• Title, Summary, Keyword: amalgamation method

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Establishment and Validation of Gold Amalgamation Method for the Quantitation of Thimerosal in Biological Products (생물학적제제의 치메로살 함량 정량을 위한 가열기화 아말감 흡광도법의 확립 및 검증)

  • Kim, Byung-Chul;Kim, Do-Keun;Hong, Sung-Hwa;Kim, Yeon-Hee;Lim, Jong-Mi;Won, Yun-Jung;Kim, Seok-Hwan;Hong, Ji-Young;Yun, Young-Min;Kim, Jae-Ok
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.284-288
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    • 2011
  • The test method for biologics of lot release system is based on 'Test procedure and specification for biological products,' generally, thimerosal content is measured by chemical analysis using O.D. In this study, the comparative analysis was carried out using the gold amalgamation method for thimerosal content was compared to the existing methods, which are described above. The gold amalgamation method, which uses atomic absorption spectrophotometry, was meets all the method validation acceptance criteria. It is considered to be proper as the assay and identification test for thimerosal. In this study, the comparative analysis was performed three times. As a result, gold amalgamation method is more convenient and easy to perform as this assay doesn't have pre-treatment procedure. Also this assay showed good precision and reproducibility compared to the conventional method. Therefore, it is appropriate to alternate the assay method of thimerosal from the conventional chemical analysis to gold amalgamation method to improve the credibility of lot release system and the quality control of biologics, by standardizing test method.

Comparative Study of Hazardous Heavy Metal Contents by Cosmetic Type (화장품 유형별 유해 중금속 함량 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Jin hee;Kim, Ji Yeon;Park, Sang Gyu;Lee, Jae Ho;Yoon, Jong Ho;Kim, Gyoung Tae;Kim, Hae Jung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The hazardous heavy metal contents of cosmetics were investigated and the resulting values were compared by type of cosmetics: skin care preparations (SCP), hair preparations (HP), makeup preparations (MP), and eye makeup preparations (EMP). Methods: The hazardous heavy metal contents (Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Ni and Hg) were analyzed for 358 cosmetics products (187 SCP, 82 HP, 56 MP, and 33 EMP). Hg was measured by the amalgamation method, and other hazardous heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after decomposition using the microwave method. Results: The mean contents of Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Ni, and Hg in cosmetics were 0.424, 0.068, 0.024, 0.398, $0.567{\mu}/g$, and Not Detected, respectively. All of the hazardous heavy metals were detected in most products, but below the recommended maximums of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The level of Cd was the lowest at 14.8%, and Sb was the highest at 41.2%. Pb, Sb and Ni showed the highest mean value and detection rate in EMP. As, Cd, and Hg showed the highest in SCP, HP, and MP, respectively. Conclusion: Hazardous heavy metals were detected in most products. In particular, Pb, Sb, and Ni were broadly detected in EMP, meaning more stringent quality control is required.

Studies on the Contents of Total Mercury in Korean Soils (한국 토양중의 총 수은 함량에 관한 연구)

  • 손동헌
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 1979
  • Total mercury content of Korean soils which were randomly sampled at 212 different localities were determined by quartz tube combustion-gold amalgamation method, 1) The mean and median values of total mercury content of Korean soils were 0.18PPM and 0.14PPM, respectively. 2) Among 212 localities, 14 have total mercury contents which are three times higher than the median value. The highest values was found to be 1.74PPM.

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Vehicle extraction and tracking of stereo (스테레오를 이용한 차량 검출 및 추적)

  • Youn, Se-Jin;Woo, Dong-Min
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2962-2964
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    • 1999
  • We know the traffic information about the velocity and position of vehicle by extraction and tracking vehicle from continuosly obtained road image of camera. The conventional method of vehicle detection indicate increment of error due to headlight and taillight in night road image. This paper show such as vehicle detection of binary, Edge detection. amalgamation of image are applied to extract the vehicle, and Kalman filter is adaptive methods for tracking position and velocity of vehicle.

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A study on literature review of mathematical modeling in mathematical competencies perspective (수학 교과 역량 관점에서의 수학적 모델링에 관한 선행 연구 탐색)

  • Choi, Kyounga
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.187-210
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    • 2017
  • The animated discussion about mathematical modeling that had studied consistently in Korea since 1990s has flourished, because mathematical modeling was involved in the teaching-learning method to improve problem solving competency on 2015 reformed mathematics curriculum. In an attempt to re-examine the educational value and necessity of application to school education field, this study was to review the literature of mathematical modeling in mathematical competencies perspective. As a result, mathematical modeling could not only be involved the components of problem solving competency, but also support other competencies; reasoning, creativity-amalgamation, data-processing, communication, and attitude -practice. In this regard, This paper suggested the necessity of the discussion about the position of mathematical modeling in mathematical competencies and the active use of mathematical modeling tasks in mathematics textbook or school classes.

