• Title, Summary, Keyword: additive effect antagonistic effect

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Evaluation of Toxicity of Heavy Metals and Surfactants Using Vibrio Fischeri and Daphnia Magna (발광박테리아(Vibrio fischeri)와 물벼룩(Daphnia magna)을 이용한 중금속 및 계면활성제의 혼합독성 평가)

  • Paik, Dohyeon;Lee, Narae;Lee, Sangmin;Hong, Sungchul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.429-437
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the mixed toxicity of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg) and surfactants (SLS, ALS) was evaluated by using Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. The sensitivity of ecotoxicity to heavy metals was sensitive to daphnia but the case of surfactants were more sensitive to Vibrio fischeri. Experimental results of Vibrio fischeri show that the toxicity value P(O) was lower than the predicted value P(E), and the antagonistic effect was observed when the heavy metal and the surfactant were mixed. It seems that SLS and ALS, which are anionic surfactants, have anionic form on the hydrophilic head, so that they have an antagonistic effect that they are bonded with heavy metal ion which is a cation type and the actual toxicity is lowered. In Daphnia magna, the results showed that antagonistic, additive and synergistic effects were in order as concentrations increased. As the concentration increases, Daphnia magna, which is highly sensitive to heavy metals, seems to have a synergistic effect with a rapid increase in mortality.

Interactive Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Diesel on Vibrio fischeri (발광박테리아(Vibrio fischeri)에 대한 중금속 및 디젤의 혼합 독성 영향)

  • Jung, Hyun;Park, Sookhyun;Hwang, Yu Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.403-408
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    • 2014
  • The toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Pb) and diesel, in single and binary solution was investigated using the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox test) as a test organism. In this experiment, the concentration of water soluble fraction of diesel was based on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The toxicity of each single compound showed the following $EC_{50}$ (15min): Zn 1.90 mg/L, Pb 0.31 mg/L, TPH 2.09 mg/L. The observed toxicity of binary mixtures increased, depending on the concentration of the mixed substance. The effects were defined as synergistic, antagonistic, or additive, in accordance with the sign of difference between the predicted and observed toxicity at binary mixtures. The interactive effects between zinc and lead were synergistic, on the other hand, antagonistic and additive effects were found in each metal and TPH mixtures on the bioluminescence of V. fischeri.

Biological activities of novel quinolinyloxadiazoles (신규 quinolinyloxadiazole 유도체의 생물활성)

  • Hwang, In-Taek;Choi, Jung-Sub;Hong, Kyung-Sik;Lee, Byung-Hoe;Kim, Jin-Seog;Ryu, Eung-Kul;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.52-63
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    • 1998
  • A novel quinolineoxadiazoles, substituted the carboxylic acid group with 1,2,4-oxadiazole radicle, of KSC-16960 and related compounds were evaluated to examine the herbicidal activity, crop injury and residual effect of after-vegetable crops compared with those of quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid), of which use is now banned because of its residual activity to some succeeding vegetable crops. KSC-16960 showed 2- and 3-leaf stages of barnyardgrasses effectively controlled by more than 95 and 90%, respectively, at a rate of 6.25 g/ha. The dose of KSC-16960 controlled 4- and 5-leaf stages of barnyardgrasses by more than 90% were found to be 50 g and 100 g/ha, respectively. The selectivity of KSC-16960 between direct-seeded rice and barnyardgrass was approximately 2-fold higher than that of quinclorac when they were treated to the soil. The selectivity indices of KSC-16960 and of quinclorac between 1-leaf stage of direct seeded rice and 5-leaf stage of barnyardgrass were 44 and 23, respectively, and those between 1-leaf stage of direct seeded rice and 4-leaf stage of barnyardgrass were almost 2-fold higher. Application of KSC-16960 with bentazone exhibited an additive controlling effect on several weed species, but that of quinclorac exhibited an antagonistic effect. With pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, on the other hand, both application of KSC-16960 and quinclorac showed additive interactions. Under a greenhouse condition, the residual activity of KSC-16960 to succeeding tomato plants was approximately 4-fold lower compared to that of quinclorac. KSC-16960 could be substituted for quinclorac, if it will be made some more improvement for reducing residual activity.

