• Title, Summary, Keyword: alcoholic beverages

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Exposure Assessment of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages

  • Ha Mi-Sun;Kwon Ki-Sung;Kim Mee-Hye;Park Hee-Ra;Hu Soo-Jung;Lee Hyo-Min;Kim Kyung-Mi;Ko Eun-Jung;Ha Sang-Do;Bae Dong-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.480-483
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    • 2006
  • Ethyl carbamate, a by-product produced naturally during fermentation and contained in fermented foods and beverages, is a carcinogen. Thus, due to the high consumption of alcoholic beverages in Korea, the ethyl carbamate concentrations in popular alcoholic beverages were determined, and the daily intake of ethyl carbamate through alcoholic beverages was estimated. The major Korean alcoholic beverages, Soju, beer, and Takju, with the highest market share were sampled and their ethyl carbamate concentrations determined by GC/MS/SIM. The ranges of ethyl carbamate contained in Soju, beer, and Takju was 0.83-10.07, 0.45-0.77, and 0.40-0.93 ppb, respectively. These results and data on the average daily intake of alcoholic beverages were then used to calculate the average and maximum estimated daily intakes (EDI) of ethyl carbamate through alcoholic beverages. As a result, a relatively high EDI of ethyl carbamate through alcoholic beverages was found for Korean males over 30 years old, indicating the need to reduce the ethyl carbamate content in alcoholic beverages.

Survey of Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic Beverage Preference in College Students of the Chonnam Area (일부 전남지역 대학생들의 알코올 음료 섭취 실태와 음료의 기호도 조사)

  • 정복미;오은실;최성미;차연수
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.290-296
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    • 2001
  • This study investigated the intake of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in college students. Five hundred and eighty seven students age 19-30 (432 male and 155 female) responded to the beverage consumption survey. Of the students 19.9% were freshman, 42.2% sophomore, 23% junior, and 15% seniors. Results are summarized as follows : 1) Beer and soju were the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverages by the college students. The amount of beverage normally consumed was 3 cans of beer or 1 bottle of soju. 2) There was no age related change in amount of alcoholic beverage consumed, but preference for liquor rather than beer increased with age. 3) Foods most commonly consumed prior to drinking were cooked rice and milk. 4) Following the drinking of alcoholic beverages the most commonly consumed food or beverage was cold water for both males and females. The next most commonly foods were cooked rice, instant noodles, and cola for males ; and cooked rice, milk, and fruit for females. 5) Cola and pear juice were the preferred non-alcoholic beverages for college students. Also popular among students were date juice for males and orange juice for females. Milk and non-cola carbonated beverages were not commonly consumed. This study provides information for the identification of possible alcoholic beverage related public health risks among college students.

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Urban Households' Purchase and Expenditure Decision Factors of Alcoholic Beverages (주류에 대한 도시가계의 구매결정과 지출결정요인)

  • 허은정
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2003
  • This study examined the determinants of urban households' expenditures on alcoholic beverages, using double-hurdle models to distinguish between the decision to purchase (purchase decision) and the decision of how much to consume (expenditure decision). Data for this study were drawn from the 2000 Korean Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Households were likely to purchase alcoholic beverages with increasing of household income, tobacco expenditures, and household size. The age, sex, marital status, occupation, education level, type of house ownership, residing city were significantly related to the purchase decisions. Among those households which drink, as household income and tobacco expenditures increase, the age, sex (male), marital status (married), and education level of a household-head, house ownership, residing city (Seoul) were positively related to and the presence of young children were negatively related to the expenditure level of alcoholic beverages.

