• Title, Summary, Keyword: acute toxicity

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Hematological and serum biochemical studies in fresh water fish exposed to acute and chronic copper and mercury toxicity

  • H.A., Sawsan;H.M., Amira;M.B., Mostafa;AM.M., Nashaat
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2017
  • A total number of 668 apparently healthy fish were obtained from farm to study the effect of two heavy metals in a form of (Copper sulfate and Mercuric chloride) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The $LC_{50}$ /96 hr. of Cu and Hg were estimated and fish exposed to $\text\tiny{^1/_2}$ $LC_{50}$ for 7 days and for $1/_{10}$ $LC_{50}$ for 8 weeks from each product separately. Results showed decrease in RBCs count, PCV% and Hb in acute and chronic mercury while a significant increase was shown in acute and chronic copper toxicity, total leucocytic count showed decrease in acute mercury toxicity and increase in the chronic case, while in copper toxicity non-significant decrease in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity was noticed. Elevated serum urea and creatinine in both acute and chronic mercury and copper toxicity was detected. No changes in total bilirubin in the acute mercury and chronic copper toxicity while significant increase in chronic mercury and acute copper. Elevation of serum AST and ALT in some days of acute toxicity of mercury and copper while in chronic mercury toxicity a significant elevation of both serums AST and ALT were detected .while in chronic copper toxicity serum AST was fluctuated and ALT showed no significant changes. CK study revealed significant decrease in acute mercury with fluctuation in the chronic toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed fluctuation in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity. Glucose value decreased in acute and chronic mercury toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed significant increase in the acute and increase followed by significant decrease in the chronic copper toxicity.

Evaluation of Acute and Sub-acute Oral Toxicity Effect of Aquilaria malaccensis Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male ICR Mice

  • Musa, Nur Hidayat Che;Zain, Haniza Hanim Mohd;Ibrahim, Husni;Jamil, Nor Nasibah Mohd
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2019
  • The study was conducted to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity effect of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves aqueous extract (AEAM) towards male ICR mice in terms of body weight, relative organ weight, mortality rate and sperm parameters. In acute toxicity study, a single dose at of 2000 mg/kg was performed. In sub-acute toxicity study, the mice were received normal saline (control group), 50, 100, 150, 200, 500, or 1000 mg/kg of AEAM orally for 21 days of treatment. In sub-acute toxicity study, the number of abnormal sperm were significantly decreased in AEAM 100, 150, 200, 500, and 1000 when compared to the control group. While, the motility of sperm were found to be significantly increased in AEAM 100, 150, 200, and 1000 as compared to the control group. No mortality was recorded in the control group and treated groups in both toxicity studies except for one mouse from AEAM 1000 group. However, the mild sedative effect in terms of the tendency to sleep was clearly noticeable in both toxicity studies. Results indicated that the AEAM can be one of the useful alternative medicine to enhance fertility rate by increasing healthy sperm production.

The Risk Factors of Acute Cardiovascular and Neurological Toxicity in Acute CO Poisoning Patients and Epidemiologic Features of Exposure Routes (급성 일산화탄소 중독 환자에서 급성 심혈관계, 신경학적 독성의 위험요인과 노출 경로의 역학적 특성)

  • Park, Jinsoo;Shin, Seunglyul;Seo, Youngho;Jung, Hyunmin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study evaluated aggressive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) by understanding various exposure routes of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, the risk factors causing acute cardiovascular, and neurological toxicity caused by poisoning. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records of 417 acute CO poisoning patients who visited the emergency care unit from March 2017 to August 2019. The exposure routes, HBOT performance, age, sex, medical history (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, heart failure), intentionality, loss of consciousness (LOC), intake with alcohol or sedatives, and initial test results (carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), troponin-I, electrocardiography, echocardiography, brain MRI) were examined. Comparative analysis of the clinical information was conducted between the groups that showed acute cardiovascular toxicity and neurological toxicity, and groups that did not. Results: Among 417 patients diagnosed with acute CO poisoning, 201 cases (48.2%) were intentional, and charcoal briquette was the most common route (169 patients (40.5%)). Two hundred sixteen cases (51.8%) were accidental, and fire was the most common route (135 patients (32.4%)). The exposure route was more diverse with accidental poisoning. Three hundred ninety-nine patients were studied for acute cardiovascular toxicity, and 62 patients (15.5%) were confirmed to be positive. The result was statistically significant in intentionality, LOC, combined sedatives, initial COHb, HTN, and IHD. One hundred two patients were studied for acute neurological toxicity, which was observed in 26 patients (25.5%). The result was statistically significant in age and LOC. Conclusion: Active HBOT should be performed to minimize damage to the major organs by identifying the various exposure routes of CO poisoning, risk factors for acute cardiovascular toxicity (intentionality, LOC, combined sedatives, initial COHb, HTN, IHD), and the risk factors for acute neurological toxicity (age, LOC).