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Interaction of Brassinolide with Other Known Plant Growth Regulators (Brassinolide와 기존 식물생장조절제(植物生長調節劑)와의 상호작용(相互作用))

  • Choi, C.D.;Takematsu, T.;Takeuchi, Y.;Kim, K.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 1987
  • This study was attempted to evaluate the combining effect of HBR (homobrassinolide) with the known growth regulators such as GA (gibberellic acid), BA(6-benzyl aminopurine), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), B-9 (N-dimethylamino succinamic acid) and CCC (2-chloroethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) on the growth of radish hypocotyl. A single application of HBR increased hypocotyl growth as its rates increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm, showing a maximum increase at 1.0 ppm. GA and BA had no direct effects on hyopcotyl growth, but IAA showed some effect as its concentration increased. However, the mixed application of HBR with GA, BA and IAA increased the length of radish hypocotyl as the concentration of HBR became higher. The mixture of HBR with GA and BA showed antagonistic reaction on radish hypocotyl growth, but synergistic effect was shown in the higher rate mixture of HBR with IAA in the range of HBR at 0.03 to 0.30 ppm with IAA at 3.0 to 10.0 ppm, but antagonistic or additive response at the mixture of low rates. An increased growth of hypocotyl by HBR was ified by CCC, showing the strong antagonistic reaction, but B-9 was not able to ify HBR's effect on hypocotyl growth.

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Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions for Pesticide mixtures to Honeybee Larvae Toxicity (농약 혼용에 따른 꿀벌유충 독성의 상승 및 상쇄 영향)

  • Paik, Min Kyoung;Im, Jeong Taek;Chon, Kyongmi;Park, Kyung-Hun;Choi, Yong-Soo;Lee, Myeong-Lyeol;Bae, Chul-Han;Kim, Jin-Ho;Moon, Byeong Chul
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides in the hive has been of concern about pesticide exposure on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) health. Larval toxicity was adapted to assess the synergistic and antagonistic interaction of cumulative mortality to the honeybee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acetamiprid($3.0{\mu}l/L$), chlorothalonil ($803.0{\mu}l/L$), coumaphos ($128.0{\mu}l/L$), and tau-fluvalinate ($123.0{\mu}l/L$) were tested in combination; binary, ternary and four component mixture. Larvae were exposed to four pesticides mixed in diet at the average levels detected in pollen. As a result, synthetic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of acetamiprid with coumaphos. The binary and ternary component mixtures of tested pesticides have mostly demonstrated additive effect in larval bees. The significant antagonistic effects were found in four parings of mixtures including chlorothalonil added to acetamiprid/tau-fluvalinate or acetamiprid/coumaphos/tau-fluvalinate, and tau-fluvalinate added to acetamiprid/chlorothalonil or acetamiprid/coumaphos/chlorothalonil. CONCLUSION: Interactions between combinations of four pesticides showed mostly additive or antagonistic effects in larval bees. Therefore, predicting the larval mortality of pesticides mixtures on the basis of the results of single pesticide may actually overestimate the risk. We suggest that pesticide mixture in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicity together for complete data on interactions.

