• Title, Summary, Keyword: animal model

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Atlantoaxial Mobility in Normal Small Breeds of Dogs

  • Kang, Hye-Won;Lee, Hae-Beom;Heo, Su-Young;Ko, Jae-Jin;Woo, Jung-Nam;Kim, Se-Hun;Kang, Hyung-Sub;Kim, In-Shik;Kim, Nam-Soo;Kim, Min-Su;Lee, Ki-Chang
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics Conference
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    • pp.114-114
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    • 2008
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G protein-coupled receptors in stem cell maintenance and somatic reprogramming to pluripotent or cancer stem cells

  • Choi, Hye Yeon;Saha, Subbroto Kumar;Kim, Kyeongseok;Kim, Sangsu;Yang, Gwang-Mo;Kim, BongWoo;Kim, Jin-Hoi;Cho, Ssang-Goo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.68-80
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    • 2015
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large class of transmembrane receptors categorized into five distinct families: rhodopsin, secretin, adhesion, glutamate, and frizzled. They bind and regulate 80% of all hormones and account for 20-50% of the pharmaceuticals currently on the market. Hundreds of GPCRs integrate and coordinate the functions of individual cells, mediating signaling between various organs. GPCRs are crucial players in tumor progression, adipogenesis, and inflammation. Several studies have also confirmed their central roles in embryonic development and stem cell maintenance. Recently, GPCRs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, migration, and self-renewal in pluripotent (PSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our study and other reports have revealed that the expression of many GPCRs is modulated during the generation of induced PSCs (iPSCs) or CSCs as well as during CSC sphere formation. These GPCRs may have crucial roles in the regulation of self-renewal and other biological properties of iPSCs and CSCs. This review addresses the current understanding of the role of GPCRs in stem cell maintenance and somatic reprogramming to PSCs or CSCs.

Seasonal Grouping in Year-Season Animal Model Evaluation of Sahiwal Cattle

  • Khan, M.S.;Ali, A.;Ali, S.;Saleem, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.75-78
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    • 1997
  • Season is very important as it defines the contemporaries for sire and cow evaluation. An attempt is made for defining season for animal model evaluation of Sahiwal animals, using 1,227 records from 730 cows. Cows were required to have a lactation length of 305-days. Ten different combinations of months for two, four, five or other seasons were tried. The other fixed effect in the model was age defined within parity. The random effects were permanent environment and animal's breeeding value along with the residual effects. A single trait animal model was used where all known relationships of an animal were incorporated in a relationship matrix. The error variance from the fitted model decreased as the number of year-season combinations increased, indicating a month-year model to be more appropriate. This, on the other hand, decreased the number of contemporaries for certain subclasses to a minimum of one, making the bull comparisons invalid. Use of a two season scenario, with winter (November through February) and summer (March through October) was better than the other combinations in terms of error variance of the fitted model and the number of lactations represented in any year-season subclass.

Genetic correlation between live body measurements and beef cutability traits in Hanwoo steers

  • Choy, Yun Ho;Lee, Jae Goo;Mahboob, Alam;Choi, Tae Jeong;Rho, Seung Hee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1074-1080
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The growth, carcass and retail cut yield records on 1,428 Hanwoo steers obtained through progeny testing were analyzed in this study, and their heritability and genetic relationships among the traits were estimated using animal models. Methods: Two different models were compared in this study. Each model was fitted for different fixed class effects, date of slaughter for carcass traits and batch of progeny test live measurement traits, and a choice of covariates (carcass weight in Model 1 or backfat thickness in Model 2) for carcass traits. Results: The differences in body composition among individuals were deemed being unaffected by their age at slaughter, except for carcass weight and backfat thickness. Heritability estimates of body size measurements were 0.21 to 0.36. Heritability estimates of retail cut percentage were high (0.56 from Model 1 and 0.47 from Model 2). And the heritability estimates for loin muscle percentage were 0.36 from Model 1 and 0.42 from Model 2, which were high enough to consider direct selection on carcass cutability traits as effective. The genetic correlations between body size measurements and retail cut ratio (RCR) were close to zero. But, some negative genetic correlations were found with chest girths measured at yearling (Model 1) or at 24 months of age or with chest widths. Loin muscle ratio (LMR) was genetically negatively correlated with body weights or body size measurements, in general in Model 1. These relationships were low close to zero but positive in Model 2. Phenotypic correlation between cutability traits (RCR, LMR) and live body size measurements were moderate and negative in Model 1 while those in Model 2 were all close to zero. Conclusion: Therefore, the body weights or linear body measurements at an earlier age may not be the most desirable selection traits for exploitation of correlated responses to improve loin muscle or lean meat yield.

Definition of Season in Animal Model Evaluation of NiIi-Ravi Buffaloes

  • Khan, M.S.;Bhatti, S.A.;Asghar, A.A.;Chaudhary, M.A.;Bilal, M.Q.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.70-74
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    • 1997
  • Data on 2,571 lactation records of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds and four field recording centers were analyzed under an animal model to see the effect of season definition on the error variance of the fitted model. Herd-year-season(HYS) was the main fixed effect along with permanent environment, breeding value and residuals as the random effects. All known relationships among the animals were considered. The error variance differed for various HYS combinations. It was minimum when then months were not grouped into seasons. The four or Five season scenarios were better than the two season scenarios. The average number of lactations represented in a HYS combination varied widely from 6 to 28. Very few subclasses for a given HYS combination warrants the use of fewer seasons for animal model evaluation of buffaloes.

