• Title, Summary, Keyword: acrosomal vesicle

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Germ Cell Differentiations During Spermatogenensis and Taxonomic Values of Mature Sperm Morphology of Pinctada martensii (Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia, Pteriidae)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Sung-Han;Lee, Ki-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2011
  • The ultrastructural characteristics of germ cells during spermatogenesis and mature sperm morphology in male Pinctada martensii were investigated by transmission electron microscope observation. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the oval shape and cone shape, respectively. Spermatozoa are approximately $47-50{\mu}m$ in length including a sperm nucleus (about $1.24{\mu}m$ in length), an acrosome (about $0.60{\mu}m$ in length), and tail flagellum (about $45-47{\mu}m$). The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. In P. martensii in Pteriidae, a special substructure showing a thick and wide triangular shape which is composed of electron-dense opaque material (occupied about 50% of all, the upper part of the acrosomal vesicle), appeared in the upper region (part) of the acrosomal vesicle, while the lower region (part) of the acrosomal vesicle is composed of electron-lucent material. Thus, this special structure, which exist in the upper part of the acrosomal vesicle in P. martensii, is somewhat different from those of other subacrosomal vesicle in other families in subacrosomal vesicles. Therefore, we assume that the existence of a special substructure showing a thick and wide triangular shape in the acrosomal vesicle of the spermatozoon can be used as a key characteristic for identification of P. martensii or other species in Pteriidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of this species are five (exceptionally sometimes four), as one of common characteristics appear the same number of mitochondria in the same families of superfamilyies. This species in Pteriidae does not contain the axial rod and satellite fibres which appear in the species in Ostreidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. These characteristics can be used for the taxonomic analysis of the family or superfamily levels as a systematic key or tools.

Germ Cell Development During Spermatogenesis and Taxonomic Values in Mature sperm Morphology in Male Argopecten irradians irradians (Pteriomorphia: Pectinidae) in Southern Korea

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Chung, Jae-Seung;Park, Young-Je
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2012
  • Ultrastructural studies of germ cell development during spermatogenesis and taxonomic values in mature sperm morphology of Argopecten irradians irradians were investigated by transmission electron microscopic observations. In the early stage of spermatid during spermiogenesis, a few granules and proacrosomal granules are formed by the Golgi complex. In the late stage of spermatid during spermiogenesis, a proacrosomal vesicle becomes an acrosomal vesicle in the acrosome through spermiogenesis. The sperm is approximately $ 45-48{\mu}m$ in length including a jar-shaped sperm nucleus (about $1.45{\mu}m$ long), an acrosome (about $0.34{\mu}m$ long) and tail flagellum. The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. As one of common characteristics of mature sperm morphologies in Pectinidae species in subclass Pteriomorphia, mature spermatozoon consists of the cone-shaped acrosomal vesicle and subacrosomal material on the invaginated jar-shaped nucleus. The acrosomal vesicle of this species is composed of electron high dense opaque part (material) from the base to the tip, as have seen in the species in the subclass Pteriomorphia. Exceptionally, five mitochondria are found in the sperm midpiece of this species, unlike four in most species of Pectinidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. However, the acrosomal vesicle of spermatozoa of A. irradians irradians resemble to those of other investigated Pectinidae species in subclass Pteriomorphia. Therefore, we can use sperm morphology as a tool in the resolution of taxonomic relationships within the Pectinidae species. These morphological charateristics of acrosomal vesicle belong to the family Pectinidae in the subclass Pteriomorphia.

Germ Cell Differentiations during Spermatogenesis and Taxonomic Values of Mature Sperm Morphology of $Atrina$ ($Servatrina$) $pectinata$ (Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia, Pinnidae)

  • Kang, Hee-Woong;Chung, Ee-Yung;Kim, Jin-Hee;Chung, Jae-Seung;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2012
  • The ultrastructural characteristics of germ cell differentiations during spermatogenesis and mature sperm morphology in male $Atrina$ ($Servatrina$) $pectinata$ were evaluated via transmission electron microscopic observation. The accessory cells, which contained a large quantity of glycogen particles and lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, are assumed to be involved in nutrient supply for germ cell development. Morphologically, the sperm nucleus and acrosome of this species are ovoid and conical in shape, respectively. The acrosomal vesicle, which is formed by two kinds of electron-dense or lucent materials, appears from the base to the tip: a thick and slender elliptical line, which is composed of electron-dense opaque material, appears along the outer part (region) of the acrosomal vesicle from the base to the tip, whereas the inner part (region) of the acrosomal vesicle is composed of electron-lucent material in the acrosomal vesicle. Two special characteristics, which are found in the acrosomal vesicle of A. ($S$) $pectinata$ in Pinnidae (subclass Pteriomorphia), can be employed for phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses as a taxonomic key or a significant tool. The spermatozoa were approximately $45-50{\mu}m$ in length, including a sperm nucleus (about $1.43{\mu}m$ in length), an acrosome (about $0.51{\mu}m$ in length), and a tail flagellum (about $46-47{\mu}m$). The axoneme of the sperm tail evidences a 9+2 structure.

