• Title, Summary, Keyword: aerodynamic stability

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Aerodynamic stability for square cylinder with various corner cuts

  • Choi, Chang-Koon;Kwon, Dae-Kun
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.173-187
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    • 1999
  • The flow around a structure has been an important subject in wind engineering research. There are various kinds of unstable aerodynamic phenomena with regard to a bluff body. In order to understand the physical mechanism of aerodynamic and aeroelastic instability of a bluff body, the relations between the flow around structures and the motion of body with various section shapes should be investigated. Based on a series of wind tunnel tests, this paper addresses the aerodynamic stability of square cylinder with various corner cuts and attack angles in the uniform flow. The test results show that the models with corner cut produced generally better behaviour for the galloping phenomenon than the original section. However, the corner cut method can not prevent the occurrence of the vortex-induced vibration(VIV). It is also shown that as the attack angle changes, the optimum size of corner cut changes also. This means that any one specific size of corner cut which shows the best aerodynamic behaviour throughout all the cases of attack angles does not exist. This paper presents an intensive study on obtaining the optimum size of corner cut for the stabilization of aerodynamic behaviour of cylinders.

Development of a Numerical Algorithm for the Evaluation of Aerodynamic Driving Stability of a Vehicle (주행차량의 공기역학적 주행안전성 평가를 위한 알고리즘 개발연구)

  • Kim, Chul-Ho;Kim, Chang-Sun;Lee, Seung-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2016
  • The objective of vehicle aerodynamic design is on the fuel economy, reduction of the harmful emission, minimizing the vibration and noise and the driving stability of the vehicle. Especially for a sedan, the driving stability of the vehicle is the main concern of the aerodynamic design of the vehicle indeed. In this theoretical study, an evaluation algorithm of aerodynamic driving stability of a vehicle was made to estimate the dynamic stability of a vehicle at the given driving condition on a road. For the stability evaluation of a driving vehicle, CFD simulation was conducted to have the rolling, pitching and yawing moments of a model vehicle and compared the values of the moments to the resistance moments. From the case study, it is found that a model sedan running at 100 km/h in speed on a straight level road is stable under the side wind with 45 m/s in speed. But the different results may be obtained on the buses and trucks because those vehicles have the wide side area. From the case study of the model vehicle moving on 100 km/h speed with 15 m/s side wind is evaluated using the numerical algorithm drawn from the study, the value of yawing moment is $608.6N{\cdot}m$, rolling moment $-641N{\cdot}m$ and pitching moment $3.9N{\cdot}m$. These values are smaller than each value of rotational resistance moment the model vehicle has, and therefore, the model vehicle's driving stability is guaranteed when driving 100 km/h with 15 m/s side wind.

An Effect of Roof-Fairing and Deflector System on the Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag of a Heavy-Duty Truck (대형트럭용 루프 훼어링과 디프렉트의 공기저항력 저감 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chul-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2006
  • Roof-fairing and deflector system have been used on heavy-duty trucks to minimize aerodynamic drag force not only for driving stability of the truck but also for energy saving by reducing the required driving power of the vehicle. In this study, a numerical simulation was carried out to see aerodynamic effect of the drag reducing device on the model vehicle. Drag and lift force generated on the five different models of the drag reducing system were calculated and compared them each other to see which type of device is efficient on the reduction of driving power of the vehicles quantitatively. An experiment has been done to see airflow characteristics on the model vehicles. Airflow patterns around the model vehicles were visualized by smoke generation method to compare the complexity of airflow around drag reducing device. From the results, the deflector systems(Model 5,6) were revealed as a better device for reduction of aerodynamic drag than the roof-fairing systems(Model 2,3,4) on the heavy-duty truck and it can be expected that over 10% of brake power of an engine can be saved on a tractor-trailer by the aerodynamic drag reducing device at normal speed range($80km/h{\sim}$).

