• Title, Summary, Keyword: anti-hyperglycemic

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In vitro antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cholinesterase, and inhibition of nitric oxide production activities of methanol and hot water extracts of Russula rosacea mushroom

  • Yoon, Ki Nam;Lee, Tae Soo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2015
  • Russula rosacea, a mycorrhizal fungus, has been used for edible and medicinal purposes. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cholinesterase, and nitric oxide inhibitory effects of the fruiting bodies from R. rosacea extracted with methanol, and hot water. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the methanol and hot water extracts (2.0 mg/ml) of R. rosacea were comparable with BHT, the positive control. The chelating effects of the mushroom and hot water extracts were significantly higher than that of BHT. The reducing power of methanol and hot water extract (6 mg/ml) were significantly lower than that of BHT. Seven phenolic compounds were detected from acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid solvent extract of the mushroom. alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of methanol and hot water extracts were lower than that of acarbose, the positive control. The acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory effects were moderate compared with galanthamine, the standard drug. Nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells were inhibited significantly by the mushroom extracts in a concentration dependent manner. Therefore, we demonstrated that fruiting bodies of R. rosacea possess in vitro antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cholinesterase, and NO production inhibitory activities. The experimental results suggest that the fruiting bodies of R. rosacea are good natural antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cholinesterase, and anti-inflammatory sources.

Production and Its Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of γ-Aminobutyric Acid from the Wild Yeast Strain Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1

  • Han, Sang-Min;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 2017
  • This study was done to produce ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wild yeast as well as investigate its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Among ten GABA-producing yeast strains, Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 produced high GABA concentration of $134.4{\mu}g/mL$ and $179.2{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. P. silvicola UL6-1 showed a maximum GABA yield of $136.5{\mu}g/mL$ and $200.8{\mu}g/mL$ from S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 when they were cultured for 30 hr at $30^{\circ}C$ in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. The cell-free extract from P. silvicola UL6-1 and S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 showed very high anti-hyperglycemic ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 72.3% and 69.9%, respectively. Additionally, their cell-free extract-containing GABA showed the anti-hyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

The anti-hyperglycemic property of different ginseng partitions

  • Xie, Jing-Tian;Wang, Chong-Zhi;Kim, Stephen;Yuan, Chun-Su
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2005
  • Ginseng is a popular medicinal plant highly valued throughout the world. Asian ginseng is one of the most common species of ginseng. It has long occupied a significant position in oriental medicine and has been justified its name as the 'king herb'. As a nutritional supplement, ginseng is an extremely common and popular herbal medicine in the United States and Canada in recent decades. The multiple constituents of ginseng possess equally multifaceted pharmacological actions as demonstrated by numerous studies. Ginseng root and its constituents influenced the central nervous system, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal system, sexual, renal organ and immune system, etc. One important action is its anti-hyperglycemic effect. Previous studies on ginseng demonstrate that only the root of ginseng has been used in the treatment of diabetes, while the other parts of ginseng plant were always neglected. Recently, we analyzed the constituents of ginseng berry, leaf and discovered that ginseng berry, leaf extracts and its total ginsenosides have the ability to reduce hyperglycemia and body weight and increase the peripheral glucose utilization in obese or diabetic ob/ob or db/db mice. Our data suggest that all parts of ginseng plant, including root, berry, leaf and stem exhibit potent anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obese effects and may provide an opportunity to develop a novel class of anti-diabetic agents.

Effect of Azadirachta indica flower extract on basal and experimentally elevated blood glucose in rats

  • Waliullah, S;Javed, Kalim;Jafri, MA;Singh, S
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.302-310
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    • 2008
  • Azadirachta indica A. Juss (N.O. Meliaceae), popularly known, as 'Neem' is an indigenous tree widely available in India. Almost every part of the tree has long been used in Unani system of medicine for the treatment of a variety of human ailments. The flowers have been mentioned as a remedy useful in controlling diabetes mellitus. The present study had been designed to investigate the hypoglycemic/anti-hyperglycemic effects of the methanolic extract of the flowers of A. indica (Gule-Neem) and its different fractions on normal, glucose fed hyperglycemic, adrenaline induced hyperglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The methanolic extract was resolved into water soluble and water insoluble fractions. Water soluble portion of the methanolic extract was found to possess significant blood sugar lowering effect in glucose-fed and adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic rats but it did not show such effect in normal and alloxan induced mild and severe diabetic rats. Water-soluble portion was fractionated by employing the polarity criterion with ethyl acetate and butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated into phenolic and non-phenolic fractions. Hypoglycemic effect of these fractions was also evaluated. The results suggest that the flowers of A. indica contain at least two different constituents, responsible for the said activity. These investigations validate the use of flowers of A. indica in diabetes by Unani physicians.