Spermatid Differentiations During Spermiogenesis and Mature Sperm Ultrastructure in Male Crassostrea nipponica (Seki, 1934, Pteroirmorphia: Ostreidae)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Chung, Ee-Yung;Lee, Ki-Young;Choi, Moon-Sul;Seo, Won-Jae;Kim, Sung-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2010
  • Spermatid differentiations during spermiogenesis and mature sperm ultrastructure in male Crassostrea nipponica were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphology of the spermatozoon of this species has a primitive type and is similar to those of other bivalves. Mature spermatozoa consist of broad, cap-shaped acrosomal vesicle and an axial rod in subacrosomal materials on an oval nucleus showing deeply invaginated anteriorly, two triplet substructure centrioles surrounded by four spherical mitochondria, and satelite fibres, which appear near the distal centriole. The acrosomal vesicle of spermatozoa of C. nipponica resemble to those of other investigated ostreids. Especially, two transverse bands (stripes) appear at the anterior region of the acrosomal vesicle, unlikely 2-3 transverse bands (stripes) in C. gigas. It is assumed that differences in this acrosomal substructure are associated with the inability of fertilization between the genus Crassostrea and other genus species in Ostreidae. Therefore, we can use sperm morphology in the resolution of taxonomic relationships within the Ostreidea. The sperm is approximately $48-50{\mu}m$ in length including an oval sperm nucleus (about $1.0{\mu}m$ in length and $1.41{\mu}m$ in width), an acrosome (about $0.48{\mu}m$ in length and 0.30 in width) and tail flagellum ($46-48{\mu}m$). The axoneme of the sperm tail flagellum consists of nine pairs of microtubules at the periphery and a pair at the center. The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9 + 2 structure. These morphological charateristics of acrosomal vesicle belong to the family Ostreidae in the subclass Pteriomorphia.

Germ Cell Development During Spermatogenesis and Some Characteristics of Mature Sperm Morphology in Male Scapharca subcrenata (Pteriomorphia: Arcidae) in Western Korea

  • Chung, Ee-Yung;Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Sung-Han;Seo, Won-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.121-129
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    • 2011
  • The ultrastructural characteristics of germ cell development during spermatogenesis and mature sperm morphology of in male Scapharca subcrenata were investigated by transmission electron microscope observation. Spermatogonia are located nearest the outer wall of the acinus, while spermatocytes and spermatids are positioned near the accessory cells. The accessory cells, which is in close contact with developing germ cells, contained a large quantity of glycogen particles and lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Therefore, it is assumed that they are involved in supplying of the nutrients for germ cell development. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the oval shape and cone shape, respectively. Spermatozoa are approximately 45-$50{\mu}m$ in length including a sperm nucleus (about $1.30{\mu}m$ in length), an acrosome (about $0.59{\mu}m$ in length), and tail flagellum (about 43-$47{\mu}m$). The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9 + 2 structure. As some characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle structures, the right and left basal rings show electron opaque part (region), and also the anterior apex part of the acrosomal vesicle shows electron opaque part (region). These characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle were found in Acinidae and other several families in subclass Pteriomorphia. These common characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle in subclass Pteriomorphia can be used for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis as a taxonomic key or a significant tool. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of this species are five, as one of common characteristics appear in most species in Arcidae and other families in subclass Pteriomorphia. The acrosomal vesicles of Arcidae species do not contain the axial rod and several transverse bands in acrosome, unlkely as seen in Ostreidae species in subclass Pteriomorphia, These characteristics can be used for the taxonomic analysis of the family or superfamily levels as a systematic key or tools.

