• Title, Summary, Keyword: amphibians

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Distribution Characteristics of DEHA, Carbaryl, and Amitrole in the Fishes and Amphibians from the Major River Systems of Korea (우리나라 주요 수계에 서식하는 어류 및 양서류 체내에 함유된 DEHA, Carbaryl, Amitrole의 분포특성)

  • Joo, Yeo Jeong;Kim, Hye Sook;Kim, Young Bok;Moon, Ji Yong;Jeong, Gi Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2002
  • In this study, the levels of DEHA, carbaryl, and amitrole contained in the fresh water fishes and amphibians were determined. The 31 sampling sites were selected including 29 sites along the several rivers and 2 sites from the well-known wet lands. The rivers consists of the Han, Nakdong, Kum, Youngsan, and other small scaled rivers. DEHA was detected from 10 sites, but carbaryl and amitrole were not detected at any sites. The highest average concentration of DEHA was determined from the Kum River by $52.7{\mu}g/kg$. In the detected 10 sites, the average concentration of DEHA from fishes was $40.0{\mu}g/kg$, and that from amphibians was $8.90{\mu}g/kg$ which indicates that 5 times more DEHA was observed from fishes than amphibians. The detection frequency from fishes was 10/62 while that from amphibians was 2/62, and the highest concentration from fishes was $95.5{\mu}g/kg$ (crucians from Kongjoo) and that from amphibians was $12.1{\mu}g/kg$ (bullfrog from Najoo). Among the 10 detected sites, 6 sites were agricultural area and the other 4 sites were semi-urban area.

Planning for Amphibians Habitats in Urban Forest Wetlands, Korea (도시 산림습지 내 양서류 서식처 조성방안 연구)

  • Hur, Myung-Jin;Han, Bong-Ho;Kwak, Jeong-In
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2017
  • This study set out to identify problems with amphibian habitation by the wetland types and improve their habitation environment in urban forest wetlands, thus creating a habitat for amphibians. Study site include forest swamps in Jatjul Park as well as Yeoji neighborhood Park in Guro-gu, and in Choansan neighborhood Park in Dobong-gu. The forest swamp in Jatjul Park gets its water from Mt. Maebong and it is a former escalated farmland-turned wetland. The swamp area is $2,500m^2$, a forest zone and a landscape planting site are 83.27% and 6.70% each. Target species Seoul pond frogs are inseparable from rice fields because they live in a short radius of and lay eggs in or near paddy fields, and Rana nigromaculata have similarities with Rana plancyi chosenica in choosing their habitats. There was need for paths that would lead to other paths so amphibians would spread to other parts of the forest and for measures to secure open water. Modifying a variety of routes for water, human and animals along with building a buffer to keep the core habitation zones were required. The forest swamp in Yeonji neighborhood Park used to be a water reservoir on the foot of Mt. Gunji. The swamp area is $1,980m^2$, a forest zone and farmland account for 80.61% and 4.88% each. Non-point pollutants from upstream along run into the subject forest marsh, bare ground on the around swamp and steep stone embankments obstructed amphibians. Target species was Bufo gargarizans that live in forests and edges of hills and spawn in deep water. The forest swamp in Choansan neighborhood Park gets its water from Mt. Choan and it is close to its water source that it is a mountain stream forest wetland. The basin and the swamp are $35,240m^2$ and $250m^2$ in size respectively. A forest zone accounts for 90.20%, high stone embankments laid in refurbishing the valley obstruct amphibians and there is water shortage in times of droughts. Target species were Rana coreana, Rana dybowskii and Hynobius leechii that live in mountain valleys, streams and wetlands and lay eggs in forest marshes and rocks in valleys. Looking into the three swamps of amphibian habitation, I came to conclusions that those wetlands were suitable for their amphibians but man-made facilities blocked their corridors leading to other corridors and even killed off target species in some parts of those swamps by destroying those parts. Amphibians live in water, on ground and underground at different stages of life. Hence, we should take this fact into consideration when planning their habitats and design core habitation zones, buffers zone and use zones accordingly. Buffer zones ought to be between core habitation zones and surrounding trees. Aiming at protecting core habitation zones, buffers should be in harmony with habitation zones. Use zones should be minimized in size and not in direct contact with core habitation zones.

