• Title, Summary, Keyword: addition of enzyme

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Effects of Fibrolytic Enzyme Addition on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows (Fibrolytic Enzyme 첨가가 반추위 발효 성상 및 착유우의 유량 및 유성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, J. H.;Kim, Y. J.;Kim, H. J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2003
  • We evaluated the effects of adding fibrolytic enzyme into ruminant diets on ruminal fermentation (in vitro) and lactational performances of dairy cows (in vivo). Through the in vitro experiment that was carried out with different contents of NDF (34, 38, 43%) in diets, digestibilities of NDF in the rumen appeared not significantly different by the addition of enzyme but were different by NDF content in diets showing higher digestibility in NDF 43% diet. It could be attributed by the relatively higher amount of hemicellulose in the current experimental diets than in conventional diets that might have been digested easily by the addition of fibrolytic enzyme in the rumen. The addition of fibrolytic enzyme tended to increase NDF digestibilities to a little extent both in 0.05 and 0.1% enzyme levels. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentrations and VFA production in the rumen were not affected by the addition of fibrolytic enzyme. Activities of CMCase and xylanase were higher in enzyme treated diets of both NDF 34 and 38%. In particular, the activities of xylanase that slowly decreased from 0 to 12 hr but rapidly after 24 hr indicates that the major action of the enzyme in the rumen occurs in early period of incubation. Through an in vivo experiment, fibrolytic enzyme addition into the diets of dairy cows indeed affected lactational performance of milk yield. The cows fed enzyme treated diets produced 8% (1.9kg/d) more amounts of milk than with no enzyme addition. Milk composition of milk fat and protein was not affected by enzyme addition. Overall, the results of this in vivo study indicates that fibrolytic enzyme can be used to improve milk production in lactating cows. In respect that animals in different treatments of this study had the same amounts of intake, the increased milk yield with enzyme addition may be attributed to the improved utilization of nutrients in the digestive tract.

Effects of Xylanase on the Baking Properties of Sorghum (Xylanase 첨가에 따른 수수의 제빵 적성 변화)

  • Ahn, Ji Eun;Go, Ji Yeon;Koh, Bong Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the baking properties of sorghum with the addition of xylanase or Pentopan, which is a baking additive containing xylanase. The control bread was made with a 30% substitution for wheat flour and the optimum level of enzyme addition was 0.75 mg/g flour for Pentopan and 5 mg/g flour for xylanase. The water binding capacity of wheat flour increased with the addition of sorghum, but decreased with the addition of either xylanase or Pentopan. The resistance of dough increased while extensibility decreased with the addition of sorghum; however, resistance decreased while extensibility increased with the addition of the enzyme. Specific volume of bread decreased significantly with the addition of sorghum. However, the specific volume was significantly recovered with the addition of enzyme. Crumb firmness was higher in the sorghum-added sample, but crumb firmness of the bread decreased with the addition of the enzyme. The crumb firmness of bread with added xylanase decreased significantly in 24 hours. These results demonstrated that adding sorghum with either xylanase or Pentopan that included xylanase increased specific volume and decreased crumb firmness whereas sorghum decreased the quality of fermented bread when added to wheat flour. The firmness rate of fermented bread particularly decreased with the addition of pure xylanase.

Enhanced Enzyme Activities of Inclusion Bodies of Recombinant ${\beta}$-Galactosidase via the Addition of Inducer Analog after L-Arabinose Induction in the araBAD Promoter System of Escherichia coli

  • Jung, Kyung-Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.434-442
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    • 2008
  • We observed that an inclusion body (IB) of recombinant ${\beta}$-galactosidase that was produced by the araBAD promoter system in Escherichia coli (E. coil) showed enzyme activity. In order to improve its activity, the lowering of the transcription rate of the ${\beta}$-galactosidase structural gene was attempted through competition between an inducer (L-arabinose) and an inducer analog (D-fucose). In the deep-well microtiter plate culture and lab-scale fermentor culture, it was demonstrated that the addition of D-fucose caused an improvement in specific ${\beta}$-galactosidase production, although ${\beta}$-galactosidase was produced as an IB. In particular, the addition of D-fucose after induction led to an increase in the specific activity of ${\beta}$-galactosidase IB. Finally, we confirmed that the addition of D-fucose after induction caused changes in the structure of ${\beta}$-galactosidase IB, with higher enzyme activity. Based on these results, we expect that an improved enzyme IB will be used as a biocatalyst of the enzyme bioprocess, because an enzyme IB can be purified easily and has physical durability.