Germ cell Differentiation During Spermatogenesis, and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Mature Sperm in Male Phacosoma japonicus (Bivalvia: Veneridae)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Chung, Ee-Yung;Choi, Moon-Sul;Lee, Ki-Young;Lee, IL-Ho;Seo, Won-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2011
  • Some characteristics of germ cell differntiations during spermiogenesis and mature sperm ultrastructure in male Phacosoma japonicus were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphology of the spermatozoon of this species has a primitive type and is similar to those of other species in the subclass Heterodonta. Morphologies of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the cylindrical type and cap shape, respectively. The spermatozoon is approximately 45-50 ${\mu}m$ in length, including a long curved sperm nucleus (about $3.70{\mu}m$ long with 45 $^{\circ}$ of the angle of the nucleus, an acrosome (about $0.55{\mu}m$ in length), and tail flagellum (about 42-$47{\mu}m$)The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. As some characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle structures, the basal and lateral parts of basal rings show electron opaque part (region), while the anterior apex part of the acrosomal vesicle shows electron lucent part (region). These characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle were found in the family Veneridae and other several families in the subclass Heterodonta. These common characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle in the subclass Heterodonta can be used for phylogenetic and systematic analysis as a taxonomic key or a significant tool. The number of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece of this species are four, as one of common characteristics appear in most species in the family Veneridae and other families in the subclass Heterodonta. However, exceptionally, only three species in Veneridae of the subclass Heterodonta contain 5 mitochondria. The number of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece can be used for the taxonomic analysis of the family or superfamily levels as a systematic key or tools.

Morphology and Taxonomic Values of the Sperm in Male Chlamys (Swiftopecten) swiftii (Pteriomorphia: Pectinidae) in Western Korea

  • Jun, Je-Cheon;Kim, Jin Hee;Park, Young Jae;Kang, Hee Woong;Chung, Jae Seung;Chung, Ee-Yung
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2012
  • The morphology and taxonomic values of the sperm in male Chlamys (Swiftopecten) swiftii were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphologies and ultrastructures of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the vase type and long cone shape, respectively. Spermatozoa are approximately $45-50{\mu}m$ long including a sperm nucleus (approximately $2.60{\mu}m$ long), an acrosome (about $0.63{\mu}m$ long), and a tail flagellum (approximately $44-47{\mu}m$ in long). The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. In this study, the right and left basal rings in the acrosomal vesicle of this species show electron opaque part (region), and also the anterior apex part of the acrosomal vesicle shows electron opaque part (region). These characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle were found in Pectinidae and other several families in subclass Pteriomorphia. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of this species are four, as one of common characteristics appear in most species in Pectinidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. In addition, the satellite fibres are found near the distal centriole of this species, as have been reported in other species of Pectinidae in subclass Pteriomorphia. Accordingly, structutral characteristics which are found in the acrosomal vesicle, four mitochondria in the sperm midpiece and the appearance of the satellite fibers near the distal centriole of C. (S.) swiftii in Pectinidae (subclass Pteriomorphia), can be employed for phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses as taxonomic key or a significant tool.

Spermiogenesis and Taxonomic Value of Sperm Morphologies of Two Species in Veneridae (Bivalvia: Heterodonta)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Sung-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2011
  • Some characteristics of the formations of acrosomal vesicles during the late stage of spermatids during spermiogenesis and taxonomical charateristics of sperm morphology in male two species (Saxidomus purpurata and Meretrix petechialis) in the family Veneridae were investigated by electron microscope observations. In two species, the morphologies of the spermatozoa have the primitive type and are similar to those of other bivalves in that it contains a short midpiece with five mitochondria surrounding the centrioles. The morphologies of the sperm nuclear types of S. purpurata and M. petechialis in Veneridae have the curved cylindrical and cylinderical type, respectively. And the acrosome shapes of two species are the same cap-shape type. In particular, the axial filament is not found in the lumen of the acrosome of two species, however, subacrosomal material are observed in the subacrosomal spaces between the anterior nuclear fossa and the acrosomal vesicle of two species. The spermatozoon of S. purpurata is approximately 46-$52{\mu}m$ in length, including a curved sperm nucleus (about $3.75{\mu}m$ in length), a long acrosome (about $0.40{\mu}m$ in length),and a tail flagellum (about 45-$47{\mu}m$ long). And the spermatozoon of M. petechialis is approximately 47-$50{\mu}m$ in length including a slightly curved sperm nucleus (about $1.50{\mu}m$ in length), an acrosome (about $0.56{\mu}m$ in length) and tail flagellum (44-$48{\mu}m$ in length). In two species, the axoneme of the sperm tail flagellum of each species consists of nine pairs of microtubules at the periphery and a pair of cental doublets at the center. Therefore, the axoneme of the sperm tail flagellum shows a 9 + 2 structure. In particular, taxonomically important some charateristics of sperm morphologies of two species in the family Veneridae are acrosomal morphology of the sperm, The axial filament is not found in the acrosome as seen in a few species of the family Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta. The acrosomal vesicle is composed of right, left basal rings and the apex part of the acrosomal vesicle. In particular, right and left basal rings show electron opaque part (region), while the apex part of the acrosomal vesicle shows electron lucent part (region). These charateristics belong to the subclass Heterodonta, unlikely a characteristic of the subclass Pteriomorphia showing all part of the acrosome being composed of electron opaque part (region). Therefore, it is easy to distinguish the families or the subclasses by the acrosomal structures. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of S. purpurata and M. petechialis in Veneridae are five. However, the number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm in most species of Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta are four. Therefore, the number of mitochondria of the sperm midpiece of two species are exceptionally 5, and it is only exceptional case in the species in Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta. Except these cases, the number of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece in all families in the subclass Heterodontaare are 4, and now widely used in taxonomic analyses.