Effect of beam slope on the static aerodynamic response of edge-girder bridge-deck

  • Lee, Hoyeop;Moon, Jiho;Chun, Nakhyun;Lee, Hak-eun
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.157-176
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    • 2017
  • 2-edge box girder bridges have been widely used in civil engineering practice. However, these bridges show weakness in aerodynamic stability. To overcome this weakness, additional attachments, such as fairing and flap, are usually used. These additional attachments can increase the cost and decrease the constructability. Some previous researchers suggested an aerodynamically stabilized 2-edge box girder section, giving a slope to the edge box instead of installing additional attachments. However, their studies are limited to only dynamic stability, even though static aerodynamic coefficients are as important as dynamic stability. In this study, focus was given to the evaluation of static aerodynamic response for a stabilized 2-edge box girder section. For this, the slopes of the edge box were varied from $0^{\circ}$ to $17^{\circ}$ and static coefficients were obtained through a series of wind tunnel tests. The results were then compared with those from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. From the results, it was found that the drag coefficients generally decreased with the increasing box slope angle, except for the specific box slope range. This range of box slope varied depending on the B/H ratio, and this should be avoided for the practical design of such a bridge, since it results in poor static aerodynamic response.

Experimental Study on Drag Reduction of Ground Vehicle Using a Rear-Spoiler (Rear-spoiler를 이용한 자동차의 항력감소에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 최재호;이상준
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 1996
  • The effect of rear-spoiler attached at rear end of automobile trunk on the aerodynamic characteristics of a MIRA reference car model was experimentally investigated. For different shapes and positions(G/H) of the rear-spoiler, the aerodynamic forces on the automobile were measured at various flow speed(ReL). The effect of rear-spoiler on the wake structure behind the automobile was also investigated using flow visualization and hot-wire anemometer. The rear-spoiler modifies the near wake structure and decreases aerodynamic drag and increases driving stability compared with those of the conventional automobile without rear-spoiler. From the experimental results, rear-spoiler of airfoil shape installed at the position of G/H=0.084 shows the best aerodynamic performance.

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Numerical investigation on the wind stability of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges

  • Zhang, Xin-jun;Yao, Mei
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.407-424
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    • 2015
  • To explore the favorable structural system of cable-stayed bridges with ultra-kilometer main span, based on a fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with 1400 m main span, a partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge scheme with the same main span is designed. Numerical investigation on the dynamic characteristics, aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of both two bridge schemes is conducted, and the results are compared to those of a suspension bridge with similar main span, and considering from the aspect of wind stability, the feasibility of using partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge in super long-span bridges with ultra-kilometer main span is discussed. Moreover, the effects of structural design parameters including the length of earth-anchored girder, the number of auxiliary piers in side span, the height and width of girder, the tower height etc on the dynamic characteristics, aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of a partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are analyzed, and their reasonable values are proposed. The results show that as compared to fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge and suspension bridge with similar main span, the partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge has greater structural stiffness and better aerostatic and aerodynamic stability, and consequently becomes a favorable structural system for super long-span bridges with ultra-kilometer main span. The partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge can achieve greater stiffness and better wind stability under the cases of increasing the earth-anchored girder length, increasing the height and width of girder, setting several auxiliary piers in side span and increasing the tower height.

Effects of types of bridge decks on competitive relationships between aerostatic and flutter stability for a super long cable-stayed bridge