Anti-CHH Antibody Causes Impaired Hyperglycemia in Penaeus monodon

  • Treerattrakool, Supattra;Udomkit, Apinunt;Panyim, Sakol
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2006
  • Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) plays a major role in controlling glucose level in the haemolymph and also triggers important events during molting and reproductive cycles. In Penaeus monodon, three types of CHH, namely Pem-CHH1, Pem-CHH2 and Pem-CHH3, have been previously characterized. In this study, mouse polyclonal antibody was raised against recombinant Pem-CHH1 that was expressed in Escherichia coli. The anti-Pem-CHH1 antibody recognized all three types of Pem-CHHs but did not cross-react with either related hormone, molt-inhibiting hormone of P. monodon, or unrelated human growth hormone. The hyperglycemic activity in the extract from the eyestalk neural tissues was significantly depleted after incubating with anti-Pem-CHH antibody. Direct injection of the antibody into shrimp caused about 30-50% reduction in the haemolymph glucose level. The result demonstrates the ability of anti-Pem-CHH1 antibody to deplete the activity of CHH in vivo, and thus provides a possibility of using anti-Pem-CHH1 antibody to inhibit the hormone activity as a strategy to modulate growth and reproduction in this species.

The Physiological Activities of Kyung Ok-Ko(II) -Effects on the Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Anti-Fatigue and Decrease of Body Weight- (경옥고의 생리활성 (II) -고혈당, 고혈압, 지구력 및 체중감소에 미치는 영향-)

  • Whang, Wan-Kyunn;Oh, In-Se;Lee, Suk-Hee;Choi, Soo-Bu;Kim, Il-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 1994
  • The studies were conducted to investigate the anti-diabetic activities on the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin in rats, anti-hypertensive activities in SHR, anti-fatigue and decrease of body weight activities in mice by Kyung Ok-Ko water extract and drink, which is a traditional preparation in Korea. 1. The blood glucose levels of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were dose-dependently decreased by administrations of various doses(300, 600, 1200 mg/kg) of Kyung Ok-Ko water extract. Particularly, administration of 600, 1200 mg/kg were significantly shown to decrease glucose levels comparing with control group. 2. The serum total cholesterol levels of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were dose-dependently decreased by administrations of various doses(300, 600, 1200 mg/kg) of Kyung Ok-Ko water extract. Particularly, administration of 600, 1200 mg/kg were significantly shown to decrease total cholesterol levels comparing with control group. 3. The serum triglyceride levels of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were dose-dependently decreased by administrations of various doses(300, 600, 1200 mg/kg) of Kyung Ok-Ko water extract. Particularly, administration of 600, 1200 mg/kg were significantly shown to decrease triglyceride levels comparing with control group. 4. The blood pressure in SHRs were dose-dependently lower descended by administration of Kyung Ok-Ko water extract 300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg, respectively. 5. The swimming time of Kyung Ok-Ko water extract(100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and drink(0.7, 1.4, 2.1 ml/kg) were significantly extended to all experimental group dose-dependantly. 6. The decrease of body weight of Kyung Ok-Ko water extract(100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and drink(0.7, 1.4, 2.1 ml/kg) were significantly evaluated dose-dependently in all experimental group.

