• Title, Summary, Keyword: aerodynamic stability

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Stability Research on Aerodynamic Configuration Design and Trajectory Analysis for Low Altitude Subsonic Unmanned Air Vehicle

  • Rafique, Amer Farhan;He, LinShu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.690-699
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    • 2008
  • In this paper a conventional approach for design and analysis of subsonic air vehicle is used. First of all subsonic aerodynamic coefficients are calculated using Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) tools and then wind-tunnel model was developed that integrates vehicle components including control surfaces and initial data is validated as well as refined to enhance aerodynamic efficiency of control surfaces. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics solutions were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.5 to 0.8. The experimental data show the component build-up effects and the aerodynamic characteristics of the fully integrated configurations, including control surface effectiveness. The aerodynamic performance of the fully integrated configurations is comparable to previously tested subsonic vehicle models. Mathematical model of the dynamic equations in 6-Degree of Freedom(DOF) is then simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to simulate trajectory of vehicle. Effect of altitude on range, Mach no and stability is also shown. The approach presented here is suitable enough for preliminary conceptual design. The trajectory evaluation method devised accurately predicted the performance for the air vehicle studied. Formulas for the aerodynamic coefficients for this model are constructed to include the effects of several different aspects contributing to the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. Characteristic parameter values of the model are compared with those found in a different set of similar air vehicle simulations. We execute a set of example problems which solve the dynamic equations to find the aircraft trajectory given specified control inputs.

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Aerodynamic Optimization of 3 Dimensional Wing-In-Ground Airfoils Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (지면효과를 받는 3 차원 WIG 선의 익형 형상 최적화)

  • Lee, Ju-Hee;You, Keun-Yeal;Park, Kyoung-Woo
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.3080-3085
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    • 2007
  • Shape optimization of the 3-dimensional WIG airfoil with 3.0-aspect ratio has been performed by using the multi-objective genetic algorithm. The WIG ship effectively floating above the surface by the ram effect and the virtual additional aspect ratio by a ground is one of next-generation and cost-effective transportations. Unlike the airplane flying out of the ground effect, a WIG ship has possibility to capsize because of unsatisfying the static stability. The WIG ship should satisfy aerodynamic properties as well as a static stability. They tend to strong contradict and it is difficult to satisfy aerodynamic properties and static stability simultaneously. It is inevitable that lift force has to scarify to obtain a static stability. Multi-objective optimization technique that the individual objectives are considered separately instead of weighting can overcome the conflict. Due to handling individual objectives, the optimum cannot be unique but a set of nondominated potential solutions: pareto optimum. There are three objectives; lift coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and static stability. After a few evolutions, the non-dominated pareto individuals can be obtained. Pareto sets are all the set of possible and excellent solution across the design space. At any selections of the pareto set, these are no better solutions in all design space

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Wind-resistant performance of cable-supported bridges using carbon fiber reinforced polymer cables

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Ying, Lei-Dong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.121-133
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    • 2007
  • To gain understanding of the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cable in cable-supported bridges, based on the Runyang Bridge and Jinsha Bridge, a suspension bridge using CFRP cables and a cable-stayed bridge using CFRP stay cables are schemed, in which the cable's cross-sectional area is determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness. Numerical investigations on the dynamic behavior, aerostatic and aerodynamic stability of the two bridges are conducted by 3D nonlinear analysis, and the effect of different cable materials on the wind resistance is discussed. The results show that as CFRP cables are used in cable-supported bridges, (1) structural natural frequencies are all increased, and particularly great increase of the torsional frequency occurs for suspension bridges; (2) under the static wind action, structural deformation is increased, however its aerostatic stability is basically remained the same as that of the case with steel cables; (3) for suspension bridge, its aerodynamic stability is superior to that of the case with steel cables, but for cable-stayed bridge, it is basically the same as that of the case with steel stay cables. Therefore as far as the wind resistance is considered, the use of CFRP cables in cable-supported bridges is feasible, and the cable's cross-sectional area should be determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness.

