid, serum cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), adrenal cholesterol, glucose and corticosterone levels were measured as stress indicators. Most cholic acid derivatives markedly decreased the adrenal weight, and TUDCA and DHCA increased the spleen weight. The restraint stress induced increments in serum LDH, ALP and cholesterol were attenuated by most cholic acid derivatives. Cholic acid, taurocholic acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid only increased the content of adrenal ascorbate. While valproic acid showed an inhibitory effect against stress, silymarin did not. Our findings suggest that most cholic acid derivatives have anti-stress effect and that their anti-stress effect is, in part, related to choleretic activity.

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Cloning and Sequencing of Gene Fragment of Acid Proteinase from Penicillium oxalicum HCLF-34 (Penicillium oxalicum HCLF-34로부터 Acid Proteinase의 부분유전자 Cloning 및 Sequencing)

  • 현성희;천재순;강상순;김진규
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2004
  • Acid proteinase has been discovered in Aspergillus niger (acid protease A) and Cryphonectria parasitica (acid proteinase EapC) and it plays major roles in cheese formation from milk. In this study, a partial gene encoding acid proteinase in Penicillium oxalicum HCLF-34 was cloned by using PCR with degenerate primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of the acid proteinase. The partial acid proteinase gene in P. oxalicum HCLF-34 contains an open reading frame of 438 base pairs and encodes an acid proteinase protein of 146 amino aicds. The predicted amino acid sequences showed 71 % homology with acid protease A and 67% homology with EapC.

Triterpenoids of Ilex pubescens

  • Han, Yong-Nam;Baik, Seung-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Hee;Han, Byung-Hoon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 1987
  • Four triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens : two new triterpenoids named pubescenolic acid (I) and pubescenic acid (II), and two known triterpenoids ilexolic acid (III) and oleanolic acid (IV). Chemical and spectroscopic studies have established I and II as 20-epipomolic acid and 24-carboxypomolic acid, repectively.

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Phenolic Compounds of Ligustrum japonicum Leaves (광나무 잎의 페놀성 화합물)

  • Jo, Jeong-Ok;Jung, In-Chang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.713-720
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to investigate the possible utilization of Ligustrum japonicum leaves as a source of functional ingredients. Contents of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannin were $0.89{\sim}1.53%$ and $0.10{\sim}0.13%$, respectively. The major flavonoid compounds in the leaves of L. japonicum were luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides. Tyrosol, t-cinnamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, shikimic acid and protocatecuic acid were detected in free phenolic acid, while tyrosol, t-cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, esculetin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and hydroxytyrosol were detected in esterified phenolic acid. The insoluble phenolic acid contained tyrosol, t-cinnamic and p-caoumaric acid.

Identification of phenolic antioxidative components in Terminalia Chebula Retz (가자 항산화성 물질의 분리 및 확인)

  • Kim, Jeong-Sook;Lee, Gee-Dong;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Yoon, Hyung-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 1993
  • Chemical structures of phenolic antioxidative components of defatted Terminalia chebula R. were elucidated by used MS and H-NMR. The results showed that the phenolic antioxidative components were identified as ferulic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid in free-acid extracts, and caffecic acid, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid in soluble-acid extracts, and caffeic acid, phloroglucinol and pyrogallol in insoluble-bound extracts, respectively.

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Analysis of Aromatic Acids in Panax Ginseng by Gas Chromatography (GC에 의한 인삼 중의 방향족 산성 성분 분석)

  • Park, Man-Ki;Park, Jeong-Hill;Kim, Kyoung-Ho;Han, Sang-Bum;Han, Byung-Hoon
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.389-393
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    • 1994
  • Eight aromatic acids in Panax ginseng were determined by GC. Ultra-1 $(25\;m{\times}0.2\;mm{\times}0.33\;{\mu}M)$ capillary column was employed with temperature programming from $150^{\circ}C$ to $240^{\circ}C$ at a rate of $3^{\circ}C/min$. The mean contents of eight aromatic acids in 8 white ginseng samples were as follows; salicylic acid: 4.30 ppm, cinnamic acid: 18.2 ppm, vanillic acid: 4.22 ppm, gentisic acid: trace, syringic acid: 6.69 ppm, p-coumaric acid: 13.3 ppm, ferulic acid : 21.9 ppm, caffeic acid: 24.3 ppm, respectively.