Development of Algorithm in Analysis of Single Trait Animal Model for Genetic Evaluation of Hanwoo (단형질 개체모형을 이용한 한우 육종가 추정프로그램 개발)

  • Koo, Yangmo;Kim, Jungil;Song, Chieun;Lee, Kihwan;Shin, Jaeyoung;Jang, Hyungi;Choi, Taejeong;Kim, Sidong;Park, Byoungho;Cho, Kwanghyun;Lee, Seungsoo;Choy, Yunho;Kim, Byeongwoo;Lee, Junggyu;Song, Hoon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2013
  • Estimate breeding value can be used as single trait animal model was developed directly using the Fortran language program. The program is based on data computed by using the indirect method repeatedly. The program develops a common algorithm and imprves efficiency. Algorithm efficiency was compared between the two programs. Estimated using the solution is easy to farm and brand the service, pedigree data base was associated with the development of an improved system. The existing program that uses the single trait animal model and the comparative analysis of efficiency is weak because the estimation of the solution and the conventional algorithm programmed through regular formulation involve many repetition; therefore, the newly developed algorithm was conducted to improve speed by reducing the repetition. Single trait animal model was used to analyze Gauss-Seidel iteration method, and the aforesaid two algorithms were compared thorough the mixed model equation which is used the most commonly in estimating the current breeding value by applying the procedures such as the preparation of information necessary for modelling, removal of duplicative data, verifying the parent information of based population in the pedigree data, and assigning sequential numbers, etc. The existing conventional algorithm is the method for reading and recording the data by utilizing the successive repetitive sentences, while new algorithm is the method for directly generating the left hand side for estimation based on effect. Two programs were developed to ensure the accurate evaluation. BLUPF90 and MTDFREML were compared using the estimated solution. In relation to the pearson and spearman correlation, the estimated breeding value correlation coefficients were highest among all traits over 99.5%. Depending on the breeding value of the high correlation in Model I and Model II, accurate evaluation can be found. The number of iteration to convergence was 2,568 in Model I and 1,038 in Model II. The speed of solving was 256.008 seconds in Model I and 235.729 seconds in Model II. Model II had a speed of approximately 10% more than Model I. Therefore, it is considered to be much more effective to analyze large data through the improved algorithm than the existing method. If the corresponding program is systemized and utilized for the consulting of farm and industrial services, it would make contribution to the early selection of individual, shorten the generation, and cultivation of superior groups, and help develop the Hanwoo industry further through the improvement of breeding value based enhancement, ultimately paving the way for the country to evolve into an advanced livestock country.

Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Model for Dairy Cattle Production Systems Integrated with Forage Crop Production

  • Kikuhara, K.;Kumagai, H.;Hirooka, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.57-71
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    • 2009
  • Crop-livestock mixed farming systems depend on the efficiency with which nutrients are conserved and recycled. Home-grown forage is used as animal feed and animal excretions are applied to cultivated crop lands as manure. The objective of this study was to develop a mixed farming system model for dairy cattle in Japan. The model consisted of four sub-models: the nutrient requirement model, based on the Japanese Feeding Standards to determine requirements for energy, crude protein, dry matter intake, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A; the optimum diet formulation model for determining the optimum diets that satisfy nutrient requirements at lowest cost, using linear programming; the herd dynamic model to calculate the numbers of cows in each reproductive cycle; and the whole farm optimization model to evaluate whole farm management from economic and environmental viewpoints and to optimize strategies for the target farm or system. To examine the model' validity, its predictions were compared against best practices for dairy farm management. Sensitivity analyses indicated that higher yielding cows lead to better economic results but higher emvironmental load in dairy cattle systems integrated with forage crop production.

Social genetic effects on days to 90 kg in Duroc and Yorkshire pigs

  • Kim, Yong-Min;Cho, Eun-Seok;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Sa, Soo-Jin;Jeong, Yong-Dae;Woo, Jae-Seok;Lee, Il-Joo;Hong, Joon-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.595-602
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    • 2016
  • In pigs, individuals in the same pen may show aggressive behavior toward each other, such as tail biting. Such social interactions among pen mates may considerably affect their welfare and performance, both in negative and positive ways. The present study was conducted to investigate social genetic effects on days to 90 kg using data from 12,208 Duroc and Yorkshire pigs that were born between 2008 and 2012. Heritability was estimated using the five following animal models: a basic model with direct heritable effects only (Model 1), a social model with direct and social heritable effects (Model 2), a model accounting for covariance between direct and social heritable effects (Model 3), and two models considering a dilution factor with direct and social heritable effects (Models 4 and 5). The optimal model to represent Duroc pigs was Model 1 which only uses direct heritable effects. Direct heritability (0.21) was higher than total heritability (0.09) and covariance was negative. Model 2 was evaluated as the optimum model for Yorkshire pigs. Yorkshire data showed that total heritability (0.5) was twice as high as direct heritability (0.25) and covariance was positive. Our results suggest that the efficiency of social effects differed among breeding lines. Further research on social effects related to breeds by group size would clarify which is the most efficient selection method that accounts for social genetic effects.