• Title/Summary/Keyword: ammonia

Search Result 3,238, Processing Time 0.152 seconds

A Study on Ammonia Reforming Catalyst and Reactor Design for 10 kW Class Ammonia-Hydrogen Dual-Fuel Engine (10 kW 급 암모니아-수소 혼소엔진을 위한 암모니아 개질 촉매 및 반응기 설계에 관한 연구)

  • LEE, SANGHO;CHOI, YOUNG;PARK, CHEOLWOONG;KIM, HONGSUK;LEE, YOUNG DUK;KIM, YOUNG SANG
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.372-379
    • /
    • 2020
  • Ammonia-hydrogen dual-fuel engine is a way to reduce greenhouse gas emission because ammonia and hydrogen are carbon-free fuels. In ammonia-hydrogen dual-fuel engine, hydrogen is supplied to improve the combustion characteristic of ammonia. In this study, an ammonia reformer was developed to supply hydrogen for 10 kW class ammonia-hydrogen dual-fuel engine. Thermodynamic characteristic and catalyst were investigated for ammonia reforming. Heat transfer was important for high ammonia conversion of ammonia reformer. 99% of ammonia conversion was obtained when 10 LPM of ammonia and 610℃ of hot gas were supplied to the ammonia reformer.

Ammonia Nitrogen Removal by Cation Exchange Resin (양이온 교환수지에 의한 암모니아성 질소 제거)

  • 이동환;이민규
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.263-269
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to know the removal characteristics of ammonia nitrogen by commercially available cation exchange resins. Eight acidic cation exchange resins were investigated in batch reactors. Among them, the most effective resin for ammonia removal in solution was PK228, which was a strong acidic resin of $Na^{+}$ type. PK228 was compared with activated carbon and natural zeolite. The effects of cation exchange capacity, ammonia concentration, resin amount, temperature and pH on ammonia removal by PK228 were investigated in batch reactor, and the effect of effluent velocity in continuous column reactor. Strong acidic resins of porous type were more effective than week acidic resins or gel type resins for ammonia removal in solution. PK228 was more effective than activated carbon and natural zeolite for ammonia removal in batch reactor. With increasing initial ammonia concentration, the amount of ammonia removed by PK228 increased, but the proportion of removed ammonia to initial ammonia concentration decreased. The effect or temperature on ammonia removal by PK228 was very slight. The ammonia removal to acidic solution was more effective than that at basic solution. With decreasing effluent velocity of solution through column, breakthrough point extended, and ammonia removal capacity increased.d.

A Study on Interferences of Monochloramine in the Measurement of Ammonia by Phenate Method (Phenate 법으로 암모니아 분석시 염화아민의 방해 작용에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Je-Yong;Lee, Sang-Duck
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.45-51
    • /
    • 1998
  • The determinations of ammonia in water for drinking purpose served as one basis of judging the sanitary quality of water for a great many years. However, presently ammonia regulation varies depending on countries. In USA and Canada, ammonia is added to water for chloramination process. However, for korea, there is ammonia regulation of treated water in Korea which should not exceed 0.5mg/l as $NH_3-N$. There was a report exceeding 0.5mg/l of ammonia in chlorinated water when the famous drinking water contamination episode happened in the downstream of Nadong River, 1994. With lack of sewer distribution system and treatment plants of domestic wastes, many water treatment plants have a difficulty of complying with ammonia regulation in treated water. Breakpoint chlorination is usually performed to get rid of ammonia. The method which is allowed to measure ammonia in Korea is Phenate method. However, it would be undesirable to use Phenate method for measuring ammonia in chlorinated water if Phenate method would not differentiate ammonia from chloramine. A good possibility of interferences in measurement of ammonia exists because Phenate method include the step of the formation of chlorine and would not differentiate chloramine which is formed as a result of reaction between chlorine and ammonia. This study was on inaccuracy of Phenate method for measuring ammonia of chlorinated water when chloramine and ammonia coexist. This study found that Phenate method measured all chlormaine as ammonia. Ammonia measurement by ion chromatography confirmed this results. Finally, the result from this study suggests that ammonia measurement by Phenate method in chlorinated water should be revised accordingly.

