• Title, Summary, Keyword: algae oil

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Extraction of Lipids from Microalgae Using Polar and Nonpolar Bi-solvent Systems (이성분 용매 추출에 의한 미세조류로 부터의 바이오디젤용 지질 분리)

  • Hong, Yeon-Ki;Kim, Jeong-Bae;Ng, K.Y. Simon
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 2011
  • Various single solvents were tested to find the effective solvent for the extraction of algae oil from wet-form Chlorella minutissima. In the case of single solvents, their extractabilities for algae oil were increased with their polarity because the water in wet algae cell is to form a solvent shell around the lipids. Based on these results, the wet-form algae samples were treated with a polar alcohol solvent and then a nonpolar solvent was added in algae residue. In the algae oil extraction by ethanol/n-hexane, total lipid contents were 40-50% and composition of triglyceride in extracted oil was 46.50%. Considering solvent toxicity of conventional solvent mixture such as chloroform and methanol for algae oil extraction, the ethanol/n-hexane system was identified as the effective one for the oil extraction from wet-form Chlorella minutissima.

Ten Years' Monitoring of Intertidal Macroalgal Vegetation of Hyogo Prefecture, Northwestern Coast of Honshu, Japan to Assess the Impact of the Nakhodka Oil Spill

  • Kawai, Hiroshi;Kamiya, Mitsunobu;Komatsu, Teruhisa;Nakaoka, Masahiro;Yamamoto, Tomoko;Marine Life Research Group of Takeno, Marine Life Research Group of Takeno
    • ALGAE
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2007
  • In order to understand the impact of the heavy-oil pollution by the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill on the intertidal macroalgal vegetation, we have been monitoring succession in the intertidal flora since 1997 at Oh-ura, Takno, and Imago-Ura Cove, Kasumi in Hyogo Prefecture, northwestern coast of Honshu, Japan. We employed two different monitoring methods: 1) The percent cover of macro-algae (seaweeds) in 1 x 1 m quadrats along 450 m intertidal transects parallel to the shoreline were assessed and recorded by photographic imaging until 2002, and for 30-40 m transects of the most heavily polluted areas in 2004 and 2006; 2) The percent cover of macro-algae in 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats along a transect line perpendicular to the shore were recorded and all macrophytes within the quadrat were completely removed to record the wet weight of each taxon (1997-2006). Based on the monitoring data, we conclude that the high intertidal zone at Imago-ura, where a large part of the stranded oil accumulated, suffered the heaviest damage and experienced the slowest recovery. In addition, although the original status of macroalgal vegetation before the impact was not well-documented, it appeared that recovery from the damage caused by the oil pollution required four to five years.

The Development of Monitoring Method of Attached Micro-algae Using Artificial Substrates in Coastal Water - Ecological Risk Assessments for Oil Pollutant - (연안해역에서 인공부착기질을 이용한 부착미세조류 모니터링기법 - 유류오염의 생태위해성 평가적용 -)

  • Baek, Seung-Ho;Son, Moon-Ho;Jung, Seung-Won;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Young-Ok;Shim, Won-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2012
  • Spills of $M/V$ Hebei Spirit on $7^{th}$ December 2007 caused a seriously damage to the ecosystem of Korean coast. Of these, microbial communities (i.e., attached benthic micro-algae) were reported to be sentive to the environmental change so it can be used for ecological risk assessment. Our experiment was designed to examine the ecological risk assessments for oil pollutant using benthic attached algal community on the artificial substrates of acrylic plates. Field monitoring in the culture system was conducted in Jangmok Bay. The abundances of attached micro-algae on artificial substrates gradually increased with increasing of sampling times. Among them, diatoms were the most important colonizer of coastal water, with the genera $Cylindrotheca$ and $Navicular$ most abundant. In particular, developed the culture system has correctly measured qualitative and quantitative abundance of attached micro-algae because same acrylic plates as artificial substrates were used. Thus, this culture system may be directly applied to the ecological risk experiments of microbial community structure from oil pollutants.