Present Status of Non-Native Amphibians and Reptiles Traded in Korean Online Pet Shop (한국 온라인 펫샵에서 거래되는 외래 양서파충류 현황)

  • Koo, Kyo Soung;Park, Hye Rin;Choi, Jae Hyeok;Sung, Ha Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 2020
  • The development of transportation and the expansion of the pet market has become the main causes of the increase in the cross-border migration of non-native species. Moreover, recent sales over the Internet were a factor that has promoted pet trades. While the import of non-native species has been steadily increasing in the Republic of Korea, it is not clear how these imported species are traded and how large the trade is. Considering that most of the non-native species found in the wild are the results of release by humans understanding the present situation of pet trades can identify potential non-native species that can enter the wild. This study surveyed the number of species, frequency, and prices of non-native amphibians and reptiles sold in 25 online pet shops from January 22 to February 10, 2019. The results of the survey showed that a total of 677 species of non-native amphibians and reptiles were sold, and the Squamata group accounted for the largest part of them at 65.4% (443 species). The number of non-native amphibians and reptiles sold in online pet shops in 2019 was 2.1 times larger than the 325 species officially imported in 2015. The non-native amphibians and reptiles sold in most pet shops were Litoria caerulea (21 shops) and Correlophus ciliatus (24 shops). The lowest price for non-native amphibians and reptiles was 3,000 won, and the highest price was 100 million won for Rhacodactylus leachianus of Squamata. Among the non-native amphibians and reptiles sold in online pet shops, 11 species were found in the wild and were sold at relatively low prices. We confirmed that Mauremys reevesii, an endangered species class II and natural monument no. 453, and American bullfrogs (albino), an ecosystem disturbing species, were being sold in online pet shops. Moreover, 21.6% of the 677 non-native amphibians and reptiles sold in online pet shops were species designated as CITES. The results of this study can be the important reference data for understanding the status of non-native amphibians and reptiles that are imported and sold in Korea and evaluating and predicting the potential for them to enter the wild.

Changes in Habitats of Fish and Amphibian Due to Erosion Control Dam Constructed in a Mountain Stream, Gongju, Chungchoengnamdo (충청남도 공주시 소재 산지계류 내 시공된 사방댐에 의한 어류 및 양서류 서식의 변화)

  • Lee, Sang In;Seo, Jung Il;Kim, Suk Woo;Chun, Kun Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.108 no.2
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    • pp.241-258
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the habitat of fishes and amphibians in a mountain stream that is part of an experimental forest at Kongju National University, Gongju, Chungcheongnam, Korea, and examine the differences in the presence of fishes and amphibians in the stream before and after construction of an erosion control dam. The results showed that the factors that affect the presence of fishes are pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), flow velocity, and step-pool number, and that the factors that affect the presence of amphibians are monthly rainfall, pH, EC, DO, and crown density. Of these factors, pH, EC, flow velocity, and monthly rainfall were significantly different before and after dam construction; however, the differences among the other three factors from dam construction, except EC, might not have been enough to affect the presence of fishes and amphibians. Our results suggest that the difference in the frequency of fishes and amphibians surveyed before and after dam construction in the upper and lower stream sections were not statistically significant. One exception to this was the presence of amphibians in the lower stream section during and after dam construction, which could have been the result of a large amount of sediment produced by excavation that led to high EC.

Accumulation of Organonitrogen Pesticides in Fishes and Amphibians from the Basin of Major Rivers of S. Korea (우리 나라 주요 하천유역에 서식하는 양서류 및 어류의 유기질소계 농약류 축적)

  • Oh, Dong-Jin;Kim, Young-Bok;Lee, Ji-Young;Moon, Ji-Yong;Jeong, Gi-Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.489-495
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    • 2002
  • In this study, we determined distribution status of organonitrogen pesticides such as trifluralin, atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, malathion, nitrofen, permethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and parathion accumulated in the fresh water fishes and amphibians. We collected those samples at 31 sites from the basin of major rivers, and separated the muscular tissue as a final sample for analysis. In the pretreatment process, lipid was eliminated by using acetonitrile and n-hexane, and pesticides were reextracted with dichloromethane. The extract was dehydrated and concentrated, and then cleaned it up by passing the Florisil column, and pesticide content was finally determined by using a GC-MS system after introducing isotope labelled references. The accumulation level was observed in the range of $0.17{\sim}6.8{\mu}g/kg$ in amphibians and $0.26{\sim}16{\mu}g/kg$ in fishes including cypermethrin as $16{\mu}g/kg$.

Endocrine Disruption by Alkylphenols in Amphibians (알킬페놀류 화합물의 양서류 내분비계장애 효과)

  • Ahn, Hae-Sun;Park, Chan-Jin;Ahn, Hyo-Min;Gye, Myung-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • Amphibian population declines globally. Aquatic contamination by organic pollutants including endocrine disrupters has been suspected to the one of the reason for distinction of amphibia which has obligate aquatic life style during larval period. Amphibians have been widely accepted as animal model for the study of endocrine disruption in aquatic ecosystem at molecular as well as individual levels. There are increasing need for toxicological data in amphibians at multiple endpoints for management of contamination and development of safety guideline for important EDs in aquatic media. Alkylphenols have been widely used in agricultural, industrial, and housekeeping activities, contaminating the aquatic media and evoking endocrine disruption in aquatic animals. In this review, we summarized data concerning the endocrine disruption by alkylphenol organic pollutants on amphibians according to route, concentration, terms, and developmental stage of exposure together with mechanism of endocrine disruption.