The Response of Nitrogen Deposition to Methane Oxidation Availability and Microbial Enzyme Activities in Forest Soils

  • Jang, In-Young;Lee, Hyoung-Min;Kang, Ho-Jeong
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2010
  • Forest soils are often nitrogen-limited, and nitrogen input to forest soils can cause substantial changes in the structure and functions of a soil ecosystem. To determine the effects of nitrogen input on methane oxidation and the microbial enzyme activities, manipulation experiments were conducted using nitrogen addition to soil samples from Mt. Jumbong. Our findings suggested that the addition of nitrogen to the soil system of Mt. Jumbong did not affect the microbial enzyme activities. Conversely, the addition of nitrogen affected the rate of methane oxidation. Inorganic nitrogen in soils can inhibit methane oxidation via several mechanisms, such as substrate competition, toxic effects, and competition with other microbes, but the inhibitory effects are not always the same. In this research, seasonal changes were found to produce different inhibitory factors, and these different responses may be caused from differences in the methantrophic bacteria community structure.

Changes in the Quality Characteristics of Cheonggukjang prepared with Hazelnut (헤이즐넛 첨가에 따른 청국장의 품질 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Yi, Young-Hyoun;Lee, Nan-Hee;Kim, Dae-Hyun;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.926-932
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    • 2018
  • This research was conducted to investigate the changes in quality characteristics of cheonggukjang fermented with the addition of hazelnut (10, 20, 30 and 40%) including; water content, pH, hydrophilic and lipophilic substances, color, viscosity and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity. There was no significant change in pH with the addition of hazelnut. The water content significantly decreased with the addition of hazelnut. Hazelnut was also found to brighten the color of cheonggukjang. L-value and b-value increased with the addition of cheonggjuang. There was an insignificant change in the a-value. There was a slight decrease in the content of hydrophilic with addition of hazelnuts. Where there was more than 20% addition of hazelnut to soybean, the viscous substance content in cheonggukjang decreased significantly. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity increased proportionally to the amount of hazelnut added. It was identified that the addition of 40% of hazelnut made its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity 10% point higher than that of control. These results suggests that the addition of hazelnut makes it possible to produce cheongkukjang of excellent angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity.

Effect of Enzyme Supplementation on the Performance of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Barley-Based Diets Supplemented with Soybean Mealor Canola Meal

  • Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.1008-1013
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of enzyme supplementation on the performance of 80 growing-finishing pigs (26.2 kg) fed diets containing either soybean or canola meal. Barley-based diets formulated using either soybean meal or canola meal were fed with or without enzyme (Allzyme Vegpro, Alltech Biotechnology Centre). Eight castrates and twelve gilts were fed each diet. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy was 8.0 (p=0.0001), 7.9 (p=0.0005) and 7.9 (p=0.0003) percent lower for pigs fed diets containing canola meal compared with soybean meal. Enzyme supplementation had no effect on nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for all three nutrients. Over the entire experimental period (26.2 to 77.9 kg), pigs fed canola meal consumed 9.4% less feed (p=0.001), gained weight 20.4% slower (p=0.001) and had a 12.9% poorer feed conversion (p=0.001) than pigs fed soybean meal. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were unaffected by enzyme addition (p>0.05). Castrates gained weight 11.4% faster (p=0.001), consumed 9.3% more feed (p=0.001) and had a 2.6% better feed conversion (p=0.026) than gilts. There was a significant interaction between protein source and sex of pig for feed conversion. Pigs fed diets based on canola meal had a significantly lower carcass value index (p=0.01), lower lean yield (p=0.007) and lower lean depth over the loin (p=0.001) than pigs fed diets based on soybean meal. Enzyme addition significantly increased lean depth over the loin (p=0.01). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for carcass value index (p=0.04), estimated lean yield (p=0.05) and fat depth over the loin (p=0.05). These results confirm previous studies which have demonstrated poorer pig performance when canola meal completely replaces soybean meal in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. In addition, the results provide little justification for the inclusion of the Vegpro enzyme in diets fed to pigs of this weight range.