  • PDF

Release of Ammonia Odor from AAFA (Ammonia Adsorbed Fly Ash) by Installation of NOx Reduction System

  • Kim, Jae-kwan;Park, Seok-un;Lee, Hyun-dong;Chi, Jun-wha
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
    • /
    • v.2 no.3
    • /
    • pp.437-445
    • /
    • 2016
  • This paper discussed the effect of ammonia concentration adsorbed on fly ash for the ammonia emission as AAFA (Ammonia Adsorbed Fly Ash) produced from coal fired plants due to operation of NOx reduction technologies was landfilled with distilled or sea water at closed and open systems, respectively. Ammonia bisulfate and sulfates adsorbed on fly ash is highly water soluble. The pH of ammonium bisulfate and sulfate solution had significant effect on ammonia odor emission. The effect of temperature on ammonia odor emission from mixture was less than pH, the rate of ammonia emission increased with increased temperature when the pH conditions were kept at constant. Since AAFA increases the pH of solution substantially, $NH_3$ in the ash can release the ammonia order unless it is present at low concentration. $NH_4{^+}$ ion is unstable in fly ash and water mixtures of high pH at open system, which is changed to nitrite or nitrate and then released as ammonia gas. The proper conditions for < 20 ppm of ammonia concentration released from the AAFAs landfilled in ash pond were explored using an open system with sea water. It was therefore proposed that optimal operation to collect AAFA of less than 168 ppm ammonia at the electrostatic precipitator were controlled to ammonia slip with less than 5 ppm at SCR/SNCR installations, and, ammonia odor released from mixture of fly ash of 168 ppm ammonia with sea water under open system has about 20 ppm.

Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions in Spark-ignition Engine Using Gasoline-ammonia (가솔린 엔진에서 가솔린-암모니아 혼합 연료의 연소 및 배기 특성)

  • Ryu, Kyunghyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
    • /
    • v.21 no.6
    • /
    • pp.155-165
    • /
    • 2013
  • The effect of gaseous ammonia direct injection on the engine performance and exhaust emissions in gasoline-ammonia dual fueled spark-ignition engine was investigated in this study. Results show that based on the gasoline contribution engine power increases as the ammonia injection timing and duration is advanced and increased, respectively. However, as the initial amount of gasoline is increased the maximum power output contribution from ammonia is reduced. For gasoline-ammonia, the appropriate injection timing is found to range from 320 BTDC at low loads to 370 BTDC at high loads and the peak pressures are slightly lower than that for gasoline due to the slow flame speed of ammonia, resulting in the reduction of combustion efficiency. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) for gasoline-ammonia has little difference compared to the BSEC for gasoline only. Ammonia direct injection causes slight reduction of $CO_2$ and CO for all presented loads but significantly increases HC due to the low combustion efficiency of ammonia. Also, ammonia direct injection results in both increased ammonia and NOx in the exhaust due to formation of fuel NOx and ammonia slip.

Effect on the Hydrogen Peroxide in the Ozonation of Ammonia (오존에 의한 암모니아 산화시 과산화수소가 미치는 영향)

  • 박문숙;안재동;노봉오
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 2001
  • Ammonia is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, refrigerants, stabilizers and many household cleaning agents. These wide applications resulted in ammonia contamination in water. Ammonia can be removed from water by physical, biological, and chemical methods. Ozonation is effictive in the treatment of water with low concentration of ammonia. This study is undertaken to provide kinetic data for the ozonation of ammonia with or without hydrogen peroxide. The results were as follows; The destruction rate of ammonia increased gradually with the influent hydrogen peroxide concentration up to 0.23 mM and inhibited in the range of 0.23~11.4mM, and the maximum removal rate of ammonia achieved at 0.23mM of hydrogen peroxide, and the overall kinetics was first order. The combination effect of hydrogen and ozone to oxide ammonia in aqueous solution was better than ozone alone. The reacted ammonia was converted completely to nitrate ion.

