• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-fibrotic

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Lodoxamide Attenuates Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice: Involvement of GPR35

  • Kim, Mi-Jeong;Park, Soo-Jin;Nam, So-Yeon;Im, Dong-Soon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 2020
  • A previous pharmacogenomic analysis identified cromolyn, an anti-allergic drug, as an effective anti-fibrotic agent that acts on hepatocytes and stellate cells. Furthermore, cromolyn was shown to be a G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) agonist. However, it has not been studied whether anti-fibrotic effects are mediated by GPR35. Therefore, in this study, the role of GPR35 in hepatic fibrosis was investigated through the use of lodoxamide, another anti-allergic drug and a potent GPR35 agonist. Long-term treatment with carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrosis, which was inhibited by treatment with lodoxamide. Furthermore, CID2745687, a specific GPR35 antagonist, reversed lodoxamide-mediated anti-fibrotic effects. In addition, lodoxamide treatment showed significant effects on the mRNA expression of collagen Iα1, collagen Iα2, and TGF-β1 in the extracellular matrix. However, a transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) shedding assay revealed lodoxamide not to be a potent agonist of mouse GPR35 in vitro. Therefore, these results showed anti-fibrotic effects of lodoxamide in mice and raise concerns how lodoxamide protects against liver fibrosis in vivo and whether GPR35 is involved in the action.

Identification of MFGE8 in mesenchymal stem cell secretome as an anti-fibrotic factor in liver fibrosis

  • Jang, Yu Jin;An, Su Yeon;Kim, Jong-Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.58-59
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    • 2017
  • The beneficial paracrine roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue repair have potential in therapeutic strategies against various diseases. However, the key therapeutic factors secreted from MSCs and their exact molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, the cell-free secretome of umbilical cord-derived MSCs showed significant anti-fibrotic activity in the mouse models of liver fibrosis. The involved action mechanism was the regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation by direct inhibition of the $TGF{\beta}$/Smad-signaling. Antagonizing the milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8) activity blocked the anti-fibrotic effects of the MSC secretome in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MFGE8 was secreted by MSCs from the umbilical cord as well as other tissues, including teeth and bone marrow. Administration of recombinant MFGE8 protein alone had a significant anti-fibrotic effect in two different models of liver fibrosis. Additionally, MFGE8 downregulated $TGF{\beta}$ type I receptor expression by binding to ${\alpha}v{\beta}3$ integrin on HSCs. These findings revealed the potential role of MFGE8 in modulating $TGF{\beta}$-signaling. Thus, MFGE8 could serve as a novel therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis.

Kyungheechunggan-tang suppresses inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and LX-2 cells

  • Bae, Junghan;Jang, Eungyeong;Lee, Jang-Hoon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.40-50
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of Kyungheechunggan-tang (KHCGT) on LPS- induced RAW 264.7 cells and LX-2 cells and anti-fibrotic effects of KHCGT on LX-2 cells. Materials and Methods: Three types of KHCGTs (KHCGT-A, -B, and -C) by narrowing down the number of constituent herbs from 9 (KHCGT-A) to 5 (KHCGT-B) and to 3 (KHCGT-C) were developed. To understand pharmacological effects of KHCGT, three types of KHCGTs were treated on RAW 264.7 cells and LX-2 cells. Anti-inflammatory activities of KHCGT were evaluated by ELISA assay for pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-10, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and for IL-6 production in LPS-induced LX-2 cells. In addition, anti-fibrotic effects of KHCGT were determined by quantitative real-time PCR assay for fibrosis-related genes, ${\alpha}-SMA$, collagen1A1, TIMP1, MMP-2, in LX-2 cells. Results: KHCGT-A and KHCGT-C showed inhibitory effects on secretion of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LX-2 cells. KHCGT-B and KHCGT-C exhibited inhibitory effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and IL-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The mRNA expression levels of collagen1A1 and MMP-2 were significantly reduced by KHCGT-C whereas TIMP-1 was suppressed by KHCGT-A and KHCGT-B in LX-2 cells. Among three different formulas, KHCGT-C demonstrated the most remarkable effects on inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions: In this study, KHCGT showed both anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects which make it to be a prospective agent for chronic liver diseases with inflammation and fibrosis.

