• Title, Summary, Keyword: alkylketene dimer

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Effect of Spreading of Neutral Sizing Agent, Alkylketene Dimer, on Sizing Development

  • Seo Won-Sung;Shin Jong-Ho;Cho Nam-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of spreading behavior of the sizing agents (AKD or dialkyl ketone) on the sizing development of AKD-sized paper. There was a direct relationship between the spreading behavior of the sizing agents and their melting points. Both AKD and dialkyl ketone showed no substantial spreading until the temperature reaches to their melting points. Consequently, dialkyl ketone did not provide sizing development when the paper was heat-treated below $75^{\circ}C$, while AKD provided sizing effect even the paper heated at $50^{\circ}C$. The ketone, however, provided rather higher sizing effect than that of AKD, when the paper was heat-treated over $100^{\circ}C$. This result means that the ketone also gives sizing development to paper, moreover the ketone could give higher sizing effect to paper than AKD when it was melted and well spreaded on the fiber surface. While the ketone introduced to papers from hydrolyzed AKD emulsion could not contribute to sizing development.

Dimensional Stability of Korean Red Pine Treated with Water Repellents (발수제 처리 소나무재의 치수안정성)

  • Han, Gyu-Seong
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the water repellents' treatment on the water absorptivity and the dimensional stability of Korean red pine wood(Pinus densiflora). The alkylketene dimer(AKD), fluororesin emulsion(Wood-seal, WS), and paraffin wax emulsions(PW25, PW40, and PW1200) were used as water repellents. PW40 and WS were proved as excellent water repellents for pine wood, because the samples treated with these agents showed high contact angles and large reduction in water absorptivities. Also, the dimensional stability(antiswelling efficiency) of pine wood was considerably improved by water repellents treatments, such as PW40 and WS at the pressure of 2MPa. The water repellent treated woods with WS, PW40, and PW1200 at the pressure of 2MPa were relatively stable to the wet-dry cyclic leaching test.

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Deterioration Mechanism of Paper according to Sizing and Beating(I)-Influences of Sizing- (사이징과 고해에 따른 종이의 열화기구(제1보)- 사이징의 영향 -)

  • 김봉용
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out in order to elucidate the deterioration mechanism of paper according to various sizing chemicals. No additive paper and four kinds of papers containing rosin-alum, alum only, alkylketene dimer(AKD)-cation polymer and cation polymer only were treated by UV light to study changes of water-resistant, optical and mechanical properties from the view points of natural deterioration of paper. Since rosin chemicals have UV absorption at the relatively long wavelength region, rosins are degraded to form hydrophilic groups such as carboxylic acid from their double bonds by UV treatments. These phenomena caused the decreasing of sizing degree and wetting time in case of rosin-sized paper, while the UV treatments brought about the slight increase of wetting time in rosin-free papers such as no additive, alum and kymene only paper owing to the auto-sizing effect. Optical properties were primarily influenced by sizing chemicals. Rosin-sized paper showed lower brightness after UV and near UV treatment because of its UV instability.

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Alkaline Sizing of TMP with AKD (AKD에 의한 TMP의 중성사이징)

  • 김봉용
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2002
  • Alkaline sizing characteristics of TMP (thermomechanical pulp) handsheets with AKD (alkylketene dimer) were studied under various conditions. The sizing degree of TMP handsheet was much lower than that of chemical pulp. Especially, the sized TMP handsheet dried at $20^{\circ}C$ showed no sizing features, but sizing degree of TMP handsheet was clearly Increased by heat treatment at $105^{\circ}C$. The sizing effect of TMP was also improved by addition of $CaCO_3$, but it was not affected by pH. Therefore, sizing effect of TMP with AKD can be improved to some extent by controlling stock condition and heat treatment of handsheet.

