• Title, Summary, Keyword: anchovy sauce

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Effect of NaCl on Hydrolytic Activity of Leucine Aminopeptidase from Bacillus sp. N2 (Bacillus sp. N2 유래 leucine aminopeptidase의 가수분해활성에 대한 NaCl의 영향)

  • Chung, Dong-Min;Lee, Gang-Deog;Chun, Sung-Sick;Chung, Young-Chul;Chun, Hyo-Kon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.761-765
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    • 2011
  • Salt stability of enzymes is a crucial practical factor in the food industry. Previously, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) was purified from Bacillus sp. N2. Here, we present the salt effect of LAP using synthetic substrates. LAP had a hydrolytic activity for L-leucine-${\rho}$-nitroanilide in high concentrations of NaCl (up to 4 M), but not for other neutral salts (LiBr, LiCl, NaBr, KBr, and KCl). It hydrolyzed various synthetic di-peptide substrates with hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids at the C-terminal Xaa region, in the presence of 0-4 M NaCl. The result indicated that the hydrolytic action of LAP is not dependent on the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain at the scissile bond of the substrate. Remarkably, the hydrolytic activity of LAP was 1-3 folds higher than those of other LAPs and aminopeptidases in 4.5 M NaCl, suggesting that NaCl-tolerant LAP might be used in the food industry as cheese and anchovy sauce.

Preparation of Natural Seasoning using Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Byproducts of Alaska Pollock Theragra chalcogramma and Sea Tangle Laminaria japonica (명태(Theragra chalcogramma) 및 다시마(Laminaria japonica) 부산물 유래 효소 가수분해물을 이용한 천연 풍미 소재의 제조)

  • Kim, Jeong Gyun;Noh, Yuni;Park, Kwon Hyun;Lee, Ji Sun;Kim, Hyeon Jeong;Kim, Min Ji;Yoon, Moo Ho;Kim, Jin-Soo;Heu, Min Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.545-552
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    • 2012
  • This study developed a natural seasoning (NS) and characterized its food components. Hydrolysate from Alaska Pollock Theragra chalcogramma heads and sea tangle Laminaria japonica byproduct were obtained by incubating them with Neutrase for 4 h. NS was prepared by mixing sorbitol 2%, salt 2%, ginger powder 0.04%, garlic powder 0.2%, onion powder 0.2% and inosine monophosphate (IMP) 0.1% based on concentrated hydrolysates from Alaska pollock head and sea tangle byproduct before vaccum filtering. The proximate composition of NS was 82.7% moisture, 9.0% crude protein, and 5.1% ash. It had a higher crude protein content than commercial anchovy sauce (CS), it was lower in moisture and ash. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity of NS were 90.1% and 88.9%, respectively, which were superior to those of CS. The free amino acid content and total taste value of NS were 1,626.0 mg/100 mL and 165.86, respectively, which were higher than those of CS. According to the results of taste value, the major free amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid. In the sensory evaluation, the color and taste of NS were superior to those of CS. No difference in fish odor between NS and CS was found.

Evaluation of Biogenic Amines in Korean Commercial Fermented Foods (국내 유통 발효식품 중 biogenic amines 함량 분석)

  • Han, Gyu-Hong;Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo;Son, Yeong-Wook;Jang, Mi-Ran;Lee, Chang-Hee;Kim, So-Hee;Kim, Dae-Byoung;Kim, Seon-Bong;Cho, Tae-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.730-737
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    • 2006
  • High performance liquid chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of 12 biogenic amines were developed and contents of biogenic amines in 23 varieties of Korean commercial fermented food were analyzed. Dansyl derivatives of biogenic amine were very stable and had good peak resolution. Except agmatine, the recovery of biogenic amines from soybean paste with extraction of 0.1 N HC1 added biogenic amines to soybean paste was greater 85%. The calibration curve showed good linearity over a concentration range up to 50 ${\mu}g/mL$. In the determination of biogenic amine level in Korean commercial fermented foods, doenjang and chungkukjang (fermented soybean pastes), soy sauce, anchovy and pacific sand lance liquid jeotkal (fermented fish sauce products), and cabbage kimchi had high level biogenic amines. Especially, traditional doenjang had a histamine (HIS) level of 952.0 mg/kg, a tyramine (TYR) level of 1,430.7 mg/kg. Most cheese had low level of biogenic amines, but one Gouda cheese had a tyramine (TYR) level of 97.5 mg/kg. A low level of biogenic amines was detected in wines, beer, yoghurt, and sausage. Putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), tryptamine (TRY), histamine (HIS), tyramine (TYR), and 2-phenylethylamine (PHE) were mainly formed in fermented foods by the action of microorganism, so their levels were high with a range. On the other hand, spermidine (SPD), spermine(SPM), serotonin (SER), noradrenaline (NOR), and dopamine (DOP) were formed originally via biosynthesis with consequent low level.

