• Title, Summary, Keyword: anthropogenic

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Soil Classification of Anthropogenic Soils in a Remodeled Area Using Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base for Soil Resources

  • Lee, Seung-Been;Chun, Hyen-Chung;Cho, Hyun-Jun;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Song, Kwan-Cheol;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Park, Chan-Won
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.536-541
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    • 2013
  • In Soil Taxonomy system, anthropogenic soils are still classified as Entisols since the International Classification Committee for Anthropogenic Soils is in the process of classifying anthropogenic soils as new orders. In reality, it is difficult to characterize anthropogenic soils because Soil Taxonomy (ST) system does not distinguish between natural and anthropogenic Entisols. On the other hand, World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) considers human impacts on soils and contains an independent category of anthropogenic soils, which makes easier to understand anthropogenic soil characteristics than Soil Taxonomy system. A remodeled paddy field (Gasan) was selected to classify by ST and WRB. Soil samples were taken to analyze chemical and physical properties. Based on the results of the analyses, the ST system classified Gasan as coarse loamy, mixed, mesic, Aquic Udorthents while the WRB did as Stagnic Urbic Technosols (Oxyaquic, Arenic). As a conclusion, the WRB classification information of the anthropogenic provides more detail characteristics of the anthropogenic soils.

Comparison of Soil Pore Properties between Anthropogenic and Natural Paddy Field Soils From Computed Tomographic Images

  • Chun, Hyen Chung;Jung, Ki-Yuol;Choi, Young Dae;Jo, Su-min;Lee, Sanghun;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Shin, Kooksik;Sonn, Yeonkyu;Kang, Hang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.351-360
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    • 2015
  • Human influence on soil formation has dramatically increased with human civilization and industry development. Increase of anthropogenic soils induced researches on the anthropogenic soils; classification, chemical and physical characteristics of anthropogenic soils and plant growth from anthropogenic soils. However there have been no comprehensive analyses on soil pore or physical properties of anthropogenic soils from 3 dimensional images in Korea. The objectives of this study were to characterize physical properties of anthropogenic paddy field soils by depth and to find differences between natural and anthropogenic paddy field soils. Soil samples were taken from two anthropogenic and natural paddy field soils; anthropogenic (A_c) and natural (N_c) paddy soils with topsoil of coarse texture and anthropogenic (A_f) and natural (N_f) paddy soils with topsoil of fine texture. The anthropogenic paddy fields were reestablished during the Arable Land Remodeling Project from 2011 to 2012 and continued rice farming after the project. Natural paddy fields had no artificial changes or disturbance in soil layers up to 1m depth. Samples were taken at three different depths and analyzed for routine physical properties (texture, bulk density, etc.) and pore properties with computer tomography (CT) scans. The CT scan provided 3 dimensional images at resolution of 0.01 mm to calculate pore radius size, length, and tortuosity of soil pores. Fractal and configuration entropy analyses were applied to quantify pore structure and analyze spatial distribution of pores within soil images. The results of measured physical properties showed no clear trend or significant differences across depths or sites from all samples, except the properties from topsoils. The results of pore morphology and spatial distribution analyses provided detailed information of pores affected by human influences. Pore length and size showed significant decrease in anthropogenic soils. Especially, pores of A_c had great decrease in length compared to N_c. Fractal and entropy analyses showed clear changes of pore distributions across sites. The topsoil layer of A_c showed more degradation of pore structure than that of N_c, while pores of A_f topsoil did not show significant degradation compared with those of N_f. These results concluded that anthropogenic soils with coarse texture may have more effects on pore properties than ones with fine texture. The reestablished paddy fields may need more fundamental remediation to improve physical conditions.