Alcoholic Beverages and Gold and Silver Wares used for Alcoholic Beverages during Koryo Dynasty (고려시대(高麗時代) 주류문화(酒類文化)와 금.은(金.銀) 주기(酒器))

  • Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • Rice alcoholic beverages, cheongju and beopju, which are recorded in "Koryodokyung", "Koryosageolyo", and "Koryosa", were used in national and royal ceremonies, and yakju was used in the Palgwanhoi ritual. In the late $11^{th}$century, King Munjong imported hwaju and haenginjabeopju from the royal family of the Song Dynasty. Alcoholic beverages in the early $12^{th}$century included the medical use for kings, such as gyehyangeoju, which the Emperor of the Song Dynasty sent to King Yejong, baekjainju, which was sent to King Myeongjong for his health, and yangju, which is goat milk fermented alcohol from the nomads in the northern regions. In the early$13^{th}$ century there was also dongrak, which is a horse-milk fermented alcohol, grape wine sent from Yuan to King Chungryeol in the late $13^{th}$ century, and sangjonju, a type of special cheongju sent from Yuan in the early $14^{th}$ century. Baekju from Yuan was recorded in oral traditions, which suggests that soju, which is distilled cheongju, was consumed in the late $14^{th}$ century. Gold and silver wares for alcoholic beverages had important political, social, and economic meanings as national gifts to other countries and internally as the king's royal gift to his subjects. In the late $14^{th}$ century, soju was prohibited, and the use of gold and silver wares for alcoholic beverages was banned at the same time. This study examined the historical characteristics of the use of traditional rice alcoholic beverages, the emotional preference for foreign alcoholic beverages, and the gold and silver wares used for alcoholic beverages Koryo Dynasty.

Volatile Hazardous Compounds in Alcoholic Beverages (주류 중 휘발성 유해성분)

  • Chung, Hyun;Yoon, Mi Kyung;Kim, Meehye;Park, Sung-Kug;Lee, Joongoo;Kim, Young-Suk
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2012
  • Recently, concerns about the volatile hazardous compounds including acetaldehyde, methanol, and fusel oils in alcoholic beverages, which cause hangover such as headache and dizziness after consumption, have been raised. The volatile hazardous compounds might also lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases and even cancers with a high consumption of alcoholic beverages. Acetaldehyde is a volatile compound naturally found in alcoholic beverages and used as flavor in many foods. However this is also regarded as possibly being carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore, acetaldehyde with alcoholic consumption is recently classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans. On the other hand, methanol is generated from demethoxylation of pectin by pectinolytic enzyme during alcoholic fermentation. Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation and are generally regarded as important flavor compounds. In the current study, we reviewed on the health concern, maximum levels, analytical methods, and current levels of hazardous volatile compounds in alcoholic beverages.

Characteristics of Korean Alcoholic Beverages Produced by Using Rice Nuruks Containing Aspergillus oryzae N159-1

  • Kim, Hye Ryun;Lee, Ae Ran;Kim, Jae-Ho
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2017
  • Herein, nuruks derived from non-glutinous and glutinous rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae N159-1 (having high alpha-amylase and beta-glucosidase activities) were used to produce Korean alcoholic beverages. The resultant beverages had enhanced fruity (ethyl caproate and isoamyl alcohol) and rose (2-phenethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol) flavors and high taste scores.

Analytical Study on Traditional Rapid-brew Alcoholic Beverages of Three Days or More I. About Brewing from Regular Rice (삼일주와 삼일 기이내로 빚어지는 우리나라의 속성주 I. 쌀로 빛은 속성주)

  • 전정일;신민자;최영진;김현숙;이혜정;정재홍;백숙은
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to understand the brewing and processing methods of rapid-brew alcoholic beverages. In the contents of 45 classical records, there were 68 items about rapid-brew alcoholic beverages. and single and double-brew alcoholic beverages. Those alcoholic beverages. of the 68 items studied, were made iron green grown at that time-rice, glutinous rice, regular rice. Selected 38 items among those brew, alcoholics glution rice, were distributed into 34 patterns. Four patterns, grounded on rapid-brewing and processing methods, were set one thing to another and analyzed.