Vitamin $B_{12}$ Contents in Some Korean Fermented Foods and Edible Seaweeds (한국의 장류, 김치 및 식용 해조류를 중심으로 하는 일부 상용 식품의 비타민 $B_{12}$ 함량 분석 연구)

  • Kwak, Chung-Shil;Hwang, Jin-Yong;Watanabe, Fumio;Park, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.439-447
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    • 2008
  • There is a limitation to estimate vitamin $B_{12}$ intake due to lack of data on vitamin $B_{12}$ content in many Korean foods. In this study, vitamin $B_{12}$ content was determined in some soybean or vegetable-fermented foods, edible seaweeds and other frequently consumed foods in Korea by microbioassay using Lactobacillus delbruecki ATCC 7830. The traditional type of Doenjang and Chungkookjang contained 1.85 ${\mu}g/100$ g and 0.69 ${\mu}g/100$ g of vitamin $B_{12}$, respectively, while the factory-type of Doenjang and Chungkookjang contained 0.04-0.86 ${\mu}g/100$ g and 0.06-0.15 ${\mu}g/100$ g. Vitamin $B_{12}$ was not detected in steamed soybeans and Tofu which is a not-fermented soybean product, indicating that vitamin $B_{12}$ in Doenjang and Chungkookjang might be produced during the fermentation process. The Korean-style soy sauce contained 0.04 ${\mu}g$ vitamin $B_{12}$/100 mL, but vitamin $B_{12}$ was not detected in Japanese-style soy sauce and white miso. Commercial Kimchi, a representative Korean vegetable- fermented food, made of Korean cabbage, Yeolmu, or Mustard leaves contained 0.013-0.03 ${\mu}g$ vitamin $B_{12}$/100 g, while Kimchi without red pepper and fermented fish sauce (White Kimchi) did not. Vitamin $B_{12}$ content was very high in some edible seaweeds such as laver (66.76 ${\mu}g/100$ g dry weight) and sea lettuce (84.74 ${\mu}g/100$ g dry weight), and it was 17.12 ${\mu}g/100$ g of dried small anchovy, 1.07 ${\mu}g/100$ g of whole egg, and 0.02 ${\mu}g/100$ g of coffee mix. From these results, it is assumed that Koreans take substantial amount of vitamin $B_{12}$ from plant-origin foods. And, with these data, we will be able to calculate dietary vitamin $B_{12}$ content more correctly than before. In conclusion, soybean-fermented foods, Kimchi, laver and sea lettuce are recommendable as good sources of vitamin $B_{12}$ for vegetarians or Korean elderly on grain and vegetable based diet.

THE TASTE COMPOUNDS FERMENTED ACETES CHINENSIS (새우젓의 정미성분에 관한 연구)