Computer Tomography as a Tool for Physical Analysis in an Anthropogenic Soil

  • Chun, Hyen Chung;Park, Chan Won;Sonn, Yeon Kyu;Cho, Hyun Joon;Hyun, Byung Keun;Song, Kwan Cheol;Zhang, Yong Seon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.549-555
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    • 2013
  • Human influence on soil formation has dramatically increased as the development of human civilization and industry. Increase of anthropogenic soils induced research of those soils; classification, chemical and physical characteristics and plant growth of anthropogenic soils. However there have been no reports on soil pore properties from the anthropogenic soils so far. Therefore the objectives of this study were to test computer tomography (CT) to characterize physical properties of an anthropogenic paddy field soil and to find differences between natural and anthropogenic paddy field soils. Soil samples of a natural paddy field were taken from Ansung, Gyeonggi-do (Ansung site), and samples of an anthropogenic paddy field were from Gumi in Gyeongsangnam-do (Gasan) where paddy fields were remodeled in 2011-2012. Samples were taken at three different depths and analyzed for routine physical properties and CT scans. CT scan provided 3 dimensional images to calculate pore size, length and tortuosity of soil pores. Fractal analysis was applied to quantify pore structure within soil images. The results of measured physical properties (bulk density, porosity) did not show differences across depths and sites, but hardness and water content had differences. These differences repeated within the results of pore morphology. Top soil samples from both sites had greater pore numbers and sizes than others. Fractal analyses showed that top soils had more heterogeneous pore structures than others. The bottom layer of the Gasan site showed more degradation of pore properties than ploughpan and bottom layers from the Ansung site. These results concluded that anthropogenic soils may have more degraded pore properties as depth increases. The remodeled paddy fields may need more fundamental remediation to improve physical conditions. This study suggests that pore analyses using CT can provide important information of physical conditions from anthropogenic soils.

Characteristics of Anthropogenic Soil Formed from Paddy near the River

  • Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Kim, Keun-Tae;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.434-439
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    • 2016
  • Anthropogenic soil in cropland is formed in the process of subsoil reversal and the refill of soil into cropland. However, there was little information on the chemical properties within soil profiles in anthropogenic soil under rice paddy near the river. In this study, we investigated the chemical properties within soil profiles in the anthropogenic soil located at 4 sites in Gumi, Kimhae, Chungju, and Euiseong to compare with the natural paddy soil near the river. Among particle sizes, the sand content decreased under soil profiles but the silt and clay contents increased compared to the natural paddy soil in soil profiles. Organic matter content in topsoil of anthropogenic soil was lower than in that of natural soil, which was shown the contrary tendency within soil profiles. Also, the soil pH, available $P_2O_5$, and exchangeable cations were higher in anthropogenic soil compared to natural paddy soil at topsoil, which was maintained these tendency into soil depth. Nutrients may be equally distributed in anthropogenic soil during the process of refill in paddy soil near the river. This results indicated that anthropogenic soil would contribute to carbon sequestration, the mitigation of compaction, and reduction of fertilizer application in paddy soil. Therefore, characteristics of anthropogenic soil can be used for the soil management in cropland.

Study on Estimation of Urban Anthropogenic Heat Generation (도시의 인공열 산정에 관한 연구)

  • 손은하;김유근;홍정혜
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2000
  • The Urban thermal environment is influenced and modified in many ways. One modification is brought by the anthropogenic heat generation emitted from the combustion processes and the use of energy such as industrial, domestic and traffic procedure. The anthropogenic heat generation affect an the increase of urban temperature, the well-known urban heat islands. The study on the urban thermal environment needs a great deal of the statistic data about the inner-structure of urban, the contribution of different constructions and the traffic amount on urban thermal environment in finite region. In order to overtake a quantitative analysis of effect of the anthropogenic heat, a distribution map of the urban anthropogenic heat was made using hte data of the energy consumption used at the several constructions and traffic amount of vehicles in Pusan Metropolitan. Annual mean heat flux over the 4$\textrm{km}^2$ urbanized area in Pusan is 41.5W/$m^2$, ranging from 31.4W/$m^2$ in summertime to 59.5W/$m^2$ in wintertime and maximum diurnal anthropogenic heat generation is corresponding to 10% of irradiance during summertime.