Behavior of AKD in AKD-sized Paper by Heating Treatment During Ageing (AKD 사이즈 처리한 종이의 저장중 가열처리에 의한 AKD의 거동)

  • Shin, Young-Doo;Seo, Won-Sung;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the reaction between alkylketene dimer(AKD) and cellulose molecules in AKD-sized paper sheet. AKD was added to highly beaten($80{\pm}3^{\circ}SR$) SwBKP(ca. 0.8% on pulp) in order to have much AKD retention in the paper sheet. This AKD-sized paper sheet was aged at different temperatures, $60^{\circ}C,\;80^{\circ}C,\;105^{\circ}C\;and\;125^{\circ}C$. Changes in FT-IR spectra of AKD in paper sheet during the ageing were measured. In addition, sizing degrees of the AKD-sized paper sheet pretreated for 30 sec. at $105^{\circ}C$ were measured by HST size tester during the storage at different temperature. IR spectra of AKD-sized paper sheet preheated at $105^{\circ}C$ for 30 sec. showed unchanged spectra two absorption bands at $1849cm^{-1}\;and\;1722cm^{-1}$ which refer to the typical AKD IR bands. However, these typical AKD bands were gradually reduced with increasing ageing, completely disappeared after 6 hrs. and formed new absorption band at $1706cm^{-1}$, which refers to carbonyl stretching vibration of dialkylktone. Eventually the AKD molecule was hydrolyzed to diakylketone without formation of ${\beta}$-ketoester with cellulose in paper sheet. After 6 days ageing, a little amount of ${\beta}$-ketoester bands was identified in 6 or 7 days ageing, because of the absence of water due to long-term heating. The same tendency was observed at different ageing conditions. At the practical papermaking process, AKD reacts prevailing with water, and mostly seems to be hydrolyzed to dialkylketene. Concerned to the sizing development, AKD-sized paper sheet was shown no sizing development at the initial stage of ageing at $60^{\circ}C$ after heating treatment at $105^{\circ}C$ for 30 sec., and gradually increased the sizing degree with increasing ageing, such as Hercules Sizing Tester (HST) 130 see for 12 hr, HST 300 sec. for 3 days and HST 400 sec. for 5 days. It was concluded that hydrolyzed AKD could contributed to the sizing development of the paper sheet.

REACTION OF PAPER PULP AND ALKYL KETENE DIMER BY AGING TREATMENT DURING PAPERMAKIN PROCESS

  • Shin, Young-Doo;Seo, Won-Sung;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.83-83
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    • 2000
  • Alkylketene dimer was known as a cellulose reactive or alkaline size because it does not require to fix to the fiber as do the traditional rosin sizes. A proposed sizing mechanism of AKD was the formation of P -ketoester bond between AKD and cellulose which provides the permanent attachment and the orientation of the hydrophobic alkylchains outward. However, some questions about the reaction had arisen and thus, the sizing mechanism of AKD has been a subject of controversy for several decades. The major concern of the controversy is that AKD is really reactive with cellulose or not in the papermaking conditions. In this study, reaction between AKD and pulp fiber was investigated, in order to find out whether AKD forms P-ketoester with pulp fiber during aging under no catalyzed neutral condition with obvious spectroscopic evidence. In addition, effect of aging treatment on the sizing development was studied. It has been disclosed that, in absence of water, AKD reacted with cellulose to form P -ketoester linkage under no catalyzed neutral condition, while, in presence of water, most of AKD was hydrolyzed to a dialkyl ketone or P -ketoacid. In addition, during the aging treatment of AKD-sized paper, its typical IR spectra bands gradually were reduced, completely disappeared after 6hr aging, and formed new absorption bands at 1707cm-' and shoulder peak at 1700cm-' which refer to the typical dialkylketone absorption bands. Therefore, the formation of P -ketoester between AKD and pulp fiber is impossible in the practical papermaking process. It could be suggested that the sizing development of AKD-sized paper is obtained by next two mechanism: 1) formation of a thin-layer of AKD on the fiber surface through melting and spreading of AKD emulsion particles by heat and 2) the hydrolysis of AKD to dialkyl ketone which has higher melting point, during drying and storage of AKD sized papers.