A Study on the Aerodynamic Stability of Long Span Pedestrian Bridges (장경간 보도교의 내풍안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seungho;Jeong, Houigab;Kwon, Soon-Duck
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2019
  • In recent years, a number of long span cable-stayed pedestrian bridges have been constructed to the advantages of relatively low cost construction and the many tourists visiting. However, most of the pedestrian bridges are located in parks or sightseeing areas, so they are conducted without proper review and design process. It is necessary to review the aerodynamic stability of the long span cable-stayed pedestrian bridge, and it should be designed in detail from various points of view rather than the road bridge. In this study, we investigated the wind characteristics of the cable-stayed pedestrian bridge, and the empirical equations for the relationship between the main span length and the fundamental natural frequencies are presented for future use. In addition, the flutter wind speed limit of the flat plate deck pedestrian bridge calculated using the Selberg's equation is also presented. The final aerodynamic bridge section which satisfied the aerodynamic stability was found from open grating method. The proposed method can be used for long span cable-stayed pedestrian bridge in the future.

Development of Slender Aerodynamic Girder for Suspension Bridges (현수교 세장 내풍 단면의 개발)

  • Kwon, Soon-Duck;Lee, Myeong-Jae;Cho, Eukyung;Lee, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3A
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    • pp.241-256
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    • 2010
  • This study intends to develop an aerodynamic girder for suspension bridge with width corresponding to 1/70 of the main span length. In the first step of present study, parametric study for the effects of major structural properties on aerodynamic stability of bridges was performed. The span length and natural frequency of bridges were found to be free from girder width, girder height, and aspect ratio of width to height. The empirical equation according to confidence interval was proposed to estimate the natural frequencies of bridges from span length. From the sensitivity analysis, it was revealed that the torsional frequency was dominant parameter among various structural properties that affected flutter velocity mostly. The final aerodynamic bridge section which satisfied the flutter criteria was found from section wind tunnel tests for 30 cross sectional models. The aerodynamic stability of the developed cross section was verified by multimode flutter analysis. The present economical cross section can be used for long span suspension bridge.

An Experimental Study on Wind Aerodynamic Improvement of Steel Composite Cable Stayed Bridge having π-shaped Girder (π형 주형을 가진 강합성 사장교의 공기역학적 제진방법에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Chang, Dong Il;Min, In Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.801-811
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    • 1998
  • In this paper, aerodynamic properties and improvements of the ${\pi}-shaped$ stiffening girder is studied by wind tunnel tests in steel composite cable stayed bridge. As an improvement device, fairing, extension, post and flap is tested. and the best improved section is selected and estimated on angles of attack, damping ratios and turbulent flows. It is shown that the selected fairing is effective to improve the aerodynamic stability. And this study can be utilized as a database of wind-resistant methodology of steel composite cable stayed bridge.

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Flutter and Buffeting Control of Long-span Suspension Bridge by Passive Flaps: Experiment and Numerical Simulation

  • Phan, Duc-Huynh;Nguyen, Ngoc-Trung
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2013
  • Flutter stability and buffeting response have been the topics of most concern in the design state of long-span suspension bridges. Among approaches towards the aerodynamic stability, the aerodynamic-based control method which uses control surfaces to generate forces counteracting the unstable excitations has shown to be promising. This study focused on the mechanically controlled system using flaps; two flaps were attached on both sides of a bridge deck and were driven by the motions of the bridge deck. When the flaps moved, the overall cross section of the bridge deck containing these flaps was continuously changing. As a consequence, the aerodynamic forces also changed. The efficiency of the control was studied through the numerical simulation and experimental investigations. The values of quasi-steady forces, together with the experimental aerodynamic force coefficients, were proposed in the simulation. The results showed that the passive flap control can, with appropriate motion of the flaps, solve the aerodynamic instability. The efficiency of the flap control on the full span of a simple suspension bridge was also carried out. The mode-by-mode technique was applied for the investigation. The results revealed that the efficiency of the flap control relates to the mode number, the installed location of the flap, and the flap length.