Current Status and Biogeographical Comments of Herpeto-Fauna at Hallasan National Park (한라산 국립공원의 양서.파충류 현황 및 생물지리학적 고찰)

  • Oh, Hong-Shik;Chang, Min-Ho;Kim, Byoung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the herpeto-fauna at Hallasan National Park. We conducted a survey at 1100 Resting places, Eoseungsaengak, Donnaeko, Eorimok, Yeongsil, Gwaneumsa and Seongpanak from April, 2006 to January, 2007. A series of four families and 5 species of amphibians and 4 families and 8 species of reptiles were observed. Amphiesma vibakari ruthveni, Takydromus wolteri, Scincella vandenburghi, Coluber spinalis and Hynobius quelpartensis which are rarely appearing inland but they were frequently observed by this survey. Also, we observed Sibynophis chinensis that only inhabits Jeju island with in Korea. Jeju island has both southern and northern boundary lines for amphibians and reptiles. Amphibians and reptiles in Jeju island have a different from those inland and valuable information for biogeograpy due to dissimilar climate and isolation from continental for a long time. It is not certain whether some amphibians and reptiles, Bufo gargarizans, Rana rugosa, R. plancyi, Elaphe rufodorsata and Takydromus amurensis, inhabit Jeju island, as recorded in previous literatures, so the research on current status of them has to be carried out immediately.

The Analysis of Amphibia Biodiversity and Habitat in the Moak Provincial Park (모악산 도립공원의 양서류 다양성 및 서식환경 분석)

  • Chung, Kyu-Hoi;Shim, Jae-Han;Song, Jae-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.278-281
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    • 2001
  • Ecological measurement and biological environment of the Moak Provicial Park surveyed based on the habitat; deciduous broad leaved forest (Quercus mongolica variabilis-Pinus densiflora, Capinus tschonoskii, Quercus Mongolica, Quercus acutissima-Pinus densiflora, and Quercus variabilis), coniferous forest (Pinus densiflora), plantation forest (Pinus rigida), and the other place (pond, lake, rice field, stream, and river). Totally, 1 orders, 4 families, 8 species of amphibians were found at Mt. Moak provincial park. Biodiversity indices of studied region were as follow; richness was 1.270, diversity was 1.775, and evenness was 0.853 in amphibians. 42.1% of amphibians were found in deciduous broad leaved forest, 11.3% in coniferous forest, 1.6% in plantation forest, and 45.0% in the other region.

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Effects of Deforestation Practice on the Distribution and Abundance of Herpetofauna in Mt. Gariwang, South Korea

  • Choi, Woo-Jin;Park, Il-Kook;Kim, Jong-Sun;Koo, Kyo-Soung;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Park, Chan-Woo;Yang, Hee-Moon;Park, Dae-Sik
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.188-191
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    • 2018
  • To know if deforestation practice affects the distribution and abundance of herpetofauna in Mt. Gariwang, South Korea, we conducted field surveys over 12 times both at deforested (n=9 sites) and un-touched (control, n=12 sites) forest areas from March to October, 2017. Each survey site was approximately $100m\;long{\times}20m$ wide area, which in the middle of the site, mountain road presented. During each survey, we recorded the species and the number of amphibians and reptiles which identified. To compare environments between the two areas, we analyzed eight environmental variables, extracted from digital sources. Overall, we found one amphibian and four reptile species at deforested area, while each five amphibian and reptile species at un-touched area. The number of amphibian species significantly tended to be smaller at deforested area. The number of the survey sites where amphibians found and the number of amphibian individuals showed the same trend. For reptiles, although the number of reptile individuals showed some increases, all variables investigated were not significantly changed by deforestation practice. Our results imply that deforestation practice negatively affects amphibians, but effects of that on reptiles are not evident.

Comparison of Health Status of Japanese Tree Frog (Hyla Japonica) in a Rural and an Urban Area (농촌과 도시 지역에 서식하는 청개구리 (Hyla japonica)의 건강도 비교)

  • Park, So Hyun;Cho, Kang-Hyun
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.71-74
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    • 2017
  • Urbanization is a major driver of global amphibian declines. For the study on the effect of urbanization on amphibians, we compared the growth and the health status of Hyla japonica amphibians collected in the urban areas of Incheon and in the rural area of Gapyeong, Korea. The size and weight of Hyla japonica body in the urban area were smaller than those in the rural area. However, there was no significant difference in their condition factors as a health indicator between the two areas. Our study emphasizes the need for research into the specific mechanism of effects of urbanization on amphibian heath status for the further understanding of the relationship between urbanization and amphibians.