  • CHUNG Seung-Yong;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.79-110
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    • 1976
  • In Korea fermented fish and shellfish have traditionally been favored and consumed as seasonings or further processed for fish sauce. Three major items in production quantity among more than thirty kinds which are presently available in the market are fermented anchovy, oyster and small shrimp. They are usually used as a seasoning mixture of Kimchi in order to provide a distinctive flavor. Fermented small shrimp, Acetes chinensis is most widely and largely used ana occupies an important position in food industry of this country. But no study on its taste compounds has been reported. This study was attempted to establish the basic data for evaluating taste compounds of fermented small shrimp. The changes of such compounds during fermentation as free amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds, TMAO, TMA, and betaine were analysed. In addition, change in microflora during the fermentation under the halophilic circumstance was also investigated. The samples were prepared with three different salt contents of 20, 30 and $40\%$ to obtain the proper degree of fermentation at a controlled tempeature of $20{\pm}2^{\circ}C$. The results are summarized as follows: Volatile basic nitrogen increased rapidly until 108 days of fermentation and afterwards it tended to increase slowly. Amino nitrogen also increased rapidly until 43 days of fermentation and then increased slowly. Extract nitrogen increased and marked the maximum value at 72 day fermentation and then decreased slowly. ADP, AMP and IMP tended to degrade rapidly while hypoxanthine increased remarkably at 27 day fermentation but slightly decreased at 72 day fermentation. It is presumed that the characteristic flavor of fermented small shrimp might be attributed to the relatively higher content of hypoxanthine. In the free amino acid composition of fresh small shrimp abundant amino acids were proline, arginine, alanine, glycine, lysine, glutamic acid, leucine, valine and threonine in order. Such amino acids like serine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, tyrosine and histidine were poor. In small shrimp extract, proline, arginine, alanine, glycine, lysine and glutamic acid were dominant holding $18.5\%,\;14.6\%,\;10.8\%,\;8.7\%,\;8.1\%\;and\;7.7\%$ of total free amino acids respectively. The total free amino acid nitrogen in fresh small shrimp was $63.9\%$ of its extract nitrogen. The change of free amino acid composition in the extract of small shrimp during fermentation was not observed. Lysine, alanine glutamic acid, proline, glycine and leucine were abundant in both fresh sample and fermented products. The increase of total free amino acids during 72 day fermentation reached approximately more than 2 times as compared with that of fresh sample and then decreased slowly. Fermented small shrimp with $40\%$ of salt was too salty to be commercial quality as the results of organoleptic test showed. It is found that 72 day fermentation with $20\%\;and\;30\%$ of salt gave the most favorable flavor. It is convinced that the characteristic flavor of fermented small shrimp was also attributed to such amino acids as lysine, proline, alanine, glycine and serine known as sweet compounds, as glutamic acid with meaty taste, and as leucine known as bitter taste. The amount of betaine increased during fermentation and reached the maximum at 72 day fermentation and then decreased slowly TMA increased while TMAO decreased during fermentation. The amount of TMAO nitrogen in fermented small shrimp was $200mg\%$ on moisture and salt free base. Betaine and TMAO known as sweet compounds were abundant in fermented small shrimp. It is supposed that these compounds could also play a role as important taste compounds of fermented small shrimp. At the initial stage of fermentation, Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus denitrificans which belong to marine bacteria were isolated. After 40 day fermentation, they disappeared rapidly while Halabacterium, Pediococcus, Sarcian, Micrococcus morrhuae and the yeasts such as Saccharomyces sp. and Torulopsis sp. dominated. It is concluded that the most important taste compounds of fermented small shrimp were amino acids such as lysine, proline, alanine, glycine, serine, glutamic acid, and leucine, betaine, TMAO and hypoxanthine.

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Extractive Nitrogenous Constituents in Commercial Tohajeot, a Salted and Fermented Freshwater Shrimp (Caridina denticulata denticulata), and their Quality Index (시판(市販) 토하(土蝦)젓의 함질소(含窒素) 엑스성분(成分) 조성(組成) 및 품질지표(品質指標)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Choon-Kyu;Park, Jung-Nim
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.230-239
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    • 1997
  • In order to investigate the composition and the actual condition of extractive nitrogenous constituents in Tohajeot (a salted and fermented freshwater shrimp, Caridina denticulata denticulata) and in seasoned Tohajeot which were sold in the markets, the extract was analyzed separately into extractive nitrogen, free amino acids, oligopeptides, nucleotides and related compounds, quaternary ammonium bases, and guanidino compounds, using specimens collected at the fish markets of Yosu and Naju cities in 1994 and 1995. The salinity of Tohajeot was very high $(23.6{\sim}25.1)%$, but seasoned Tohajeot was relatively low $(8.4{\sim}11.4%)$. The extractive nitrogen in the extracts of Tohajeot and seasoned Tohajeot was $311{\sim}531\;mg\;and\;256{\sim}429\;mg$, and the total of free amino acids in them were $1,159{\sim}2,584\;mg\;and\;1,012{\sim}1,672\;mg$ respectively. Glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, histidine, alanine, ornithine, and tyrosine were the major amino acids in Tohajeot extract, and glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, aspartic acid, histidine, leucine and alanine were the main amino acids in seasoned Tohajeot. As for nucleotides and related compounds in them were $2.64{\sim}4.82\;{\mu}mol\;and\;1.08{\sim}1.93\;{\mu}mol$ respectively. Homarine, trigonelline, glycinebetaine and ${\beta}-alaninebetaine$ were detected in them. Homarine was the most abundant, ranging from 18 mg to 86 mg, but the others were very low. The content of major nitrogenous constituents in Tohajeot extract, such as extractive nitrogen, free amino acids, oligopeptides, nucleotides and related compounds, and betaines, was more abundant than that in seasoned Tohajeot extract. But the nitrogenous constituents of Tohajeot extract were poorer than those of anchovy sauce which was sold in the markets. Possibly, the extractive nitrogenous components, which consisted of total betains, total free amino acids, and phenylalanine might be recommended as the quality indices of standardizing Tohajeot and seasoned Tohajeot.

