• Title/Summary/Keyword: alum

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Alum as a Chemical Amendment for Reducing Ammonia Emission and Stabilizing Pig Manure Phosphorus during Composting (돈분뇨 퇴비화 과정에서 Alum 처리가 암모니아 휘산과 인산 안정화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Lee, Hyeon-Bok;Yun, Hong-Bae;Lee, Youn
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.368-372
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    • 2008
  • Composting is a good strategy for management of livestock manure. However, it leads to large ammonia emissions and has a potential phosphorus runoff due to high content of soluble phosphorus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alum on reducing ammonia emissions and stabilizing phosphorus during composting of pig manure. For this study, alum was applied at rates of 0 (No-Alum), 1.0 (Alum-L), and 3.0 (Alum-H) g Al $kg^{-1}$ pig manure and sawdust mixture (fresh matter basis). The thermophilic stage was quickly achieved in Alum-L and No-alum treatment, but it was delayed to 5 days in Alum-H treatment. The thermophilic stage was maintained for 2 weeks in all treatment. The pH of compost treated with alum remained below 8.0 for the 35 d but it was above 8.0 in No-Alum treatment. For the first 15 days of composting process, 93, 87, and 58% of total ammonia emissions were occurred in No-Alum-L and Alum-H, respectively. The Alum-H and Alum-L treatments reduced $NH_3$ volatilization by 31 and 78% compared with No-Alum treatment. Alum treatments shifted manure P form $H_2O$ and $NaHCO_3$ extractable P into NaOH extractable P which is very stable under acid and alkaline condition. Therefore, alum is a good chemical amendment for reducing ammonia emission during composting and potential losses of P following compost applications.

Application of Poultry Industry Using Methods of Environmental Management - A Study on Decreasing Soluble Metals from Poultry Litter with Chemical Additives - (환경경영 기법을 이용한 가금산업에 적용(I) - 화학제재를 첨가한 깔짚으로부터 수용성 중금속 저감에 관한 연구를 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, In-Hag;Choi, Sun;Choi, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1437-1442
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    • 2009
  • Recent studies have shown that alum addition to litter results in many environmental and economic advantages, such as reductions in metal runoff, lower ammonia emission and improved poultry performance. However, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effects of different types of alum on soluble metals in poultry litter. The objective of this study was conducted to investigate changes in soluble metal from poultry litter with different types of aluminum sulfate (alum) under laboratory condition. The treatments used in this study, which were mixed in the upper 1 cm of litter or sprayed onto the litter surface, were 4 g alum, 8 g alum, 8.66 g liquid alum, 17.3 g liquid alum, 11.2 g A7 (high acid alum), and 22.4 g A7 (high acid alum)/100 g litter. Applying different types of alum to poultry litter reduced (P<0.05) concentrations of soluble Fe (9 to 54%), Cu (9 to 49%) and Zn (11 to 40%), relative to untreated litter, whereas it increased Ca and Mg (P<0.05). Mean soluble Fe and Cu levels in poultry litter from different types of alum decreased in the order: 22.4 g A7 (54% and 49%) > 17.3 g liquid alum (48% and 42%) > 8 g alum (48% and 31%) > 4 g alum (28% and 10%) > 8.6 g liquid alum (10% and 9%) > 11.2 g A7 (8.6% and 9%). Additionally, the high reduction in soluble Zn concentration was 4 g alum (40%), followed by 8 g alum (26%), 22.4 g A7 (25%), 17.3 g liquid alum (23%), 8.66 g liquid alum (18%), and 11.2 g A7 (11%), respectively. In conclusion, the current studies suggest that treating poultry litter with different types of alum can be applied to reduce soluble metal (Fe, Cu, and Zn) and to develop a production to merchandise for poultry litter that would result in reduction in pollutants from these materials. Furthermore, in order to improve environmental management in the poultry industry, the use of alum, liquid alum and high acid alum all should be provided a valid means of reducing negative environmental impact.

Effect of Alum Sludge Compost of Water Treatment Plant on the Growth of Korean Lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) (정수장 슬러지 퇴비가 한국잔디(zoysia japonica Steud)의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • 함선규;이정재;장기운;박재선
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried our in order to study effect of alum sludge compost of water treat-ment plant on the growth of Korean lawngrass (zoysia japonica Steud.) and on the change of soil chemical properties. Alum sludge compost was made out of chicken feces, sawdust and alum sludge. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. Alum sludge compost was appropriate for organic fertilizer of turfgrass management in golf course. 2.Application of alum sludge compost improved the chemical properties of soil such as pH, available phosphorous and exchangeable calcium. Also the growth of Korean lawngrass grown by the mixed application of alum and compost was more effective than that in single application of compost. 3.Chlorophyll content of Korean lawngrass had no differences in several treatments. 4. Alum promoted the uptake of potassium, calcium and the yield of dry weight hut the yield of dry weight was not affected by chemical fertilizer. 5.Alumimum toxicity was decreased by the mixed application of alum and compost but increased by single application of alum.