Wake effects of an upstream bridge on aerodynamic characteristics of a downstream bridge

  • Chen, Zhenhua;Lin, Zhenyun;Tang, Haojun;Li, Yongle;Wang, Bin
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.417-430
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    • 2019
  • To study the wake influence of an upstream bridge on the wind-resistance performance of a downstream bridge, two adjacent long-span cable-stayed bridges are taken as examples. Based on wind tunnel tests, the static aerodynamic coefficients and the dynamic response of the downstream bridge are measured in the wake of the upstream one. Considering different horizontal and vertical distances, the flutter derivatives of the downstream bridge at different angles of attack are extracted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and discussed, and the change in critical flutter state is further studied. The results show that a train passing through the downstream bridge could significantly increase the lift coefficient of the bridge which has the same direction with the gravity of the train, leading to possible vertical deformation and vibration. In the wake of the upstream bridge, the change in lift coefficient of the downstream bridge is reduced, but the dynamic response seems to be strong. The effect of aerodynamic interference on flutter stability is related to the horizontal and vertical distances between the two adjacent bridges as well as the attack angle of incoming flow. At large angles of attack, the aerodynamic condition around the downstream girder which may drive the bridge to torsional flutter instability is weakened by the wake of the upstream bridge, and the critical flutter wind speed increases at this situation.

Aerodynamic stability analysis of geometrically nonlinear orthotropic membrane structure with hyperbolic paraboloid in sag direction

  • Xu, Yun-ping;Zheng, Zhou-lian;Liu, Chang-jiang;Wu, Kui;Song, Wei-ju
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.355-367
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    • 2018
  • This paper studies the aerodynamic stability of a tensioned, geometrically nonlinear orthotropic membrane structure with hyperbolic paraboloid in sag direction. Considering flow separation, the wind field around membrane structure is simulated as the superposition of a uniform flow and a continuous vortex layer. By the potential flow theory in fluid mechanics and the thin airfoil theory in aerodynamics, aerodynamic pressure acting on membrane surface can be determined. And based on the large amplitude theory of membrane and D'Alembert's principle, interaction governing equations of wind-structure are established. Then, under the circumstance of single-mode response, the Bubnov-Galerkin approximate method is applied to transform the complicated interaction governing equations into a system of second-order nonlinear differential equation with constant coefficients. Through judging the frequency characteristic of the system characteristic equation, the critical velocity of divergence instability is determined. Different parameter analysis shows that the orthotropy, geometrical nonlinearity and scantling of structure is significant for preventing destructive aerodynamic instability in membrane structures. Compared to the model without considering flow separation, it's basically consistent about the divergence instability regularities in the flow separation model.

An Experimental Study on 3-Dimension Aerodynamic Properties of Composite Cable Stayed Bridge (합성형 사장교의 3차원 공기역학적 특성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Min, In Ki;Chae, Young Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.741-750
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the aerodynamic properties of the composite cable-stayed bridge by conducting three-dimensional wind tunnel tests. Focusing on the improved section of the bridge in the two-dimensional wind tunnel tests, the bridge's aerodynamic stability was estimated based on the angles of attack and the wind angles. The aerodynamic properties of vertical galloping, torsion galloping,and torsion flutter were also estimated based on the design wind velocity, and because much of the cable-stayed bridge was constructed using FCM, it was not sufficiently stiff during the bridge's construction. Therefore,the experience progressed by stages: from the full stage to the tow stage, and until the bridge became a single tower. Since the original plane was designed to be a steel box girder, the aerodynamic properties of the steel-box-type and composite-type girder could be compared. The results of this study can be utilized as basic data regarding the aerodynamic properties of medium-length and short composite cable-stayed bridges.