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The Effects of Antibiotics on the Biosynthesis of the Phospholipid and the Fatty Acid Composition of Chlorella ellipsoidea Mitochondria (Chlorella ellipsoidea mitochondria의 인지질 생합성과 지방산 대사에 미치는 항생제의 효과)

  • Yoon, Seung-Hee;Seo, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Chong-Sam
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 1997
  • The biosynthesis of phospholipid and the composition of fatty acid in C. ellipsoidea mitochondria treated with antibiotics(cycloheximide, nalidixic acid) during the culture analyzed. The growth of Chlorella and the contents of total lipid in mitochondria treated with antibiotics were lower than those of the control. The synthesis of PC (phosphatidylcholine) and PI(phosphatidylinostiol) were inhibited in the nalidixic acid treatment and also the contents of PC(phosphatidylcholine), PE (phosphatidylethanolamine), PG(phosphatidylglycerol) and PI(phosphatidylinositol) in the cycloheximide treatment were also inhibited. The major fatty acids utilized for the various phospholipids formation in each antibiotics treatment were analyzed stearic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid at the late phase of the culture.

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Composition of Lipid and Amino Acid in Semisulcospira gottschei Tissues (다슬기중 지방질 및 아미노산 조성)

  • 심태흠;한규석;이태준;정의호;이해금
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to investigate the detailed lipid content, lipid composition and amino acid composition of Semisulcospira gottschei tissues. Lipids of Semisulcospira gottschei tissues were extracted by the mixture of chloloform-methanol, fractionated into neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids by silicic acid column chromatography and the composition of these lipid classes were determined by TLC and GLC. the amino acids in Semisulcospira gottschei tissues was analyzed by the amino acid auto analyzer. The total lipids content was 1.4% and the main components of the total lipids were neutral lipids 67.9%, glycolipids 19.3% and phospholipids 12.8%, respectively. The main fatty acids of total lipids were palmitic acid (20.5%), palmitoleic acid (16.45) and linolenic acid+eicosenoic acid (15.0%) and linoleic acid(13.1%), the main fatty acids of glycolipids were palmitic acid (41.9%), palmitoleic acid (19.7%) and oleic acid (11.7%), and the main fatty acids of phospholipids were linolenic acid+eicosenoic acid (55.1%), oleic acid (17.3%) and palmitic acid (11.4%). The main amino acids were glutamic acid (16.0%) and aspartic acid (11.1%).

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Protective Effects of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives on Gastric Lesion

  • Lee, Sun Yi;Hwang, In Young;Jeong, Choon Sik
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.299-305
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    • 2017
  • P-methoxycinnamic acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid are the compounds found in Polygalae Radix, the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow, and have been reported to have hepatoprotective and anti-neurodegenerative effects. On the other hand, there are no reports of their effects on gastric lesions. This study examined the inhibitory effects of cinnamic acids, including p-methoxycinnamic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, and 8 compounds (cinnamic acid, 2-(trifluoromethyl) cinnamic acid, 3-(trifluoromethyl) cinnamic acid, trans-4-(trifluoromethyl) cinnamic acid, 4-(dimethylamino) cinnamic acid, 3,4-(methylenedioxy) cinnamic acid and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), which were selected based on their presence in medicinal herbs and molecular weight, against gastric lesions. Animal models were used to confirm the protective effects on acute gastritis caused by the administration of HCl/EtOH. Gastric acid inhibition was examined by an acid-neutralizing test and the proton pump ($H^+/K^+$-ATPase) inhibiting activity. In addition, antioxidant tests were performed and the gastric emptying rate was determined. The results showed that cinnamic acid, p-methoxycinnamic acid, and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid had an inhibitory effect on gastric lesions.