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The Association of Heavy Metal of Blood and Serum in the Alzheimer's Diseases

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Jae-Hoon;Choi, Dal-Woong;Lee, Dong-Woo;Park, Jun-Hyun;Yoon, Hye-Jung;Pyo, Hee-Soo;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Park, Kyung-Su
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2012
  • This study has attempted to establish an analysis method through validation against heavy metals in the body (Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and Gold amalgamation and find out the relevance between heavy metal and Alzheimer's disease after analyzing the distribution of heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd and Hg) and correlations between a control group and Alzheimer's disease group. In this study, Pb and Cd levels in the blood and serum were validation using ICP-MS. For analysis of Hg levels in the blood and serum, the gold amalgamation-based 'Direct Mercury Analyzer' has been used. According to an analysis on the heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd and Hg concentration) in the blood, Cd concentration was high in the Alzheimer's disease group. In the serum, on the contrary, Pb and Hg were high in the Alzheimer's disease group. For analysis of correlations between heavy metal levels in the blood and serum and Alzheimer's disease, t-test has been performed. Even though correlations were observed between the blood lead levels and Alzheimer's disease, they were statistically insignificant because the concentration was higher in a control group. No significance was found in Cd and Hg. In the serum, on the other hand, no statistical significance was found between the heavy metal (Pb, Cd and Hg) and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, no statistical significance was observed between heavy metal and decrease in cognitive intelligence. However, it appears that a further study needs to be performed because the results of the conventional studies were inconsistent.

Preprocessing of the French Sentence for Multilingual Information Processing (다국어 정보처리를 위한 불어 전처리에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Rae-Won;Park, Se-Won;Yu, Seong-Jun
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.1132-1140
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this paper was to present the method of progress efficiency of morphosyntaxical analyzer for French information processing in the view of multilingual information processing. This study indicated that he method prohibit the additional useless word type by decomposing word type by decomposing works which were created by morphological amalgamation. Findings also suggested the need of preprocessing in order to decrease the overload of morphosyntaxical analysis algorithm. In addition, general rules were proposed to divide word form and to decompose complex sentence.

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A Study on the Hazardous Metal Content of Herbal Medicines in the Daegu Area (대구지역 유통 한약재의 유해금속 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin hee;Kim, Ji Yeon;Park, Sang Gyu;Lee, Jae Ho;Yoon, Jong Ho;Han, Gi Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.257-266
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The hazardous metals content of medicinal herbs distributed in the Daegu area was investigated, and the place of origin and the content of herbicides and medicinal components were studied. Methods: An analysis of hazardous metals content (10 types) was carried out on 164 samples of 99 types of herbal medicines. Among the total samples, 45 were domestic and 119 were imported. Hg was analyzed by the amalgamation method. Other hazardous metals content (nine types) was digested using the microwave method and measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results: The mean values of the hazardous metals content in the herbal medicines were Pb 1.0833 mg/kg, As 0.0136 mg/kg, Cd 0.0840 mg/kg, Cr 3.7120 mg/kg, Cu 4.2666 mg/kg, Mn 40.080 mg/kg, Ni 1.4330 mg/kg, Sb 0.1053 mg/kg, Al 202.64 mg/kg and Hg 0.0062 mg/kg. Three of the samples violated the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) regulatory guidance on cadmium (less than 0.3 mg/kg). The measured values of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg) showed levels below the recommended levels for herbal medicines in MFDS regulatory guidance. In the comparison of domestic samples with imported herbal medicines, it was found that one domestic and two imported samples surpassed the maximum residue limits for cadmium. The median values of the hazardous metals detected in the three medicinal parts of the root, leaf (branch), and flower (seed and fruit) were as follows. Cr, Ni, Sb and Al were highly detected in roots, Pb, Cd, Mn, Hg in leafs (branch), and As, Cu in flowers (seed and fruit). Conclusion: There were various kinds of hazardous metals which were detected at high levels according to the place of origin of the medicinal herb and the parts the plant. For hazardous metals for which no acceptance criteria have been established, safety standards should be further studied and managed to ensure the safety of herbal medicines.

Application of first-order reliability method in seismic loss assessment of structures with Endurance Time analysis

  • Basim, Mohammad Ch.;Estekanchi, Homayoon E.;Mahsuli, Mojtaba
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.437-447
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    • 2018
  • Computational cost is one of the major obstacles for detailed risk analysis of structures. This paper puts forward a methodology for efficient probabilistic seismic loss assessment of structures using the Endurance Time (ET) analysis and the first-order reliability method (FORM). The ET analysis efficiently yields the structural responses for a continuous range of intensities through a single response-history analysis. Taking advantage of this property of ET, FORM is employed to estimate the annual rate of exceedance for the loss components. The proposed approach is an amalgamation of two analysis approaches, ET and FORM, that significantly lower the computational costs. This makes it possible to evaluate the seismic risk of complex systems. The probability distribution of losses due to the structural and non-structural damage as well as injuries and fatalities of a prototype structure are estimated using the proposed methodology. This methodology is an alternative to the prevalent risk analysis framework of the total probability theorem. Hence, the risk estimates of the proposed approach are compared with those from the total probability theorem as a benchmark. The results indicate a satisfactory agreement between the two methods while a significantly lower computational demand for the proposed approach.

Effects of Sodium Selenite on Merthiolate-induced Mercury Distribution in Rat. (흰쥐에서 Merthiolate로 인한 수은의 체내 분포에 미치는 Sodium Selenite의 영향)

  • 손동헌;김영춘;허무영;주왕기;허인회
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.223-226
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    • 1985
  • 0.1%-Merthiolate solutions were applied to rats with or without sodium selenite. Rat organs were excised under ether anesthesia. Mercury contents in rat tissues were determined by quartz tube combustion gold amalgamation method. Mercury contents were accumulated at about 3-fold in the brain, 143-fold in the kidney, 62-fold in the blood cell, 22-fold in the liver than those of untreated rats respectively, on the 1st day after application of mert iolate for 7 days. On the other hand, the addition of sodium selenite caused a shift in the tissue mercury distribution. Our study showed that simultaneous administration of sodium selenite increased the accumulation of mercury in the brain, but became to decrease it after 9 days, while decreased it in the kidney, but grew to increase it, respectively.

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