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Anti-hyperglycemic and Antioxidative Activities of Phenolic Acid Concentrates of Rice Bran and Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Cell Assays (미강 페놀산 농축물과 Hydroxycinnamic Acids의 세포내 항당뇨 및 항산화 활성)

  • Jung, Eun-Hee;Ha, Tae-Yeol;Hwang, In-Kyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2010
  • Phenolic acid concentrates of rice bran(RB-ex) and hydroxycinnamic acids were investigated for their anti-hyperglycemic activities through glucose uptake and glucokinase activity using HepG2 cells and stimulatory effects on insulin secretion using HIT-T15 cells. RB-ex was prepared as an ethylacetate extract after alkaline hydrolysis and hydroxycinnamic acids, found as major compositions of RB-ex, such as ferulic acid(FA), sinapic acid(SA) and p-coumaric acid(p-CA) were investigated to compare with the properties of RB-ex. The properties of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells were examined in the absence of insulin and two different glucose concentrations(5.5 mM and 25 mM). RB-ex and FA showed anti-hyperglycemic activities through the increase of glucose uptake and the stimulation of glucokinase activity in HepG2 cells. RB-ex exhibited higher glucose uptakes with higher glucose concentrations, whereas FA exhibited the same increasing effects on both concentrations of glucose. RB-ex and FA exhibited doubled glucokinase activities relative to control. In the presence of insulin in the 25 mM glucose-containing medium, the levels of glucose uptake were increased in all treatments compared with control. As stimulatory effects of samples on insulin secretion were estimated, RB-ex and FA stimulated insulin secretion at a concentration of 25 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$ and in particular, FA showed the highest amount of insulin-release in HIT-T15 cells. Antioxidative effects on HIT-T15 cells, RB-ex and hydroxycinnamic acids, excluding p-CA, showed inhibitory activities of 78% to 80% at a concentration of 100 ${\mu}g/m{\ell}$. On the basis of these results, we conclude that RB-ex and FA could help decrease blood glucose levels and prevent the cell damages via antioxidant activity.

Antioxidant and Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Polysaccharide Isolated from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl

  • Zhao, Yaping;Son, Young-Ok;Kim, So-Soon;Jang, Yong-Suk;Lee, Jeong-Chae
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.670-677
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    • 2007
  • Although polysaccharide is believed to play an important role in the medicinal effect of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl (DCL), its role as an antioxidant and in anti-hyperglycemic induction was not reported. In this study, polysaccharide with molecular weight of approximately 150 kDa, herein named DCLP, was isolated from the stem of DCL, and its antioxidative, hypoglycemic and immune stimulating effects were evaluated using various in vitro and in vivo assay systems. DCLP inhibited hydroxyl radicals ($^{\cdot}$OH)-mediated deoxyribose degradation by scavenging hydroxyl radicals directly as well as by chelating iron ions. DCLP also showed dose-dependent scavenging activity on superoxide anions ($O_2^{{\cdot}-}$) and offered significant protection (p < 0.001) against glucose oxidase-mediated cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells. DCLP had immune stimulating effects, as evidenced by the DCLP-mediated increases in the level of DNA synthesis, viability, and cytokine secretion in mouse lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of DCLP produced a significant reduction in blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. These findings suggest that DCLP has a potential utility in treating patients who require enhanced antioxidation, immune function and/or hypoglycemic activity.

Sasa borealis extract exerts an antidiabetic effect via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase

  • Nam, Jung Soo;Chung, Hee Jin;Jang, Min Kyung;Jung, In Ah;Park, Seong Ha;Cho, Su In;Jung, Myeong Ho
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2013
  • Leaf of Sasa borealis, a species of bamboo, has been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effect. However, its antidiabetic mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether an extract of S. borealis activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts anti-hyperglycemic effects. Treatment with the S. borealis extract increased insulin signaling and phosphorylation of AMPK and stimulated the expression of its downstream targets, including $PPAR{\alpha}$, ACO, and CPT-1 in C2C12 cells and $PPAR{\alpha}$ in HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of AMPK activation attenuated insulin signaling and prevented the stimulation of AMPK target genes. The S. borealis extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and suppressed expression of the gluconeogenic gene, PEPCK in HepG2 cells. The extract significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and increased Glut-4 expression in the skeletal muscle of the mice. These findings demonstrated that the S. borealis extract exerts its anti-hyperglycemic effect through activation of AMPK and enhancement of insulin signaling.