  • Hu, Chuanxin;Zhou, Zhiyong;Jiang, Baosong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.255-270
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    • 2019
  • Aerodynamic configurations of bridge decks have significant effects on the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter forsuper long-span bridges, which are onset for selection of suitable bridge decksfor those bridges. Based on a cable-stayed bridge with double main spans of 1500 m, considering typical twin-box, stiffening truss and closed-box section, which are the most commonly used form of bridge decks and assumed that the rigidity of those section is completely equivalent, are utilized to investigate the effects of aerodynamic configurations of bridge decks on aerodynamic instability performance comprised of the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter, by means of wind tunnel tests and numerical calculations, including three-dimensional (3D) multimode flutter analysis and nonlinear aerostatic analysis. Regarding the aerostatic torsional divergence, the results obtained in this study show twin-box section is the best, closed-box section the second-best, and the stiffening truss section the worst. Regarding the flutter, the flutter stability of the twin-box section is far better than that of the stiffening truss and closed-box section. Furthermore, wind-resistance design depends on the torsional divergence for the twin-box and stiffening truss section. However, there are obvious competitive relationships between the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter for the closed-box section. Flutter occur before aerostatic instability at initial attack angle of $+3^{\circ}$ and $0^{\circ}$, while the aerostatic torsional divergence occur before flutter at initial attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. The twin-box section is the best in terms of both aerostatic and flutter stability among those bridge decks. Then mechanisms of aerostatic torsional divergence are revealed by tracking the cable forces synchronous with deformation of the bridge decksin the instability process. It was also found that the onset wind velocities of these bridge decks are very similar at attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. This indicatesthat a stable triangular structure made up of the cable planes, the tower, and the bridge deck greatly improves the aerostatic stability of the structure, while the aerodynamic effects associated with the aerodynamic configurations of the bridge decks have little effects on the aerostatic stability at initial attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. In addition, instability patterns of the bridge depend on both the initial attack angles and aerodynamic configurations of the bridge decks. This study is helpful in determining bridge decksfor super long-span bridges in future.

The Numerical Assessment with Modified Vehicle Rear Body Shape on the Aerodynamic Crosswind Stability Improvement (차량 후미부 형상 변경에 따른 공력 횡풍 안정성 개선에 관한 수치해석 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Yeol;Kim, Yonung-Tae;Chang, Youn-Hyuck;Ha, Jong-Paek;Kim, Eun-Seok
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.51-53
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    • 2008
  • The vehicle aerodynamic crosswind characteristics are mainly governed by the coefficient of side force and yawing moment. These performances affect not only the driving comfort which can be felt by driver but also the safety due to the instability of vehicle. The aims of this investigation are to improve the aerodynamic crosswind performance of sedan vehicle under the crosswind conditions. In order to improve the crosswind stability, numerical analysis has been performed by modifying the rear body shape of vehicle. As the results, we observed about 20% reduction of yawing moment coefficient relative to the base vehicle.

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A Study on Parameter Estimation for General Aviation Canard Aircraft

  • Kim, Eung Tai;Seong, Kie-Jeong;Kim, Yeong-Cheol
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.425-436
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents the procedures used for estimating the stability and control derivatives of a general aviation canard aircraft from flight data. The maximum likelihood estimation method which accounts for both process and measurement noise was used for the flight data analysis of a four seat canard aircraft, the Firefly. Without relying on the parameter estimation method, several aerodynamic derivatives were obtained by analyzing the steady state flight data. A wind tunnel test, a flight test of a 1/4 scaled remotely controlled model aircraft, and the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients using the USAF Stability and Control Digital Data Compendium (DATCOM), Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA), and Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were performed during the development phase of the Firefly and the results were compared with flight determined derivatives of a full scaled flight prototype. A correlation between the results from each method could be used for the design of the canard aircraft as well as for building the aerodynamic database.

Nonlinear aerodynamic stability analysis of orthotropic membrane structures with large amplitude

  • Zheng, Zhoulian;Xu, Yunping;Liu, Changjiang;He, Xiaoting;Song, Weiju
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.401-413
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    • 2011
  • The aerodynamic stability of orthotropic tensioned membrane structures with rectangular plane is theoretically studied under the uniform ideal potential flow. The aerodynamic force acting on the membrane surface is determined by the potential flow theory in fluid mechanics and the thin airfoil theory in aerodynamics. Then, based on the large amplitude theory and the D'Alembert's principle, the interaction governing equation of wind-structure is established. Under the circumstances of single mode response, the Bubnov-Galerkin approximate method is applied to transform the complicated interaction equation into a system of second order nonlinear differential equation with constant coefficients. Through judging the stability of the system characteristic equation, the critical divergence instability wind velocity is determined. Finally, from different parametric analysis, we can conclude that it has positive significance to consider the characteristics of orthotropic and large amplitude for preventing the instability destruction of structures.