The Antifibrotic and Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extract of Adventitious Root Culture of Panax ginseng (ARCP)

  • Lim, Hee-Kyoung;Kim, Youn-Woo;Lee, Dae-Ho;Cho, Somi-Kim;Cho, Moon-Jae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2007
  • The anti-fibrotic effects of hot water extract of adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng (ARCP) and the possible mechanisms were investigated on $CCl_4-induced$ hepatotoxicity model mice. Fibrosis was induced by a mild treatment of $CCl_4$. Then silymarin as a positive control drug and ARCP or carrier alone as a negative control were treated. Serum GPT, GOT and ALP activity levels were lowered by 25, 21 and 11% for silymarin treated group and by 48, 39 and 14% for ARCP treated group compared to carrier treated alone. Hepatic collagen for ARCP treatment group was reduced by 18% and MDA contents decreased a little more. Pro-fibrotic gene ($TGF-{\beta}1$, TIMP-1 and ${\alpha}-SMA$) expression increased following the $CCl_4$ treatment, but both the silymarin and the ARCP treatments decreased the expressions of these genes by 20% to 50%. The antioxidant effect of ARCP was studied by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. In addition, a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also reduced in $H_2O_2-treated$ HepG2 cells upon the ARCP treatment. In summary, ARCP has antioxidant property, and can have some protection against oxidative stress; more importantly, ARCP can efficiently protect mice against $CCl_4-induced$ fibrosis.

Anti-fibrotic effects of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid via modulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in rats

  • Kim, In-Hee;Kim, Dae-Ghon;Hao, Peipei;Wang, Yunpeng;Kim, Seong-Hun;Kim, Sang-Wook;Lee, Seung-Ok;Lee, Soo-Teik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.348-353
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    • 2012
  • L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) is a cysteine prodrug that maintains glutathione in tissues. The present study was designed to investigate anti-fibrotic and anti-oxidative effects of OTC via modulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in an in vivo thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis model. Treatment with OTC (80 or 160 mg/kg) improved serum liver function parameters and significantly ameliorated liver fibrosis. The OTC treatment groups exhibited significantly lower expression of ${\alpha}$-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-${\beta}1$, and collagen ${\alpha}1$ mRNA than that in the TAA model group. Furthermore, the OTC treatment groups showed a significant decrease in hepatic malondialdehyde level compared to that in the TAA model group. Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression increased significantly in the OTC treatment groups compared with that in the TAA model group. Taken together, these results suggest that OTC restores the anti-oxidative system by upregulating Nrf2; thus, ameliorating liver injury and a fibrotic reaction.

Effects of Water Extracts of Black Tea on Hepatic Functional Improvement and Anti-fibrosis in Rats (홍차 추출물 급여가 흰쥐의 간 기능 개선 및 항섬유화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated hepatic functional improvement and anti-fibrotic effects of water extracts of black tea. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (normal, control, and two experimental subgroups: Ba, Bb) and observed for 3 weeks. Liver fibrosis in rats developed from carbon tetrachloride ($CCl_4$) administration, except for the normal group. Except for the normal and control group, the two experimental subgroups were fed water extracts of black tea. The food efficiency ratio significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The experimental group had a significantly lower liver weight compared to the control group. The ratio of liver weight to body weight was significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The values of hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde in liver were even lower in the experimental group than the control group. In observations on liver histology, weaker inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the experimental group compared to the control group. In conclusion, water extracts of black tea help hepatic cells keep their functions, restraining and protecting the liver from impairments caused by $CCl_4$ administration, and can be effective as anti-fibrotic agents.

Relaxin Modulates the Expression of MMPs and TIMPs in Fibroblasts of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • Kang, Young-Mi;Lee, Hwan-Mo;Moon, Seong-Hwan;Kang, Ho;Choi, Yun-Rak
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.415-422
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect of relaxin in subsynovial fibroblasts activated by transforming growth factor beta ($TGF-{\beta}$). Materials and Methods: To test the anti-fibrotic effect of an adenovirus-relaxin construct (Ad-RLN) on subsynovial fibroblasts in vitro, cells from subsynovial connective tissue of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were activated with $TGF-{\beta}1$ and exposed to Ad-RLN (as a therapeutic gene) or adenovirus-lacZ construct (as a marker gene) for four hours. Subsynovial fibroblast cultures without adenoviral exposure served as controls. Results: We observed induction of gene expressions of collagen I, III and IV, as well as the abatement of alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) synthesis, Smad2 phosphorylation, and fibronectin at the protein level, in comparison to controls. In addition, protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) I was significantly induced, whereas the protein expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) I and IV were reduced due to relaxin expression. Conclusion: RLN prevents excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix by reducing the expressions of its components, such as fibronectin, a-SMA, and phosphorylated Smad2, by increasing the expression of MMPs; and by decreasing the expression of TIMPs.