Spermiogenesis and Taxonomical Values of Sperm Ultrastructures in Male Crassostrea ariakensis (Fujita & Wakiya, 1929) (Pteroirmorphia: Ostreidae) in the Estuary of the Seomjin River, Korea

  • Son, Pal Won;Chung, Jae Seung;Kim, Jin Hee;Kim, Sung Han;Chung, Ee-Yung
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 2014
  • Characteristics of the developmental stages of spermatids during spermiogenesis and phylogenetic classicfication of the species using sperm ultrastructures in male Crassostrea ariakensis were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphology of the spermatozoon of this species has a primitive type and is similar to those of Ostreidae. Ultrastructures of mature sperms are composed of broad, modified cap-shaped acrosomal vesicle and an axial rod in subacrosomal materials on an oval nucleus, four spherical mitochondria in the sperm midpiece, and satellite fibres which appear near the distal centriole. The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. Accordingly, the ultrastructural characteristics of mature sperm of C. ariakensis resemble to those of other investigated ostreids in Ostreidae in the subclass Pteriomorphia. In this study, particularly, two transverse bands (stripes) appear at the anterior region of the acrosomal vesicle of this species, unlike two or three transverse bands (stripes) in C. gigas. It is assumed that differences in this acrosomal substructure are associated with the inability of fertilization between the genus Crassostrea and other genus species in Ostreidae. Therefore, we can use sperm ultrastructures and morphologies in the resolution of taxonomic relationships within the Ostreidae in the subclass Pteriomorphia. These spermatozoa, which contain several ultrastructures such as acrosomal vesicle, an axial rod in the sperm head part and four mitochondria and satellite fibres in the sperm midpiece, belong to the family Ostreidae in the subclass Pteriomorphia.

Spermiogenesis in the Korean Squirrel, Tamias sibiricus (다람쥐(Tamias sibiricus)의 정자변태)

  • Jung, Tae-Dong;Lee, Jung-Hun;Kim, Sang-Sik
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2004
  • Spermiogenesis in the Korean squirrel, Tamias sibiricus, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis was divided into Golgi, cap, acrosome, maturation and spermiation phases based on the characteristics of acrosomal changes and nuclear shape. Beside, the Golgi, cap and acrosomal steps were subdivided into three phases of early, middle and late phase respectively, the maturation step was divided into two phases of early and late phase, and spermiation step has only one phase. Thus, the spermiognesis of T. sibiricus was divided into a total of twelve phases. In Golgi phase (steps 1-3), a well developed Golgi complex was located close to the vesicles, the acrosomal vesicle fixd to a recess of nuclear membrane at step 3. During cap phase (steps 4-6), the acrosomal vesicle spred over the nuclear surface to cover a third of the nucleus, and the acrosomal granule was not yet flattened. At acrosomal phase (steps 7-9), the nucleus and acrosome were elongated but nucleoplasm was not condensed. During maturation phase (steps 10-11), the nucleoplasm was more condensed, and the mitochondria completely arranged the center of axoneme. The spatulate-sperm head was completely formed at spermiation phase (step 12).