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A Study on Alum recovery and reuse from the sludge in water treatment plant. (상수도 정수장 오이중 Alum회수 및 재활용에 관한 연구)

  • 김관천;노기환;강영식;이치영;류일광
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.86-96
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    • 1995
  • Alum recovery has recently gained more attention because many water utilities need to improve their sludge handling and disposal practices. As part of an overall sludge management program recovery can reduce the amount of solids and allow for reuse of the recovered Alum as a coagulant. This study was examined the effectiveness of Alum recovery from the Sludge at the D water treatment plant in Kwangju city. The results were summarized as follows 1. Alum recovery was obtained sufficiently acidification(An optimum condition was pH2-3) With $H_{2}SO_{4}$ to settled sludge. In this case recovered liquid Alum from sludge of 2.1% solids concentration at pH 2.1 was contains Aluminum $1,602mg/{\ell}$(as $Al_{2}O_{3}$ 0.3% ) and other metal of low level. 2. It was an optimum condition to all reuse of recovered Alum as a coagulant that rate of Commercial Alum:Recovered Alum=$14{\mu}{\ell}/{\ell}{\;}:{\;}200{\mu}{\ell}/{\ell}$ In a result of Jar Tests. 3. It was a result of Alum recovery from sludge, the reduction effect of amount of solids was about 57.4%. 4. If all recovered Alum were reused the reduction effect of solid wastes disposal cost and chemical drug's cost was about 22%.

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Impact of Characteristics of Polymeric Al Coagulants PACl and Alum on Membrane Flux and Fouling of Microfiltration (PACl 및 Alum 응집제 특성이 정밀여과막 투과수량 및 막오염에 미치는 영향)

  • Jin, Yong-Chul;Choi, Yang-Hun;Kweon, Ji-Hyang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2011
  • The objectives of this research are to investigate coagulation efficiencies of two coagulants l.e., alum and polyaluminum chloride and to understand effects of the coagulants on membrane fouling in microfiltration. The turbidity of supernatant from alum coagulation was increased with increasing doses whereas the turbidity from PACl coagulation was maintained at the low values. The observed injection volume of PACl for the same removal was approximately 30 percent less than alum, which produced a low sludge volume. The settling velocity of PACl flocs was greater than alum flocs. The results corresponded well with floc size measurements. Flux decline from alum coagulation was significant due in part to small sizes of flocs. At the low dose, alum floc had less specific cake resistance than PACl floc. However, as the dosage was increased, the increases in specific cake resistances of alum was substantial. Alum coagulation pretreatment needs careful operation to reduce membrane fouling by flocs. In general, PACl coagulants were more effective than alum coagulants for pretreatment of membrane processes because PACl showed the better performance in coagulation and membrane fouling.

Ecotoxicological effects of Alum and Ferric chloride on the population of Eisenia fetida (Annelida : Oligochaeta) (Alum과 Ferric chloride가 줄지렁이 개체군에 미치는 생태독성학적 영향)

  • Park, Kwang-Il;Bae, Yoon-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of Alum and Ferric chloride on the population of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Using contact filter toxicity test, it was shown that LC50 of Alum and Ferric chloride on adult Eisenia fetida were 457.4 mg $kg^{-1}$ and 1,665.2 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively,which meant Ferric chloride had much higher acute toxicity on earthworm than Alum. Alum didn't affect on cocoon production, hatchability and number of hatched larvae of Eisenia fetida. Ferric chloride didn't have any efects on number of hatched larvae per cocoon, but reduced cocoon production and hatchability. Larval density of next generation was reduced by the food containing Alum and Ferric chloride. Above results indicated that the Alum and Ferric chloride could be one of the hazardous materials that made extinction of earthworm population when the sewage sludge treated with Alum and Ferric chloride was supplied to the earthworms.

Composting of Sewage Sludge and Llum Sludge (하수슬러지와 Alum 슬러지를 이용한 퇴비화)

  • Chang, Ki Woon;Lim, Jae Shin;Lee, In Bog;Kim, Young Han
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 1995
  • This study is concerned with the assessment of the possibility of alum sludge composting, as well as changes of some chemical properties during composting. Alum sludge was mixed in different proportions, which are 0%, 25%, 35% and 45%, respectively, with a sewage sludge and sawdust mixture. The final mixtures to be composted are placed on static piles constructed with a perforated aeration pipe on the ground, and composted for more than 50 days. During the composting of some alum sludge treatments, there was not notable difference in changes of pH, C/N ratio, and content of several minerals among the alum sludge treatments, while changes of pile temperatures and CEC were significant and these remarkable differences in related to the pile temperatures and CEC seem suitable for the evaluation of alum sludge maturity. Also, the results suggested that the proper mixing ratio of alum sludge for composting was 25% level.