Recycling of Waste Paper with Alkaline Cellulolytic Enzymes(I) - Preparation and characteristics of cullulolytic enzymes- (호알카리성 목질분해 효소를 이용한 폐지재생(제1보) -목질분해 효소의 단리 및 특성-)

  • 강석현;이중명;박성배;엄태진
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2003
  • Alkaline cellulolytic enzymes are prepared from Coprinus cinereus 2249. Recovery method of enzyme protein from cultured medium and effect factors on enzyme activity of protein were investigated. The results could summarized as follows, \circled1 Amount of enzyme protein from cultured medium was highest in incubation with shaking and addition of skim milk. \circled2 Protein from cultured medium was alkaline enzymatic protein which shows the highest activity at pH 9.0. \circled3 The most effective recovery method of enzyme protein was the precipitation of protein by addition of cultured medium of protein in ethanol. \circled4 The enzyme activity was enhanced by tween-80 and decreased with $Al_2(SO_4)_3$, $H_2O_2$et al, and was little changed with metal ions except $Hg^{++}$.

Factors Affecting Thermal Inactivation and Reactivation of Korean-Radish Peroxidase (한국산 무 Peroxidase의 열변성 및 재활성화에 미치는 요인)

  • 이경아;홍정민;김기남;박인식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 1990
  • Factors affecting thermal inactivation and reactivation of korean radish peroxidase were inves-tigated,. The enzyme was stable below pH4.0 and above pH 8.0 The thermostablity of the enzyme was increased by addition of glucose sodium chloride and albuminl The inactivated enzyme by heat treatment was reactivated at room temperaturem The optimal pH for reactivation of the enzyme was pH of 9.0 The reactivation rate of the enyme was not afected by addition of glucose sodium chloride and albumin, The reactivation was completely inhibited by addition of sulfhydryl reagent such as dithiothreitol.

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Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Serine Protease from an Edible Mushroom, Albatrellus confluens (다발구멍장이버섯으로부터 분리한 혈전용해 세린분해효소의 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Jun-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 2008
  • A fibrinolytic serine protease was purified from the fruiting bodies of an edible mushroom, Albatrellus confluens. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 30086.41 Da, as measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was Glu-Thr-Val-Thr-Glu-Thr-Thr-Ala -Pro-Trp-Gly-Leu-Ser-Arg-Ile. It displayed optimal activity at $50^{\circ}C$ and within a pH range of $8.0{\sim}10.0$, suggesting that the enzyme is an alkaline protease. The enzyme was stable up to $30^{\circ}C$. The enzyme displayed a strong substrate specificity for the synthetic peptide, N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe pNA. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by addition of PMSF, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. No inhibition was observed following addition of E-64, pepstatin, or EDTA. The activity of the purified enzyme was decreased in the presence $Fe^{2+}$ or $Co^{2+}$, and the enzyme was completely inhibited by addition of $Hg^{2+}$. From these results, we propose that Albatrellus confluens could be used for biofunctional foods development and has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of vascular diseases.

Effects of Unprocessed or Steam-flaked Corn Based Diets with or without Enzyme Additive on In Vivo Nutrient Digestibility and Distribution of Corn Particles in the Feces of Holstein Steers

  • Lee, S.Y.;Kim, W.Y.;Ko, J.Y.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.708-712
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    • 2002
  • Effects of unprocessed (whole) or steam-flaked corn with or without enzyme additives on in vivo nutrient digestibilities and distribution of corn particles in the feces of Holstein steers were determined in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square experiment using four Holstein steers fed the diets containing 1) whole corn without enzyme additive, 2) whole corn with enzyme additive, 3) flaked corn without enzyme additive, or 4) flaked corn with enzyme additive. With regard to nutrient digestibilities such as DM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF, and ADF, no significant differences were detected among treatments, and also the nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the addition of enzyme additive. When distribution of corn particles in the feces was examined, there were no significant differences in the amount of 2, 8 mm and total corn particles. However, feeding flaked corn resulted in less corn particles (4 mm) in the feces than feeding whole corn (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in amounts of corn particles in the feces due to the addition of enzyme additive.