  • PDF

Characteristics of ammonia ozonation with bromide (브롬촉매에 의한 암모니아의 오존산화시 특성)

  • 박문숙;양미경
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-10
    • /
    • 2002
  • Ammonia is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, refrigerants, stabilizers and many household cleaning agents. The wide applications result in ammonia contamination in water. Ammonia can be removed from water by physical, biological, and chemical methods. Especially ozonation is effective in the treatment of water with low concentration of ammonia. Therefore, this study is undertaken to provide kinetic data for the ozonation of ammonia with bromide. The results were as follows; Ammonia oxidized by ozone with bromide catalysis. The denitrification rate of the ammonia increased proportionally to the concentration of bromide, and the overall reaction order was zero. It was also found that the effect of bromide ion concentration on the denitrification can be expressed by Monod type equation and there was no more effect above a proper bromide ion concentration. The reacted ammonia was converted completely to nitrate ion without bromide, but the denitrification of ammonia by ozone was conducted in the presence of bromide.

Ammonia half-saturation constants of sludge with different community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

  • Kayee, Pantip;Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat;Kunapongkiti, Pattaraporn;Limpiyakorn, Tawan
    • Environmental Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.140-144
    • /
    • 2016
  • Owing to the kinetic differences in ammonia oxidation among ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM), there is no standard set of kinetic values that can be used as a representative set for nitrifying wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design. As a result, this study clarified a link between the half-saturation constants for ammonia oxidation (Ks) and the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) groups in sludge from full-scale WWTPs and laboratory-scale nitrifying reactors. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that AOB affiliated with the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster were the dominant AOM groups in the sludge taken from the low-ammonia-level WWTPs, while AOB associate with the Nitrosomonas europaea cluster comprised the majority of AOM groups in the sludge taken from the high-ammonia-level WWTPs and nitrifying reactors. A respirometric assay demonstrated that the ammonia Ks values for the high-ammonia-level WWTPs and nitrifying reactors were higher than those of the low-ammonia-level plants. Using the Ks values of available AOM cultures as a reference, the Ks values of the analyzed sludge were mainly influenced by the dominant AOB species. These findings implied that.different sets of kinetic values may be required for WWTPs with different dominant AOM species for more accurate WWTP design and operations.

Ammonia Dual Fuel Approaches with Gasoline and Diesel in the Internal Combustion Engines (가솔린 및 디젤 엔진에서의 암모니아 이중연료 적용 연구)

  • Wooe, Y.;Jang, J.Y.;Lee, Y.J.;Kim, J.N.
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.273-275
    • /
    • 2014
  • An ammonia fuel system is developed and applied to both a spark ignition engine and a compression ignition engine to use ammonia as primary fuel in this study. Ammonia is injected separately into the intake manifold in liquid phase while gasoline or diesel is also injected as secondary fuel. As ammonia burns 1/6 time slower than gasoline or diesel, the spark or diesel injection timing is needed to be advanced to have better combustion phasing. The test engine showed quite high variation in the power output with large amount of ammonia. The final goal of the study is to implement a methodology to ignite ammonia-air mixture and have complete combustion without any use of the conventional fuels.

  • PDF

Vertical Diffusion of Ammonia Into Amorphous Ice Sturcture

  • Kim, Yeong-Sun;Mun, Ui-Seong;Gang, Heon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.280-280
    • /
    • 2012
  • We examined ammonia diffusion on the surface of amorphous ice film through the measurement of decreasing residual quantity of $NH_3$ molecules compared to $H_2O$. The populations of $NH_3$ molecules on the surface of amorphous ice were monitored by using the techniques of temperature programmed reactive ion scattering (TPRIS) method. The ratio of intensity between ammonia and water was examined as a function of time at controlled temperature. When ammonia molecules were externally added onto an ice film at a temperature of 80 K, ammonia coverage with regard to ice was 0.12-0.16 ML. The intensity of ammonia molecules on the surface of ice decreased as time increased and the extent of decreased intensity of ammonia increased as controlled temperature increased. Moreover, energy barrier was estimated to be $51kJmol^{-1}$ on amorphous ice film. The results of the experiment indicate that ammonia molecules have a property of vertical diffusion into amorphous ice and the energy barrier of ammonia diffusion into bulk of ice is higher than that of hydrogen bonding.

  • PDF