Acute Oral Toxicity of the Butanol Fraction from Cultured Fruitbody Cordyceps bassiana in Mice (배양 노랑다발동충하초 부탄올분획의 급성경구독성)

  • Park, Eun-Young;Park, Hyung-Jin;Yang, Ki-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2009
  • Cordyceps bassiana is a parasitic fungus and used as a Chinese traditional medicine. It has been called as DongChungHaCho(summer-plant, winter-worm) in China. Acute oral toxicity was examined in male and female ICR mice. Butanol fraction from Cordyceps bassiana(BuCb) was administered orally at a dose of 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg, 10,000 mg/kg. No death and abnormal clinical signs were observed throughout the administration period. The acute toxicity test on mouse did not show any oversign in net body weight gain, food and water consumptions, organ weights, gross pathological findings by different doses of BuCb. Also, biochemical examination revealed no evidence of specific toxicity. These findings show that BuCb has wide margin of safety on acute toxicity with single exposure.

Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Crude Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 in Rats

  • Son, Hee-Kyoung;Chang, Hae-Choon;Lee, Jae-Joon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and subacute oral toxicity of crude antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, the crude antifungal compounds (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 g/kg) did not produce mortality, significant changes in general behavior, or changes in the gross appearance of the organs. In the subacute toxicity study, the crude antifungal compounds were administered orally to rats at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg daily for 28 days. There were no test article-related deaths, abnormal clinical signs, or body weight changes. The study also showed no significant differences between the control and treated groups in hematological and serum biochemical parameters, histopathological examination, or any other findings. These results suggest that acute or subacute oral administration of crude antifungal compounds from L. plantarum HD1 is not toxic in rats.

The Study on Acute°§Subacute Toxicity of Juglandis Semen Herbal-acupuncture(JsD) (호도약침(胡桃藥鍼)의 급성(急性) 아급성(亞急性) 독성(毒性)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kang, Kye-Sung;Kwon, Gi-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2001
  • Objective : This study was purposed to investigate the acute. subacute toxicity of Herbal acupuncture with Juglandis Semen(JsD) in mice and rats. Methods & Results: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with JsD for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with JsD for subacute toxicity test. Results: The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. LD50 was uncountable as could not find the expired of treat group. 2. The clinical signs and body weight changes of mice treated with 0.2cc, 0.4cc JsD were not affected during the acute toxicity test. 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, total protein was increased in treat-l group, compared with normal group, and total cholesterol was increased in treat-2 group, compared with normal group.(P<0.05) 4. In subacute toxicity test, main toxic syndrome was not found. 5. The body weight was decreased in treat-2 group, compared with normal group and relative liver weight was decreased in treat-1, 2 group, compared with normal group in subacute toxicity test.(P<0.05) 6. In subacute toxicity test, WBC, MCH, MCHC were decreased in treat-2 group and RBC was increased in treat-2 group, compared with normal group in complete blood count test.(P<0.05) 7. In subacute toxicity test, treat groups were not changed serum biochemical values of rats, compared with normal group.(P<0.05) Conclusions: According to the results, Herbal-acupuncture with Juglandis Semen caused no toxicity.