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Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Perception about Korean Yakju in the Gyunggi Area of Korea (경기 지역 소비자의 주류 소비 행태 및 약주에 대한 인식 조사)

  • Lee, Seung-Joo
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate consumer behavior and perception related to alcoholic beverages and Korean rice wines (yakju). Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 254 male and female adults in the Gyunggi-area of Korea. Male respondents were significantly more likely to drink more often, consume greater amounts and spend more on alcoholic beverages. Male respondents preferred, in order, soju, beer and wine. Female respondents preferred, in order, beer, wine and soju. Most of the respondents (69.2%) showed conservative consumption behaviors, and indicated they would drink a new product when it became popular. Flavor/taste was the most important attribute when selecting alcoholic beverages. The reasons for drinking yakju were "high quality" and "considering health". The most answered reason for low market share of yakju was lack of publicity and marketing.

Comparison of Fermentation Characteristics of Korean Traditional Alcoholic Beverages Prepared by Different Brewing Methods and Their Quality Changes after Aging (전통주의 제조방법별 발효 특성 및 숙성후 품질변화 비교)

  • Kim, In-Ho;Park, Wan-Soo;Koo, Young-Jo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 1996
  • Fermentation characteristics and quality changes of the typical Korean traditional alcoholic beverages (Kwahaju, Sokokju, Baikhaju, Samhaeju and Hosanchun) were investigated during fermentation and after aging, respectively. They were prepared by their own brewing methods with respect to the same contents of rice and Nuruk (Korean-style bran koji). The consumed total sugar content of the alcoholic beverages (Sokokju, Baikhaju, Samhaeju and Hosanchun) which were brewed with the multiple input steps of seed mash and raw material (ABMIS) was higher than that of the alcoholic beverage (Kwahaju) which was brewed with the single input step (ABSIS). The pH values of all the beverages were similar and were ranged from 3.2 to 3.6. The acidity of ABMIS were lower than that of ABSIS, but alcohol concentration of ABMIS were higher. The fermentation period of the alcoholic beverages with triple input steps was the longest among them. The inner temperature and microbial growth in all the beverages increased at each of input steps of the raw materials. Fusel oil content of ABMIS was lower than that of ABSIS. Major components of the fusel oil were iso-amyl alcohol, iso-butanol, n-propanol, ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde, and its minor components were methanol and n-butanol. The results on quality changes of the alcoholic beverages after aging showed increase of alcohol in ABMIS, but decrease of sugar and acidity. Fusel oil contents of Kwahaju and Samhaeju decreased to be ranged from 3.1% to 13.9% after aging, but those of Sokokju, Baikhaju and Hosanchun increased to be ranged from 10.9% to 23.0%. Sensory evaluation of ABMIS showed better scores than that of ABSIS. It was suggested that the brewing method with multiple input steps of seed mash and raw material was one of the methods to increase fermentation efficiency for brewing the Korean traditional alcoholic beverages.

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Estimation of Methanol Exposure Level via Alcoholic Beverage Consumed by Jecheon Citizen, South Korea (주류 섭취로 인한 대한민국 제천 시민의 메탄올 노출수준 평가)

  • Oh, Chang-Hwan;Lee, Ye-Ji;Min, Sung Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2013
  • Quantitative analyses of naturally occurring methanol were performed for the alcoholic beverages commonly consumed in Jecheon, Chungbuk province, South Korea. The headspace analysis method was optimized for the low and high alcoholic beverages. The external standard method was applied due to the overlapping of 2-propanol and 2-butanol (the internal standard candidates) with target sample matrix peaks. The target samples were selected based on the retail sales amounts of alcoholic beverages in the largest retailer food-mart chain, Jecheon, Chungbuk province, South Korea. There was no sample containing methanol over 0.5 $mg/m{\ell}$, the Korean maximum level of methanol in alcoholic beverages (1.0 $mg/m{\ell}$ for fruit originated liquor etc). The total exposure amount of methanol via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on the daily alcohol consumption of 40 g. The hazard indices calculated by methanol RfD 0.5 mg/kg bw day (US EPA) and ADI 20 mg/kg bw day (proposed by Lachenmeier etc.) were 0.301 and 0.008, respectively. As with the hazard index, aggregate exposures below a HI of 1.0 will likely not result in adverse noncancer health effects over a lifetime of exposure. Then the methanol exposure via the alcoholic liquours might not hazard to Jecheon citizen.