Magnesium Suppresses the Responses of Dorsal Horn Cell to Noxious Stimuli in the Rat

  • Shin, Hong-Kee;Kim, Jin-Hyuk;Kim, Kee-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 1999
  • Magnesium ion is known to selectively block the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced responses and to have anticonvulsive action, neuroprotective effect and antinociceptive action in the behavioral test. In this study, we investigated the effect of $Mg^{2+}$ on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to cutaneous thermal stimulation and graded electrical stimulation of afferent nerves as well as to excitatory amino acids and also elucidated whether the actions of $Ca^{2+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ are additive or antagonistic. $Mg^{2+}$ suppressed the thermal and C-fiber responses of wide dynamic range (WDR) cell without any effect on the A-fiber responses. When $Mg^{2+}$ was directly applied onto the spinal cord, its inhibitory effect was dependent on the concentration of $Mg^{2+}$ and duration of application. The NMDA- and kainate-induced responses of WDR cell were suppressed by $Mg^{2+}$, the NMDA-induced responses being inhibited more strongly. $Ca^{2+}$ also inhibited the NMDA-induced responses current-dependently. Both inhibitory actions of $Mg^{2+}$ and $Ca^{2+}$ were additive, while $Mg^{2+}$ suppressed the EGTA-induced augmentation of WDR cell responses to NMDA and C-fiber stimulation. Magnesium had dual effects on the spontaneous activities of WDR cell. These experimental findings suggest that $Mg^{2+}$ is implicated in the modulation of pain in the rat spinal cord by inhibiting the responses of WDR cell to noxious stimuli more strongly than innocuous stimuli.

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Binary Mixture Toxicity of AROCLOR 1248, Oleic Acid, and Elemental Sulfur to Vibrio fischeri Luminescence

  • Kalciene, Virginija;Dabkeviciene, Daiva;Cetkauskaite, Anolda
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1541-1546
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of the industial xenobiotic Aroclor 1248 (A) and natural origin substances~elemental sulfur (S80) and oleic acid (OA) and their binary mixtures to V. fischeri bioluminescence during the prolonged exposure time (up to 60 min). The bioluminescence quenching test was used to determine the toxic effects. Full factorial experiment design and multiple regression analysis and the comparison of binary mixture effect with the sum of effects of individual chemicals were used for the evaluation of combined effects of toxicants. The analysis of general trend of mixture toxicity to bioluminescence showed that mixture toxic effects were reversible up to 60 min. Data analysis revealed different joint effects, which were depended on mixture composition. S80 enhanced toxic effect of A and acted additively with synergistic interaction. Hydrophobic OA in mixture with A acted antagonistically and in mixture with sulfur caused an additive effect with antagonistic component of interaction. It was concluded that low concentrations of natural toxic substances present in environmental samples as mixtures of chemicals can define the toxicodynamic character of industrial xenobiotics.

The Oriental Materia Medica in viewpoint of natural products chem (천연물화학(天然物化學)에서 보는 동의약(東醫藥))

  • Ahn, Byung Zun
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.309-329
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    • 1996
  • There are the Seven Effect of Drugs and unique processing methods in Chinese traditional medicine. The Seven Effects are single effrect(單行), additive effect(相加, 相須), synergic effect(上乘, 相使), antagonistic effect(相畏, 拮抗), inhibitory effect(相惡), neutralizing effect(相殺) and opposite effect(相反). We are interested in synergic effects of some drugs and components ; Addition of OLDENLANDIA DIFFUSA to Kilkyungtang combanation enhanced the cytotoxic activity of Kilkyungtang against A549 and B16-Fo eells by 20% and 50%, respectively. The Oldenlandia-added kilkyungtang also potentiated the cytotoxicities of mitomycine Cand 5-fluorouracil. ar-tunnerone. isolated from the root of Curcuma longa, potentiated the cytotoxic activity of sesquiphellandrene(isolated from the same root), aurapten(isolated from Aurantii semen)or cyclophosphamide by 10 times. The purpose of the processing(修治) of Chinese grugs is to remove unusable parts of plants and to eliminate toxicities as well as to produse new active components in drugs. On a occasion of study on the anthelmintic drugs against the chinese fluke(Clonorchis sinesis, (肝디스토마), we have observed that the processed mume fruit(鳥梅) possessed a very very potent clonorchicidal effect, while the methanol extract of the non-processed fruit inactive. The active component was isolated from the processed mume and identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfuryl aldehyde. This substance dose not occur in the immature fruit and was found only in the processed one. Wehave heated the immature fruit in an oven at $90^{\circ}C$ for 52 hrs and found that the heated fruit eame clonorchidal. As demonstrated in these and other example cited in this presentation, the natural products chemistry is contributory to univeiling the drug effect ensued from the processing and the synergic effect of Oriental medical drug combinations, and to rationalization or modernization of the traditional medicine.