Compositional Changes of Functional Oil from Algae Oil during the Lipase-Catalyzed Production (Algae유로부터 디글리세롤 함유 기능성 유지의 효소적 합성 중 구성성분 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Eun-Jin;Cho, Kyung-Hyun;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1059-1063
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    • 2005
  • In the absence of organic solvent, di- and mono-acylglycerol enriched functional oil was produced by lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis in a stirred tank batch reactor. After glycerolysis for 48 hr, functional oil consisted of $47.1\%\;TAG,\;33.6\%\;DAG,\;and\;18.7\%$ MAG. In MAG and DAG, docosahexaenoic acid was found as $10.7\%\;and\;8.1\%$, respectively. During the reaction, total tocopherol content decreased, and $0.065\%$ tocopherols were existed in the functional oil produced after 48hr reaction.

Degradation Characteristics of Algae Coagulated with Poly Aluminum Chloride by Thermophilic Oxic Process (고온·호기법을 이용한 Poly Aluminum Chloride에 의해 응집된 조류의 분해특성)

  • Yang, Jae-Kyung;Choi, Kyung-Min
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 1999
  • The biodegradation of algae coagulated with poly aluminum chloride(PAC) was investigated by using the thermophilic oxic process. The compositions of coagulated algae were 83.5% of water content, 24.6% of ash, 32% of organic carbon with in total solid, respectively. In present study, food waste oil was used for the increment of calorie of mixtures in order to accelate the microbial activity. As a result, the maximum temperature of mixtures was higher than $50^{\circ}C$ when the mixing ratio of food oil was over 10%. However the temperature indicated the lower than $50^{\circ}C$ when conditions of no mixing with waste food oil, and 5% of mixing ratio. Therefore, the optimum condition was 10% of the mixing ration at $217l{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}min^{-1}$ of air supply rate. The conversion efficiency of carbon was highest as 92% at the optimum condition. And then water was evaluated from imxture without accumulation at 10% of mixing ratio. The thermophilic oxic process well conducted that is good process for the treatment of waste algae without effluents however it has to consider the retreatment of accumulated aluminum in the reactor.

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Application of Lignocellulosic and Macro-algae Hydrolysates for Culture of Chlorella saccharophila (Chlorella saccharophila 배양을 위한 목질계 및 해조류 바이오매스 가수분해물의 이용)

  • Kim, A-Ram;Kim, Hyo Seon;Park, Mi-Ra;Kim, Sung-Koo;Jeong, Gwi-Taek
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.522-528
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the possibility of using hydrolysates of lignocellulosics (rapeseed straw, barley straw, rice straw) and marine macro-algae (Undaria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, and Gracilaria verrucosa) to cultivate Chlorella saccharophila. The growth of C. saccharophila was inhibited by 7 hydrolysates without active carbon treatment. In contrast, hydrolysates treated with active carbon increased the cell growth and product (oil and chlorophyll) formation by C. saccharophila. The oil contents of C. saccharophila treated with each hydrolysate were $41.26{\pm}0.69%$ (glucose), $22.06{\pm}1.21%$ (rapeseed straw), $28.65{\pm}1.08%$ (barley straw), $31.15{\pm}0.76%$ (rice straw), $31.50{\pm}2.12%$ (U. pinnatifida), $31.49{\pm}4.53%$ (L. japonica), $29.63{\pm}3.93%$ (E. intestinalis), and $26.15{\pm}1.99%$ (G. verrucosa), respectively. Lignocellulosics and marine macro-algae may be useful resources for improving the mass cultivation of C. saccharophila.

Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Aqueous Bio-Oil from Marine Algae (수소생산을 위한 해조류 유래 수용액 상 바이오오일의 수증기 개질 반응)

  • Park, Yong Beom;Lim, Hankwon;Woo, Hee-Chul
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.94-100
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    • 2016
  • Hydrogen production via steam reforming of bio-oil from algal biomass over fast pyrolysis with commercial catalysts was carried out. Aqueous bio-oil obtained by phase separation from a crude oil over fast pyrolysis was used as a reactant and comparison studies for activity over different catalysts (FCR-4-02, POS-7, Cat. A, RUA), reaction temperature, and steam/carbon (S/C) ratios were performed. Experimental results showed that different catalytic activities were observed with different S/C ratios and catalyst composition and the highest hydrogen yield of 70% was obtained with a POS-7 catalyst at a S/C ratio of 10 and 1073 K.

Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of DHA-Enriched Structured Lipid (Docosahexaenoic acid 함유 재구성지질의 효소적 합성 연구)

  • Cho, Eun-Jin;Cho, Kyung-Hyun;Lee, Ki-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.709-712
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    • 2005
  • Structured lipid (SL) was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification of algae oil and corn oil in stirred tank batch reactor, The reaction, performed for 15hr at $65^{\circ}C$, was catalyzed by sn-1,3-specific lipase RM IM from Rhizonucor miehei without organic solvent. DHA, oleic acid, and linoleic acid contents of SL were 14.9, 17.3, and 31.8 mol%, respectively. ${\alpha}-,\;{\gamma}-,\;and\;{\delta}-tocopherol$ contents and physiochemical property of SL were evaluated. During 15 hr reaction, most reaction occurred within 6 hr, and highest relative production rate was observed between 3 to 6 hr.

Screening for Antioxidant Activity of Plants and Marine Algae and Its Active Principles from Prunus davidiana

  • Choi, Jae-Sue;Lee, Ji-Hyeon;Park, Hae-Jin;Kim, Hyung-Geun;Young, Han-Suk;Mun, Sook-Im
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 1993
  • The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of plants and marine algae was tested by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH). Five plant extracts(Prunus davidiana, Eriobotrya japonica, Artemisia iwayomogi, Stirodella tolyrrhiza and Ulmus davidiana) and two algae (Ecklonia stolonifera and Symphycoladia latiuscula) were found to be the most effective in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The methanol extract obtained from the stems of Prunus davidiana was fractionated with several solvents. The ethylacetate soluble fraction exhibiting the strongest antioxidant activity was further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides were isolated and the most active ones was identified as (+)-catechin by MS, $^1H-NMR$ and $^{13}C-NMR$. Its antioxidant activity was higher than that oil vitamin C.

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The effect of long-term supplementation with different dietary ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ ratios on mineral content and ex vivo prostaglandin E2 release in bone of growing rabbits

  • Alnouri, Doha Mustafa;El-Din, Mohamed Fekry Serag;Al-Khalifa, Abdulrhman Salih
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.360-367
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study the different long term effects of consumption of dietary oil sources with varying omega-6/omega-3 (${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratios on bone marrow fatty acid level, ex vivo prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) release, and mineral content of bone in rabbits. MATERIALS/METHODS: For this purpose, weaning and female New Zealand white rabbits were purchased and randomly divided into five groups and offered ad libitum diets containing 70 g/kg of added oil for 100 days. The dietary lipid treatments were formulated to provide the following ratios of ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ fatty acids: 8.68 soy bean oil (SBO control), 21.75 sesame oil (SO), 0.39 fish oil (FO), 0.63 algae oil (DHA), and 0.68 algae oils (DHA/ARA). DHA and ARA are two types of marine microalgae of the genus Crypthecodinium cohnii. RESULTS: The dietary treatments had significant effects on the bone marrow fatty acids of rabbits. Rabbits fed the FO diet, containing the highest ${\omega}-3$ PUFA concentration, and those fed the SBO diet showed the highest ${\omega}-6$ PUFA. On the other hand, a positive correlation was observed between Ex vivo $PGE_2$ level and the ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ dietary ratio. Significant effects of dietary treatment on femur Ca, P, Mg, and Zn contents were observed in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the current study clearly demonstrated that dietary PUFA, particularly ${\omega}-6/{\omega}-3$ and ARA/EPA ratios are important factors in determining bone marrow fatty acid profile, and this in turn determines the capacity of bone for synthesis of $PGE_2$, thereby reducing bone resorption and improving bone mass during growth.