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Estimation of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Anthropogenic Heat in Daegu (대구지역 인공열의 시공간적 분포 추정에 관한 연구)

  • 안지숙;김해동;홍정혜
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.1045-1054
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    • 2002
  • Urban atmospheric conditions are usually settled as warmer, drier and dirtier than those of rural counterpart owing to reduction of green space and water space area heat retention in surfaces such as concrete and asphalt, and abundant fuel consumption. The characteristics of urban climate has become generally known as urban heat island. The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of the heat emission from human activity, which is a main factor causing urban heat island. In this study, the anthropogenic heat fluxes emitted from vehicles and constructions are estimated by computational grid mesh which is divided by 1km $\times$ 1km. The anthropogenic heat flux by grid mesh can be applied to a numerical simulation model of the local circulation model. The constructions are classified into 9 energy-consumption types - hospital, hotel, office, department store, commercial store, school, factory, detached house and flat. The vehicles classified into 4 energy-consumption types - car, taxi, truck and bus. The seasonal mean of anthropogenic heat flux around central Daegu exceeded $50 W/m^2$ in winter. The annual mean anthropogenic heat flux exceeded $20 W/m^2$. The values are nearly equivalent to the anthropogenic heat flux in the suburbs of Tokyo, Japan.

Coral Reefs in Indonesia: A Review on Anthropogenic and Natural Disturbances

  • Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2007
  • Coral reefs are among the most dynamic and various ecosystems on tropical ecosystem. They provide a large number of important ecosystem services. Despite their importance, they appear to be one of the most susceptible marine ecosystems. Dramatic decreasing of coral reefs has been reported from every part of the world. Indonesia contains 18% of coral reefs of world's total. Unfortunately the status of coral reefs in Indonesia is already in critical and poor condition. Coral reefs communities in Indonesia are subjected to a variety of environmental disturbance. Threats to Indonesia's coral reefs resources can be divided into two main types: anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The major anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in Indonesia are destructive fishing, pollution, coastal development, mining and harvesting live fish and coral, tourism. The natural disturbances such as cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami and predator also contribute to coral reefs destruction in Indonesia. In my paper I tried to compare between natural and anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in Indonesia and raised these questions: (i) how the natural disturbances differ from anthropogenic area (ii) which type of disturbances has caused the greatest impact on coral reef ecosystem. My finding is that both of anthropogenic and natural disturbances give major impact on coral reefs in Indonesia. The important issue here is coral reef resilience could be disturbed by synergistic effects between various anthropogenic and natural disturbances. This phenomenon has significant conservation and management implication. The appropriate management should be conducted to protect coral reefs ecosystem in Indonesia. Mangrove management will succeed only when local people are involved and get sustainable benefits from mangrove ecosystem. Community based management and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are type of management that can be applied on coral reef ecosystems in Indonesia.

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Classification of Anthropogenic Soil "Ingwan" Series

  • Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Cho, Hyun-Jun;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Shin, Kook-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.535-541
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    • 2015
  • Korean soil classification system is based on the US soil taxonomy. This study aimed to understand and inform the soil taxonomy of 2010 and 2014 US soil classification systems. Ingwan series belonged to anthropogenic soil was classified to coarse loamy over sandy, mixed, mesic family of Aquic Udorthents based on the soil taxonomy of 2010 and coarse loamy over sandy, mixed, mesic family of Anthroportic Udorthents based on the soil taxonomy of 2014. An anthropogenic soil is increasing in Korea. Considering the domestic relationship depending on US soil taxonomy, it is important to be well-informed of the taxonomy and apply the updated taxonomy system properly to the domestic soil classification. This study of defining the anthropogenic soil will provide useful information on soil management and its utilization.

Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in Boeun Area, Korea

  • Park, Seong-Sook;Yun, Seong-Taek;Kim, Kyoung-Ho;Kweon, Jang-Soon;Sung, Ig-Hwan;Lee, Byeong-Dae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.519-519
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    • 2003
  • We performed a hydrochemical study on a total of 89 bedrock groundwaters collected from preexisting wells (30 to 300 m deep) in the Boeun area. Hydrochemical data showed significant variations in the area, due to varying degrees of anthropogenic pollution. The waters were mostly enriched in Ca and HCO$_3$ but locally contained significant concentrations of anthropogenic constituents in the general order of Cl >NO$_3$>SO$_4$. In particular, about 11% of the examined wells exceeded the drinking water standard with respect to nitrate. We consider that aquifers in the area are locally highly susceptible to the contamination related to agricultural activities. Diagrams showing the relationships between the summation of cations (∑cations) and the concentration of several anions with different origin (natural versus anthropogenic) were used to estimate the relative role of anthropogenic contamination. A good correlation was observed for the relationship between ∑cations and bicarbonate, indicating that water-rock interaction (namely, hydrolysis of silicate minerals) is most important to control the water quality. Thus, we made an assumption that the equivalent of dissolved cations for a water should be equal to the alkalinity, if the chemistry were controlled solely by a set of natural weathering reactions. If we excluded the equivalent quantities of cations and bicarbonate (natural origin) from the acquired data for each sample, the remainder therefore could be considered to reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination. Finally, we performed a multiple regression approach for hydrochemical data using the ∑cations as a dependent variable and the concentration data of each anion (natural or anthropogenic) as an independent variable. Using this approach, we could estimate the relative roles of anthropogenic and natural processes. Rather than the conventional evaluation scheme based on water quality criteria, this approach will be more useful and reasonable for the evaluation of groundwater quality in a specific region and also can be used for planning appropriate protection and remedial actions.

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Pollution of Heavy Metals and Sedimentation Rates in Sediment Cores from the Chinhae Bay, Korea (진해만 퇴적물의 퇴적속도와 중금속 오염)

  • Yang, Han-Soeb;kim, Seong-Soo;Kim, Gue-Buem
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.489-500
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    • 1995
  • In the Chinhae Bay, Korea, sedimentation rates and sedimentary record of anthropogenic metal loads were determined by $^{210}Pb$ dating and heavy metal analysis of four sediment cores . The sedimentation rates varied from 0.16g/$cm^2$/yr(3.1mm/yr) at Sta. Ct, located within narrow waterway to 0.24g/$cm^2$/yr(4.8mm/yr) at Sta. Cl, located in Haengam Bay. Maximum contents of Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr were observed at Sta. C2 located near the mouth of Masan Bay, while minimum contents were observed at Sta. CB. Mn/Fe ratios at Sta. C2 and Sta. C4 showed gradually increasing and decreasing downward, respectively, in the upper layer of sediment cores. This suggests that Mn may be diagenetically redistributed in highly reduced environment. At Sta. C2, the concentrations of Zn and Cu began to increase from 1920s by anthropogenic input and have been remarkablely increasing since mid 1960s. At Sta. C3, located near Sungpo, anthropogenic input of these two elements has also slightly increased after 1970s. However, pollution of these two elements was not significant in Haengam Bay(Sta. Cl) and Chiljun watenway(Sta. C4). The pollution of Co, Ni and Cr was not remarkable in all core samples except surface sediment of Sta. C2. The total input of anthropogenic Zn and Cu since 1920s was estimated to be 28~792 $\mu\textrm{g}$/cm2 and 0~168$\mu\textrm{g}$/cm2, respectively. Sta. C2 showed remarkablely higher values relative to other stations: anthropogenic loads of Zn and Cu constituted 27% and 29% of the total sedimentary inventories at the present day, respectively. Fe, Ni, Cr and Co contents showed good correlation(r>0.8) with each other. Anthropogenic Zn and Cu also showed a very good positive correlation(>0.9). However, correlation between these two group of element was quite scattered, indicating different sources and geochemical behaviors.

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