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Anti-proliferative Effect of Tetra-arsenic Oxide (TetraAs®) in Human Gastric Cancer Cells in Vitro

  • Chung, Won-Heui;Koo, Hye-Jin;Kuh, Hyo-Jeong
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.305-309
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    • 2007
  • Arsenic compounds have been used to treat various diseases including cancer in oriental medicine. Arsenic trioxide ($As_2O_3,\;Trisenox^{(R)}$) has been used for the treatment of leukemia and its anti-solid tumor activity has also been reported recently. Tetra-arsenic oxide ($As_4O_6,\;TetraAs^{(R)}$) is a newly developed arsenic compound which has shown an anticancer activity in some human cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-gastric cancer potential of TetraAs and to search for an agent with synergistic interaction with TetraAs against human gastric cancers. We analysed anti-proliferative effect of TetraAs when given alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-FU, paclitaxel, and cisplatin in SNU-216, a human gastric cancer cell line. The $IC_{50}$ of these 4 anti-cancer drugs ranged from 5.8 nM to $7.5\;{\mu}M$ with a potency rank of order paclitaxel>TetraAs>cisplatin>5-FU. TetraAs showed 10-fold greater potency than 5-FU and cisplatin at the same effect level of $IC_{50}$. TetraAs+5-FU and TetraAs+paclitaxel showed synergistic and additive interaction, respectively. On the other hand, TetraAs with cisplatin group appeared to be strongly antagonistic. Apoptotic population was measured and compared between single and combination treatment. The apoptotic cells for the combination of TetraAs+5-FU showed significant increase compared to single TetraAs treatment. On the contrary, TetraAs+cisplatin showed less apoptotic cells compared to TetraAs or cisplatin alone treatment. Overall, our results indicate that TetraAs can be effectively combined with 5-FU or paclitaxel, but not with cisplatin for synergistic anti-cancer effect, which warrants further evaluation using in vivo models.

Toxic Effects of Binary Mixtures of Heavy Metals on the Growth and P Removal Efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. (Alcaligenes sp.의 생장과 인 제거에 미치는 이종 중금속 혼합의 독성 효과)

  • Kim, Deok Hyun;Yoo, Jin;Chung, Keun Yook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: This study was initiated to quantitatively evaluate the effects of five heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp., known as the Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs). It was cultivated in the batch system with five heavy metals, such as Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, added in single and binary mixtures, respectively.METHODS AND RESULTS: IC50 (half of inhibition concentration of bacterial growth) and EC50 (half of effective concentration of phosphorus removal Efficiencies) were used to quantitatively evaluate the effects of heavy metals on the growth and phosphorus removal Efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. In addition, Additive Index Value (A.I.V.) method was used to evaluate the interactive effects between Alcaligenes sp. and heavy metals. As a result, as the five heavy metals were singly added to Alcaligenes sp., the greatest inhibitory effects on the growth and P removal efficiencies of each bacteria was observed in the cadmium (Cd). In the binary mixture treatments of heavy metals, the treatments of lowest IC50 and EC50 were the Cd + Cu treatment. Based on the IC50 and EC50 of the binary mixtures of heavy metals treatments, most interactive effects between the heavy metals were found to be antagonistic.CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained from this study, it appears that they could provide the basic information about the toxic effects of the respective treatments of single and binary mixtures of heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiencies of Alcaligenes sp. through further study about the characterization of functional proteins involved in toxic effects of heavy metals.