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A Study on Food Frequency, Dietary Habits and Nutrition Knowledge of the Elderly Who Intake High Sodium (고 나트륨 섭취 노인의 영양지식, 식습관 및 식품섭취패턴)

  • Jang, Ja-Young;Kim, Mi-Jeong;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.1362-1372
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to broadly profile the dietary pattern of elderly who consumed a higher amount of sodium compared to lesser sodium consumers. Na index 14, an instant food frequency questionnaire (IFFQ) of 40 items characterizing a high amount of sodium and a food frequency questionnaire of 63 food items that were used in nationwide surveys were adopted for the assessment of dietary characteristics of the subjects. The Na index 14 consisted of food items such as kimchi stew, bean paste stew, cooked spinach dish, seaweed soup, fish stew, roasted anchovy, and seasoned vegetables. Also, the survey constructs included nutritional knowledge and anthropometric measurements of the subjects. Out a total of 135 participants, 58 elderly were determined as the high sodium intake group (HSIG) and the other 77 were the control group, via a formerly validated Na index and sodium-associated dietary habits scale (SDH). Dietary habits of "add salt or soy sauce to foods", "drink up the broth of soups and stews", and "brined fishes and vegetables daily" were among the most significant differences between HSIG and control group in SDH assessment. In addition, the HSIG were less likely to have regular meals, adequate amount of meals, and nutritionally balanced meals than the control, with the differences manifesting more in females than males. Additional findings included that the HSIG possessed a poorer nutritional knowledge and obtained much higher scores on the IFFQ. Taken together, the study urges the needs of nutrition education for the elderly who habitually salt their foods and maintain a less desirable dietary style.

A Study on the Children's Eating Habits and Food Preference according to Their Parents' Economic Status (II) - Seoul & Gyeonggi (Incheon) Area - (부모의 경제수준에 따른 자녀의 식품기호도에 관한 연구 (II) -주식과 부식에 대하여, 서울.경기 (인천)지역을 중심으로-)

  • Chung, Hea-Jung;Eum, Yun-Ho
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the main and side dish preference of food with 681 children (145 of kindergarten, 300 of children, 236 of adolescences) in Seoul and Gyeonggi area using questionnaires. Regarding preference of the staple foods, it was shown that all group had the highest preferences for boiled rice, The kindergarten period prefer Jajangmyen the most, children and adolescences like spaghetti (p<0.05). For breads, the kindergarten preferred cakes the most, the middle years and the adolescences preferred pizza. Regarding preference of soups, it represents the kindergarten liked seaweed soup, the children and adolescences liked sollongt'ang (p<0.05). For pot stew, the kindergarten preferred bean-paste pot stew the most, the children with parents' income level less than 4 million won preferred Kim-chi stew, the middle years with parents' income level equal or greater than 4 million won preferred beanpaste pot stew and all adolescences preferred Kim-chi pot stew (p<0.05). Stewed beef with soy sauce was preferred the most by all ages. For pan-fried foods, the kindergarten with parents' income level less than 4 million won preferred pan-fried spicy port the most, the kindergarten with parents' income level equal or greater than 4 million won preferred pan-fried anchovy the middle years preferred pan-fried spicy pork, the adolescences with parents' income level less than 4 million won preferred pan fried Kim-chi the most (p<0.05). And for vegetable dish, all age groups preferred seasoned bean sprouts and Chinese cabbage Kim-chi the most which they can easily see on their tables.