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Estimation of Phosphorus Adsorption Capacity of Alum-amended and Composted Paper Mill Sludge (제지슬러지에 대한 alum 처리 및 퇴비화에 따른 인 흡착능 변화)

  • Lee, In-Bog;Chang, Ki-Woon;Park, Jin-Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 2007
  • Excess application of paper mill sludge (PMS) in field can limit phosphorus uptake by crops because aluminum presented in the sludge can fix or adsorb available phosphorus which is necessary for crop growth. To investigate phosphorus (P) adsorption characteristics of PMS, we examined P adsorption maximum $(X_m)$ using Langmuir isotherm and P adsorption energy constant $(K_f)$ using Freundlich isotherm for PMS without alum, PMS with alum, and composted PMS with alum through a laboratory incubation test. The maximum P adsorption capacities were 800 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$ in soil, 47 $mg\;g^{-1}$ in PMS without alum and 61 $mg\;g^{-1}$ in PMS with alum. P adsorption capacity with alum treatment for PMS increased by 30%. That of PMS compost was 68 $mg\;g^{-1}$ and showed that composting increases 11% of P adsorption. Freundlich constant $K_f$ was 22 in check soil, while $K_f$ values in PMS without alum and in PMS with alum were 398 and 426, respectively. After composting, $K_f$ value of PMS compost significantly increased as 1,819. In conclusions, p adsorption capacity for PMS were increased by alum treatment or composting and therefore excess or continuous land application of alum-amended or composted PMS can limit P uptake for crops by reducing available P in sell.

Effects of Aluminum Sulfate and Protein Levels on Broiler Performance

  • Park, I. H.;K. H. Nahm
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.103-105
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to determine how broiler performance with the level of crude protein(23 CP%, 21 CP% and 19 CP%) can be changed and affected, adding Alum(Al$_{2}$(SO$_{4}$)$_{3}$ㆍ14H$_{2}$O) and no Alum in litter(two ALUM levels and 3 Protein levels with 2$\times$3 factorial design). Alum was added as a top dressing to the litter at a rate of 200g ALUM / kg of rice bran. With the exception of the protein levels for feed :gain(P〈 0.05), there were no significant differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed :gain of chicks. For ammonia gas emission, both the main effects of Alum and protein(P〈 0.01 and 0.05) at 3weeks and interaction between Alum and protein(P〈 0.05), the main effect of Alum(P〈 0.01) at 6weeks did affected them. In litter excluded the main effects of Alum(P〈 0.05), there was a significant difference among N contents ranged from pH to the rate of C: Organic-N(P〈 0.01).

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Characteristics of Micro Floc in a Rapid Mixing Step at Different Coagulant Dose (급속혼화공정에서 응집제 주입률에 따른 미세입자의 성장특성)

  • Jun, Hang-Bae;Park, Sang-Min;Park, Noh-Back;Jung, Kyung-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.243-252
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    • 2007
  • Effects of alum dosage on the particle growth were investigated by monitoring particle counts in a rapid mixing process. Kaolin was used for turbid water sample and several other chemicals were added to adjust pH and ionic strength. The range of velocity gradient and mixing time applied for rapid mixing were $200{\sim}300sec^{-1}$ and 30~180 sec, respectively. Particle distribution in the synthetic water sample was close to the natural water where their turbidity was same. The number of particles in the range of $10.0{\sim}12.0{\mu}m$ increased rapidly with rapid mixing time at alum dose of 20mg/L, however, the number of $8.0{\sim}9.0{\mu}m$ particles increased at alum dose of 50mg/L. The number of $14.0{\sim}25.0{\mu}m$ particles at alum dose of 20mg/L was 10 times higher than them at alum dose of 50mg/L. Dominant particle growth was monitored at the lower alum dose than the optimum dose from a jar test at an extended rapid mixing time(about 120 sec). The number of $8.0{\sim}14.0{\mu}m$ particles was lower both at a higher alum doses and higher G values. At G value of $200sec^{-1}$ and at alum dose of 10-20mg/L, residual turbidity was lower as the mixing time increased. But at alum dose above 40mg/L and at same G value, lower residual turbidity occurred in a short rapid mixing time. Low residual turbidity at G value of $300sec^{-1}$ occurred both at lower alum doses and at shorter mixing time comparing to the results at G value of $200sec^{-1}$.