Acute and Subacute Toxicity Study of Artemisia asistica Nakai Aqua-acupuncture Solution in Mice (애엽(艾葉) 약침액(藥鍼液)의 급성(急性)·아급성(亞急性) 독성(毒性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Youn, Seong-Muk;Lim, Jong-Kook
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2000
  • Acute and subacute toxicity of Artemisia asistica Nakai Aqua-acupuncture Solution (ANAS) were studied in ICR mice. In acute toxicity test, mice were injected intraperitoneally with single dose of $1{\times}$, $5{\times}$, $10{\times}$ ANAS, and toxicological responeses were observed for consecutive 14 days. Mortality, body weight changes, organ weight, and serum chemistry were performed. The mortality and body weight changes of mice treated with $1{\times}$ and $5{\times}$ ANAS were not affected during the experimental periods. With the $10{\times}$ ANAS treatment, there were dead animals and changes of body weight, organ weight and serum biochemical values were observed during the experimental period. In subacute toxicity test, mice were injected intraperitoneally with doses of $1{\times}$, $10{\times}$ ANAS for 14 days. No difference was found between control and $1{\times}$ ANAS treated group in mortality, changes of body weight and organ weight, and serum biochemical values. However, Dead animals, changes of body weight and organ weight, and increased serum biochemical values were observed with $10{\times}$ ANAS treated groups. These results suggest that $1{\times}$ ANAS causes no toxicity in acute and subacute toxicity tests. However $10{\times}$ ANAS causes toxicity in both tests.

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AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE TOXICITY AND BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER OPENING INDUCED BY SOMAN

  • Kim, Yun-Bae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.112-112
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    • 2002
  • The age- and gender-related differences in acute toxicity and opening of blood-brain barrier induced by an organophosphate soman were investigated in rats. To assess acute toxicity, young (7 weeks old) and old (12 weeks old) male and female rats were subcutaneously administered with various dose levels of soman.(omitted)

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Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar Rats

  • Sharwan, Gotmi;Jain, Parag;Pandey, Ravindra;Shukla, Shiv Shankar
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.253-258
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose) and sub-acute (repeated-dose) toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight, the histopathology of body organs, the hematology and the biochemistry of the animals. Methods: The toxicity profile of PI was evaluated using Wistar rats of both sexes. Animals were divided into four groups: Group 1; control group (normal saline), Group 2; PI-1 (250 mg/kg), Group 3; PI-2 (500 mg/kg), Group 4; PL-3 (1,000 mg/kg). An acute-toxicity study in which animals received a single dose of PI extract (2,000 mg/kg) and were then observed for 14 days for changes in skin, fur, eye color, mucous membrane secretions and excretions, gait, posture, and tonic or clonic movements was performed according to guideline 425 of the Organization of Economic and Corporation Development (OECD). In the repeated-dose toxicity study (OECD - 407) animals received a daily dose of PI extract for 28 days (4 weeks). The parameters observed in this study include body weight, hematology and biochemistry of the animals. Results: In the acute toxicity study, no mortalities or changes in behavior were noted in the animals. The repeated-dose toxicity study was also devoid of any toxicity in the animals during the 28 days of testing with PI extract. The extract did not alter- the body weight, hematology or biochemistry of the animals. The methanolic extract of PI was to be found safe to the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for the single-dose and repeated-dose toxicity tests in rats. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of PI was devoid of toxicity; hence, it can be used for various ayurvedic preparations and treatments of diseases.

Short-term Toxicity Assay Based on Daphnid Feeding on the Microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus

  • Lee Sang-Ill;Park Jong-Ho;Lee Won-Ho;Yeon Ik-Jun;Lee Byoung-Chan;Cho Kyu-Seok;Choi Hyun-Ill
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2006
  • We developed and evaluated a method of short-term acute toxicity testing based on the feeding behavior of Ceriodaphnia dubia. In prior toxicity tests, neonates of C. dubia were hatched and cultivated with the addition of yeast only for the preparation of the transparent daphnid's gut. Scenedesmus subspicatus was supplied as food after 1 to 6 h of exposure to toxicants. The effects of 1-h and 6-h exposure time on test sensitivity did not significantly differ. A comparison of the short-term l-h acute toxicity test developed in this study to the standard 48-h acute toxicity test using heavy metals, cyanide, and pentachlorophenol indicated that the 1-h test provided an acceptable sensitivity level in toxicity testing of C. dubia..