Anti-fibrotic effects of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (Crassulaceae) on hepatic stellate cells and thioacetamide-induced fibrosis in rats

  • Koppula, Sushruta;Yum, Mun-Jeong;Kim, Jin-Seoub;Shin, Gwang-Mo;Chae, Yun-Jin;Yoon, Tony;Chun, Chi-Su;Lee, Jae-Dong;Song, MinDong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.470-478
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (Crassulaceae) has been used in traditional herbal medicines in Korea and other Asian countries to treat various diseases, including liver disorders. In the present study, the anti-fibrotic effects of O. japonicus extract (OJE) in cellular and experimental hepatofibrotic rat models were investigated. MATERIALS/METHODS: An in vitro hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) system was used to estimate cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis by MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining techniques, respectively. In addition, thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis was established in Sprague Dawley rats. Briefly, animals were divided into five groups (n = 8): Control, TAA, OJE 10 (TAA with OJE 10 mg/kg), OJE 100 (TAA with OJE 100 mg/kg) and silymarin (TAA with Silymarin 50 mg/kg). Fibrosis was induced by treatment with TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice per week for 13 weeks, while OJE and silymarin were administered orally two times per week from week 7 to 13. The fibrotic related gene expression serum biomarkers glutathione and hydroxyproline were estimated by RT-PCR and spectrophotometry, respectively, using commercial kits. RESULTS: OJE (0.5 and 0.1 mg/ mL) and silymarin (0.05 mg/mL) treatment significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) induced apoptosis (16.95% and 27.48% for OJE and 25.87% for silymarin, respectively) in HSC-T6 cells when compared with the control group (9.09%). Further, rat primary HSCs showed changes in morphology in response to OJE 0.1 mg/mL treatment. In in vivo studies, OJE (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated TAA-induced alterations in levels of serum biomarkers, fibrotic related gene expression, glutathione, and hydroxyproline (P < 0.05-P < 0.001) and rescued the histopathological changes. CONCLUSIONS: OJE can be developed as a potential agent for the treatment of hepatofibrosis.

Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera

  • Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal;Ibrahim, Muhammad Din;Kntayya, Saie Brindha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8571-8576
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    • 2014
  • Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stems. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used ad a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborates on details of its health benefits.

NecroX-5 exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects via modulation of the TNFα/Dcn/TGFβ1/Smad2 pathway in hypoxia/reoxygenation-treated rat hearts

  • Thu, Vu Thi;Kim, Hyoung Kyu;Long, Le Thanh;Thuy, To Thanh;Huy, Nguyen Quang;Kim, Soon Ha;Kim, Nari;Ko, Kyung Soo;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.305-314
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    • 2016
  • Inflammatory and fibrotic responses are accelerated during the reperfusion period, and excessive fibrosis and inflammation contribute to cardiac malfunction. NecroX compounds have been shown to protect the liver and heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to further define the role and mechanism of action of NecroX-5 in regulating inflammation and fibrosis responses in a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR). We utilized HR-treated rat hearts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated H9C2 culture cells in the presence or absence of NecroX-5 ($10{\mu}mol/L$) treatment as experimental models. Addition of NecroX-5 significantly increased decorin (Dcn) expression levels in HR-treated hearts. In contrast, expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 ($TGF{\beta}1$) and Smad2 phosphorylation (pSmad2) was strongly attenuated in NecroX-5-treated hearts. In addition, significantly increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF{\alpha}$), $TGF{\beta}1$, and pSmad2, and markedly decreased Dcn expression levels, were observed in LPS-stimulated H9C2 cells. Interestingly, NecroX-5 supplementation effectively attenuated the increased expression levels of $TNF{\alpha}$, $TGF{\beta}1$, and pSmad2, as well as the decreased expression of Dcn. Thus, our data demonstrate potential antiinflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of NecroX-5 against cardiac HR injuries via modulation of the $TNF{\alpha}/Dcn/TGF{\beta}1/Smad2$ pathway.