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Studies on the Physical Properties of Molded Packaging Material Using Rice-Straw Pulp (볏짚펄프를 이용한 성형포장재의 물성에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Seung-Won;Kang, Chin-Ha
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 1999
  • To use the agricultural residues as the raw material of molded packaging material, the packaging trays were manufactured from rice-straw pulp. The physical properties were measured to compare non-treated trays with the addition trays, such as the addition of starch, rosin size, carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC), polyethylene glycol(PEG), alkylketene dimer(AKD), polyacryl amide(PAM). The results were as follows : 1. In the addition of starch, air permeability at addition of 5% was highest. Bursting strength and tensile strength were smaller than non-treated trays. 2. In the addition of rosin size, air permeability, bursting strength and tensile strength were smaller than non-treated trays. 3. In the addition of CMC, air permeability was higher than non-treated trays. Bursting strength and tensile strength were similar to non-treated trays. 4. In the addition of PEG, air permeability was higher than non-treated trays. Bursting strength at addition of 3% was the highest and tensile strength was smaller than non-treated trays. 5. In the addition of AKD, air permeability at addition of 1% and 5% was higher than non-treated trays. Bursting strength and tensile strength were smaller than non-treated trays. 6. In the addition of PAM, air permeability at addition of 0.01% was the highest. Tensile strength at addition of 0.01% were higher than non-treated trays. 7. The water absorption of the trays decreased with increasing adding of natural additives.

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Alkaline Sizing of Mechanical Pulp

  • Kim, Bong-Yong;Akira Isogai
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2000
  • Alkaline Sizing behavior and mechanism of handsheets, which were prepared from thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with alkylketene dimer (AKD), were studied in terms of the conditions of the handsheet-making. AKD content in the TMP handsheets was increased with increasing of AKD addition level and the addition of a polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin resin (PAE) clearly enhanced AKD retention as well as the resultant sizing performance of TMP handsheets. Although drying of the AKD sized TMP webs at $20^{\circ}C$ led to no or quite low sizing level, but TMP handsheets sized with AKD had higher sizing degrees with increasing of the temperature of heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopic observations of the AKD-sized TMP handsheets showed that AKD emulsion particles were present on pulp fiber surfaces independently without coagulation in the TMP handsheets dried at $20^{\circ}C$. Heat treatment of the AKD-sized handsheets resulted in disappearance of the AKD emulsion particles because of their melting and spreading. The addition of calcium carbonate filler to the TMP suspensions did not influence on AKD content in the TMP handsheets. Nevertheless, their sizing degrees clearly increased by the addition of $CaCO_3$filler. Probably, AKD molecules adsorbed on the $CaCO_3$filler particles contribute to the enhancement of sizing performance. Thus, AKD can give sizing features effectively to the TMP handsheets, when they are made under suitable conditions.

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Wet and Dry Strengths, and Air Permeability of Seedling Plate Paper (육묘용 포트원지의 습윤 및 건조강도와 투기도)

  • Seo, Won-Sung;Park, Jong-Moon
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.229-232
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to determine the properties of seedling plate papers currently used in commercial production, then to get basic information for manufacturing new seedling plate paper. Imported seedling plate paper had high wet tensile and burst strengths in its usage circumstances. Wet tensile strength was very high with 38.7% of dry tensile strength. Wet burst strength was also very high with 62.4% of dry burst strength. The seedling plate paper contained about 30% of synthetic fibers. It had 10 Gurley sec. in air permeability indicating effective movement of air. Seedling plate papers were' made in laboratory scale. For sufficient sizing degree, the addition of 0.5% AKD (alkylketene dimer) by weight was good enough. Additional amount of AKD more than 0.5% by weight caused strength loss even though improving sizing effect. The addition of wet strength reagent such as Finex-B 2% by weight resulted in good strength and air permeability.

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